Thomas Jefferson Papers
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Memorandum Books, 1786

1786



Jan.


1.
wages etrennes
livre tournois livre tournois    livre tournois
Paid  Marc 100  +  24 =  124
Sanson 60 + 12 = 72
Cocher 60 + 12 = 72
Saget 50 + 12 = 62
Jardinier 45 + 12 = 57
Cuisiniere 12 = 12
la pauvre femme  21 = 21
Boullié17 12 = 12
garçon traiteur 12 = 12
315 + 129 = 444
Gave James 24 = 24
153 = 468
Gave Etrennes18 to the servants of the two Introducteurs des Ambassadeurs and of the Secretaire des Introducteurs 72f.
 
Pd. Goldsmith for books 28f10.
Gave etrennes to the facteurs des gazettes @ 3f = 18f.19
3. Pd. the Ct. de Langeac a quarter’s rent 1875f.
5. Pd. Bazin for Surtout de dessert & figures20 for Mrs. Adams 264livre tournois–17–6.
Gave Patsy 6f.
Pd. Marc.  Dec. 26—31. livre tournois  
traiteur 47 
hhd. expences   123–  1
washing 3– 10
dress 1– 10
hhd. utensils 12
postage 12– 19
188– 12
Pd. Gouyon horse hire 300f.
9. Pd. hire of Piano forte 12f.
Jan. 10. Pd. chair hire at Versailles 1f4.
Pd.  Etrennes at do. as follows livre tournois
Ct. de Vergennes’ valet de chambre 96
      his Suisse 24
      his livery men 24
Mr. Reyneval’s21 porter 24
Salle des Ambassadeurs.  Suisse 24
Coffeemen   48
240
12. Pd. Madme. Mayard for ruffles 84f.
Acceptd. Houdon’s bill in favr. of Dr. Franklin & assigned to22  for 2400f at 30. days sight on account of the state of Virginia.
13. Gave Patsy 3f.
15. Pd. Genen the taylor 376f garçon 3f.
 
16. Recd. of Mr. Grand for the state of Virginia 5000f as lent by that state to the U. S. for my salary &c.23
17.
Paid Marc.     livre tournois
    kitchen expences. Jan.  1.—8 432– 16
9—15 71– 15
other houshold exp. 1—8 154– 14
9—15 32– 15
postage 1—8 12– 10
9—15 2 
kitchen furniture 70– 3
houshold utensils 18– 3
wine 34–
Patsy 10– 10
dress 8– 13
washing 55– 11
903– 10
Pd. do. for  Groscher. serrurier
Rouçonnier. serrurier
Guyot. kitchen linen
Chapsah. kitchen furniture24
water dishes
Gueraud. house taxes for 1785.  
175– 11
22–
562– 2
927– 4
84–
600–
3274– 7
Repaid Colo. Franks things bot. in Engld. 10f.
18. Pd. postage 261f9.
19. Pd. for 2. pr. gloves 8f8.
Pd. for buttons 34f.
20. Pd. for buttons 67f—pd. Goldsmith for books 12f12—pd. at Opera25 11f10.
21. Pd. for buttons 6f—pd. Goldsmith for books 18f.
22. Pd. Cabaret stationary 19f—bookbinding 9f4.
Jan. 23. Paid for seeing the hydraulic cord de Vera26 3f.
 
24. Accepted Houdon’s bill of exch. in favor of Dr. Franklin & assigned to Preye & Jordis for 3600livre tournois at 30. days sight, for state of Virginia.
Accepted Jos. Johnson’s bill of exchange in favor of J. Edwards assigned to Laurent for 710livre tournois. dated Nov. 18. 1785. & paiable at one month after date. Note this was to pay S. Henley for the books27 of his which I bought of the Revd. Jas. Madison.
Pd. Marc.  Jan. 16.—22. livre tournois  
kitchen expences   191– 11
houshd. exp. 102– 18
dress 13–  3
Patsy 46–
postage 15– 19
369–  328
25. Pd. for crayons for F. Hopkinson 41f16—Goldsmith books 4f16.
26. Pd. Goldsmith books 26f6—do. do. for F. Hopkinson 5f4.
28. Pd. do. books 1f10—pd. at Italian comedy29 7f10.
29. Gave Patsy 3f.
30. Pd. Goldsmith books 1f16.
31. Gave in Charity at Versailles 12f.
Feb. 1. Pd. Goldsmith books 18f—pd. Gouyon horse hire 300f.
2.
Pd. Marc  servts. wages viz. 
Marc 100
Sanson 60
Cocher 60
Saget 50
Cuisiniere    48
Jardinier 45
charity 9
372 .
Recd. from Mr. Grand for state of Virginia 4000f as lent by the fund of that state to the U. S. for my salary &c.
 
Pd. Marc.  Jan. 23—30
hhd. exp. 118– 17
kitchen exp. (25)30 140–  3
kitchen utensils 23–  4
trifles 4– 16–6
postage 9– 19
clothes to James 7– 16
given to Ezra Bates31   48–
352– 15–6
livre tournois
Pd. Marc  packages for plans of buildings for Virginia 5– 11
package & portage to l’Orient of Encyclopedie for F. Hopkinson & Dr. Franklin 39– 4
Glazier’s account 55– 18
Lachy. fixing stoves &c. 88– 6
Combeaux. balance James’s apprenticeshp.  150– 0
Arthur.32 paper hangings for hotel. 174– 16
Henley’s bill of excha. (See Jan. 24.) 710– 0
account for marble slab 66– 0
for hotel de Jabac. toile de Jouy 250– 0
1539– 15
Pd. at Concert spirituel33 6f.
3.
Pd. Goldsmith  for 14. 15. 16th. livraisons34 for F. Hopkinson  71f10.
Pd. do. for do. for Dr. Franklin 71f10.
Pd. do. for Encyclopedie ancienne35 for myself 380f 39. vols. 4to.
Pd. do. for other books & maps 27f3.
 
Gave Patsy 3f.—pd. at French comedy36 6f.
6. Gave in charity 24f.
Pd. Goldsmith for Encyclopedie ancienne37 39. vols. 8vo. 260f.
Pd. on admission to the Salon des echecs38 96f. coach hire 3f.
10. Pd. hire of Piano forte 12f—gave Patsy 3f.
11.
Pd.  Marc.  Jan. 31.—Feb. 5. livre tournois
postage 20–  5
Patsy 3– 10
hhd. exp. 80–
kitchen exp. (20)   172– 15
1. month’s bread 42– 11–6
servts. diet 38–  5
357–  6–6
do. for a picture frame 36 
do. for visiting cards 21 
414–  6–6
12. Pd. Hoffman subscription for the Journal des arts39 36f.
13. Pd. Goldsmith books 7f4.
15. Lent Ledyard 48f.
16. Pd. Cabaret stationary 14f14—do. bookbinding 125f4.
Pd. Goldsmith books 28f12.
17. Pd. for a clock 240f.
18. Gave Patsy 4f4.
Feb. 19.
Pd. Marc.  Feb. 6—13. 1786.
washing 4– 15
dress 13– 10
 
postage 6– 2
trifles 2– 11
wine 16–
hhd. exp. 102– 7
kitchen exp. (15)  205– 1
350– 6
painter’s acct. 32– 14
20. Recd. of M. de la Fayette to be pd. to Ledyard on acct. of Empress of Russia 600f.40
21. Pd. Ledyard as above 600f.
Pd. Goldsmith the 17th. livraison of the Encyclopedie 36f10.
Pd. do. other books 1f16.
Ordered Mr. Grand to pay Houdon’s bill accepted ante Jan. 12. on acct. of the state of Virginia.
24. Pd. Goldsmith for books 40f4—gave Patsy 3f.
25. Pd. for buttons 12f.
27. Pd. for 4. pr. shoes for Miss Adams 24f.
Recd. from Mr. Grand for state of Virginia 5000f as lent by the fund of that state to the U. S. for my salary &c.
Pd. Marc  Feb. 13.—19. viz. livre tournois
Kitchen exp. (25)  169– 5
hhd. exp. 138– 3
postage 12– 18
houshold utensils 8– 6
kitchen utensils 28–
Serrurier’s acct. 27– 13
384– 5
Pd. at Masquerade41 12f6.
28. Pd. Goldsmith for books 3f.
 
Mar. 1.
Pd.  Marc.  for Feb. 20—26. livre tournois
Kitchen expences (9) 196– 2
hhd. exp.  93–19
hhd. utensils  9– 1
washing  7–11
postage  19–10  326–3
Servants.  Marc 100–  0
Sanson 120–  042  
Cocher 60 
Saget 50 
la Cuisiniere  48 
le Jardiner 45 
charity 9   432–0
do. Gouyon for horse hire  300
1058–3
Pd. at Panthemont by the hands of Marc 1000f.
Gave Etrennes to Espagnol43 12f.
Pd. Goldsmith for copies of the Encyclopedie methodique as follows.
livre tournois  
   17th. livraison  for Doctr. Franklin 36–10
do. for F. Hopkinson 36–10
do. for James Madison (Orange)    36–10
17. first livraisons for Colo. Monroe 439–10
17. first livraisons for Doctr. Currie 439–10
988–10
3. Gave Patsy 15f.
4. Ordered Mr. Grand to pay Houdon’s bill of 3600f drawn Oct. 24. & accepted ante Jan. 24.
Pd. postage 126f18.
Pd. Colo. Humphreys for sundries44 bot. for me in England 190f.
Lent Mazzei 300f.
Pd. hire of a Cabriolet to Calais 72f.
5. Recd. of Mr. Grand for the U. S. 2000f.
Pd. for 6. caps, 6 stocks, & 6 hdkchfs. 170f.
Pd. for lace, & cambrick for Mrs. Adams 284livre tournois.
 
Pd. Marc.  from Feb. 27.—March 5.
Kitchen exp. (22)  268 –12–6
hhd. exp. 160
hhd. utensils 21 –16
postage 11 – 4
461 –12–6
Pd. Petit travellg. exp. to wit for straps, saddle furniture &c. 63livre tournois–12.
Pd. Marc on account for houshold exp. in my absence 750livre tournois.
Pd. in part for post horses 19f10.
Cash on hand 48 Louis, 14 guineas + 16f4 silver.
Petit deposits in my hands 10. Louis.
6. Pd. Petit for post horses & expences on the road for Col. Smith and myself 6. Louis. (Note set out for London this morning.
Pd. at Chantilly45 12f.

7.
Pd. Petit  for expences as before, at Breteuil 24f.
Pd. do. for do. at Breteuil 9. Louis.
Expences at Abbéville 1f4.
8. Pd. Petit at Montreuil for expences as before 5. Louis.
Pd. do. at Calais for do. 24f.
10. Pd. entertt. at Calais 75f—pd. portage, passport &c. 18f servts. 1f4.
11. Pd. Colo. Smith insurance a Louis.
Arrived in London.

            Sterling money 
Mar. 12. 46 Pd. for a hat 21/.
13. Pd. at Drury lane47 12/.
14. Pd. for a watchchain 14/ watermen 1/ coffee h. 1/6 cork soals 1/.
 
16. Returned Petit his 10. Louis.
17. Pd. for medecine 42/.
Pd. porters at St. James on my being presented 42/.48
18. Pd. for gloves 7/6.
Drew bill on Mr. Grand in favr. Lewis Teissier for 2400f for which I received £96–13–6 on acct. of U. S.
Pd. Dr. Bancroft for map49 15/—Faden50 for maps 20/6.
Pd. at Opera51 10/6.
20. Pd. for walkg. stick 8/—map 2/.
21. Pd. for 6. pr. cotton stockings 30/—knives 10/6.
Pd. Ramsden52 for thermometer 24/ protractor 5/ globe 9/.
Pd. Dollond53 for a telescope £10–10—solar microscope £5–16–6.
Pd. for boots 25/—for seeing the learned pig54 1/.
 
Pd. for a book 3/—for copies 1/ for pr. pocket pistols55 £4–10.
Pd. dinner at Dolly’s56 6/.
22. Pd. seeing castle at Windsor 5/ dinner &c. 11/.
Pd. for carriage & horses to & from do. &c. £2–13–10. in part.
23. Advanced to John57 10/8—gave servt. at Stewart’s58 2/.
Pd. at the Pantheon59 4/6.
Repd. Dr. Lyons60 for a book 31/6.
24. Pd. for bootgarters 2/—a seal 5/—powder flask 4/.
Pd. Dollond for a hydrometer 31/6—coach hire 1/.
Pd. for a fish knife 17/—pd. for dinner 3/.
25. Pd. for a sealing candlestick 10/—for 4. screens 24/.
Pd. for a pocket book 8/6—for do. for Patsy 21/.
Pd. for a sealing candlestick 2/6—coach hire 1/6.
26. Pd. for 5¼ yds. calico61 @ 3/8 per yd. 19/3.
Pd. Thomson for a seal £3–7.
27. Pd. for a plated reading lamp62 31/6.
 
Pd. for a camp theodolite63 £4–4—a ring dial 14/.
Pd. for circular draw pen 4/6—pr. spurs 28/—2 whips 40/.
Pd. for dinner at London tavern64 14/6.
28. Pd. Faden for maps £3–5–6.
Pd.  for a calico gown for A. S. Jefferson 36/6.
for muslin do. for do. 4½ yds. £3–12.
Pd. for quilting, calicoes & muslin as a present to Mrs. Lewis £8–8.
Pd. John  expences of breakfasting, fuel &c. 28/10.
coach & horse hire to Windsor (exclus. of 10/8 &c. ante) 33/4.
sundry trifles clothing 3/.
Pd. 2. weeks hire of a pr. chariot horses £6–6.
Pd. coachman for same time 21/.
29. Pd. Crook a fortnight’s hire of carriage £3–3.
Pd. Dollond for pocket dividers drawpen &c. silver £2–2.
30. Pd. for two lamps & balance of the former £4.
Pd. for pr. pistols silvermounted £1–18—map 6/6.
31. Pd. for a razor 5/6—for shoes & slippers 18/.
Pd. postillion at Barnet65 1/6.
Apr. 1. Recd. of Lewis Teissier 105£ sterl. & drew bill on Mr. Grand for 2606livre tournois–18.
Settled my acct. with Welch surviving partner of Carey, Morey & Welch & signed acct. for £128–13–4.66
 
Pd. for a map 5/—for chessmen 18/—watch key 36/.
Pd. for 3. travelling trunks £10–15–6—bridle & stirrups67 £4–19.
2. Pd. for repairing chessmen 10/.—a doz. ivory leaves 12/.68
Pd. for lodging on account £10.
Gave servants at Chiswick69 (D. of Devonshire’s) 4/6.
Gave postilion at Richmd. 3/.
Gave servts. at Twickenham, Pope’s garden 2/.
Gave servts. at Hampton court 4/6—do. at Esher place 6/.
Paid postillion at Cobham 24/6—gave servts. at Paynshill 7/.
Paid post horses at Cobham 7/6—postilion at Weybridge 2/.
Borrowed of Colo. Smith 52/6.
3. Pd. entertt. at Weybridge & post hire £2–2.70
Gave servts. at Woburn farm71 6/6—postilion at Twickenham 3/.
Pd. post hire at London 18/6—repd. John for turnpikes 16/.
Pd. a turnpike 1/—advanced to John 5/.
 
4. Pd. Dollond for instruments72 £2–18.
Pd. Robinson73 for a chest of tools £11–3. for other things £3–19–6.
Pd. coachman 5/—postilion at Twickenham 2/.
Pd. at Woburn farm (Ld. Loughborouh’s) to postiln. 18/ servants 3/6.
Sunning hill. pd. postillion 18/6.
Caversham.74 (Mr. Marsac’s) gave servts. 3/6.
Reading. postilion 29/6—turnpikes 13/6.
5. At do. entertt. 26/1 servts. 3/ horses to Wallingford 23/ turnpikes 7/6.
Wallingford. postilion 2/—horses to Thame 22/7.
Thame. postillion 2/.
Wotton.75 (Marquis of Buckingham’s) servants 3/.
Buckingham. guide 7/6—postillions 55/.
6. At do. pd. entt. 22/1—horses to Banbury 23/ do. for servt. to Bicester 10/6.
At do. servts. 3/—gave John for expences 21/ <books.>
Stowe76 (Marquis of Buckingham’s) servants 8/.
Buckingham. pd. for books 9/.
 
6. Banbury. postilion 4/.
Kineton. postilion 3/6—horses to Stratford upon Avon 10/.
Stratford upon Avon. postilion 3/.
Do.  seeing house77 where Shakespeare was born 1/.
seeing his tombstone 1/—entt. 4/2—servts. 2/ horses to Hockley 12/.
7. Do. breakfast 1/6—servts. 1/.
Hockley. postilion 2/6—horses to Birmingham 10/.
Birmingham.78 postilln. & turnpikes 3/ books79 9/—candlestick 15/.
Do. hairdresser 1/6—servt. 1/—entt. 13/8—servts. 1/6.
Leasowes80 (Shenstone’s. now Horne’s) servts. 5/.
Stourbridge. horses from Birmingham 15/. postiln. & turnpikes 4/6.
8. Do. entt. 6/6—horses to Bromsgrove 12/6—servts. 3/.
Hagley81 (Ld. Westcot’s) servts. 5/—entt. in the village 2/6.
 
Bromsgrove. postiln. & turnp. 2/6—horses to Worcester 13/6.
Worcester. postiln. & turnp. 3/—entt. 9/982—horses to Winchcomb83 16/ servt. 1/6.
Winchcomb. postiln. & turnp. 3/6—horses to Moreton 14/.
Moreton. postiln. & turnp. 3/—entt. 2/.
Eynston. horses from Moreton, postiln. & turnp. 16/. horses to Woodstock 7/.
Woodstock. postillion & turnp. 3/.
9. Received of Mr. Adams £9–9 in part towards preceding expences from our leaving London Apr. 4. which are joint.84
Blenheim (D. of Marlborough’s) servts. 7/.
Woodstock. entt. 7/—horses to Oxford 8/—servts. 3/.
Oxford. postiln. & turnp. 2/—doorkeepers of colleges 5/.
Tatsworth. High Wycombe. Uxbridge. horses, postilns. £4–14.
High Wycombe. entt. 10/10.85
10. Pd. for steel clasps £1–12–6.
11. Pd. Robinson balce. for tools 18/—needle for watch 42/.
Ribbon 29/—chessmen & box 20/—steelyards 4/6.
Pd. Shuttleworth86 for pocket level 21/ pentagraph 31/6.
Plates of iron bridge87 13/—coach hire 2/.
12. Pd. Lackington88 for books £10–8–6—ribbon 3/6.
Drew bill on Mr. Grand for 2606livre tournois–18 in favor of Lewis Teissier, and recd. for it £105.
Pd. Jones89 for a compound microscope £4–4.
 
Pd. Lackington for books £5–18.
13. Gave in charity 5/—pd. for books 20/—recd. of Colo. Smith 21/.
Pd. Petit 10/6—pd. seeing tower 8/6.90
14. Pd. Barks & Pearce91 for sadlery £10–10–9.
Gave servts. at Kew92 5/—lemonade 6d. charity 6d.
Pd. postilion & turnpikes 16/6.
15. Pd. Dollond for mathemat. instruments £7–2–6.
Pd. Petit 42/—Jones for botanical microscope 10/ cloth do. 3/.
Pd. for toothbrushes 3/10—coach hire 2/.
16.
On settlement with Colo. Smith I find our joint expences from Paris to Calais were £29–14–9
 do. from Calais to London 19–19–6
49–14–3
 my half therefore is 24–17–1 ½
Pd. Birks & Pearce sadlery 21/9.
Pd. Colo. Smith 52/6.
17. Pd. do. balance £3–6–9—pd. for watch chain 21/.
Pd. at Ranelagh93 3/6.
18. Pd. servts. at Buckingham house94 24/.
Pd. for seeing Sr. Ashton Lever’s museum95 5/.
 
Pd. at Astley’s96 6/6.
19. Pd. at Covent garden97 7/6.
20. Pd. Barclay98 shoemaker’s bill £4–4.—pd. coachman 5/.
Gave servts. at Osterly & Sion house99 7/—dinner 10/6.
Pd. at Drury lane1 6/.
21. Pd. for key rings 1/2—books 4/—at Sadler’s wells2 3/6.
22. Pd. Jones for air-pump3 & apparatus £12–12.
Pd. do. for other things 21/6.
Pd. Woodmason4 for damping box, paper &c. 10/.
Pd. for books 1/—at Drury lane5 5/2.
23. Pd. Petit 21/.
24. Pd. for washing £1–14–2—packages 21/2.
Blue lamp chimneys 3/—printed muslin 52/6.
25. Pd. for newspapers 21/.
Recd. from Lewis Teissier £157–10 and gave him bill of excha. on Mr. Grand for 3910livre tournois–7.
Pd. Jones for little electrical machine6 9/ other things 12/.
 
Pd. for cord 15/. repd. Petit expenditures 22/8.
Pd. for ivory book cover 46/. <pd. lodgings £10–5.>
Pd. Brown for my picture £10.7
Pd. Stockdale8 for books £40–10–6.
Pd. Walch for Cary Morey & Walch interest of my debt £40.9
Pd. Petit for travelling exp. 42/.
26. Pd. Cannon the taylor for clothes £9–9–6.10
Pd. Mrs. Conner, Golden square No. 14. for lodgings &c. £11–18.11
Pd. a bill for tea 18/6—packing & portage 13/.
Apr. Pd. balce. hire of chariot horses £13–19.
Pd. do. bill for posthorses £3–12–9.
Pd. coachman balce. his wages 31/6—gave servt. 5/.
Left with Colo. Smith for James Lee,12 Hammersmith, for plants £4–15.
Left with do. for Mrs. Necks £8–8. Note she claimed this as a debt from Mr. Wayles’s estate. If justly, charge it to the estate: if not due, consider it as a charity.
Gave in vales to different servts. £4–4.13
Pd. balce. of hire of a chariot £7–17–6.
Pd. portage of baggage 10/6 horseler 1/.
Set out from London for Paris.
 
Pd. seeing observatory & hospital at Greenwich14 4/.
Dartford.  pd. Postillion backwards 27/6.
pd. do. forwards 15/ expences 1/.
Rochester. pd. Postillion backwds. 7/7½ do. forwds. 15/7½ exp. 6d.
Sittingborne. pd. Postillion backwds. 2/ do. forwds. 23/3.
Canterbury. pd. Postilln. backwds. 2/—do. forwds. 22/.
Dover. pd. Postillion backwds. 2/.
Cash on hand £3 sterl. and 32. Louis.
27.
Dover. pd. seeing castle 2/6. s  d 
John’s account for  turnpikes 8 –10
breakfast &c. 12 – 6
trifles 4 – 1
board & wages   7– 7
8–12 – 5
Pd. him 5/ and gave him order on Colo. Smith for £8–8.
28.
Pd. Payne15 portage of baggage £ 6– 4 –3
custom house officrs.   10 –6
entertt. 1–11 –3
8– 6
Gave servts. 5/.

            France. Livres, sols, deniers. 
Calais  pd. passage 32f8 officers of Douane 15f4.
pd. portage 15f4.
gave the successor of Sterne’s monk16 at Calais 1f4.
pd. Dessein17 entertt. 14f10 servts. 3f6.
pd. storage & repairs of Carriage 27f.
gave Petit for expences on the road 48f.
 
Apr. 29. St. Omer’s. gave Petit for exp. on the road 120f.
30.
Royes.  gave do. for do. 120f.
gave servt. 1f4.
Bourget. gave Petit for exp. on the road 48f.
May 1. Gave James Barclay a shipwreckt American sailor to carry him to L’Orient 48f to be charged to the United states.
Mr. Grand has pd. the Comte de Langeac in my absence a quarter’s rent, viz. 1875livre tournois. Apr. 15.
Recd. of Mr. Grand on acct. of U. S. 4000livre tournois.
Gave Patsy 6f.
2. Analysis of Marc’s accounts from Mar. 6. to April 23.

March April
6—13 13—19 20—26 27—Ap. 2 3—9 10—16 17—23 Total
livre tournois livre tournois livre tournois livre tournois livre tournois livre tournois livre tournois livre tournois
Kitchen exp. 127– 5  84–15  96– 2 112– 9 103–19 57– 1 72–12   654– 3
hhd. exp.  46– 8  43– 8  41–16  34–18  33–19 30–11  5–11   236–11
Bread  41–17–6   41–17–6
Water
Kitchn. utensls.  16– 8  1–14  – 8   18–10
hhd. furn.  7– 4    7– 4
hhd. repairs  0–12    0–12
Washing 101–13  3–12   105– 5
Dress  9–10  2–10  7–14   19–14
Patsy  30   30– 0
Postage  9–16  2– 4  9– 3  15–15  3– 4  7–15  1– 8   49– 5
Stationary
Servts. Diet  34–15   34–15
Servts. clothg.
Total 390–1518 138–15 147– 1 219–17–6 141– 2 95–15 79–11  1212–16–6
 
Total amount of above 1212–16–6
Servants wages   for March (exclus. of Petit)
Do. for April
312– 0–0
312– 0–0
For Gouyon, horse hire for April 300– 0–0
Hhd. expences from Apr. 24.—30. 10– 0–0
livre tournois 2146–16–6
 By cash Mar. 5  750– 0
 Balance now paid   1396–16–6       2146–16–6
Pd. Petit wages for Mar. & Apr. 120f.
 
On settlemt. of accounts with him from Mar. 6. to Apr. 31. for all the cash pd. to him, he is in my debt 3/7 = 4f4.
May 3. Pd. postage 6f.
4. Pd. for gloves 6f.
5. Pd. Goldsmith for books 4f16.
6. Pd. hire of Piano forte 36f.
7. Recd. of Mr. Short for linen &c. bot. for him in London 151f16.
8. Pd. Goldsmith for 18th. livraisons of Encyclopedie. viz.
livre tournois
   for  myself 24.
J. Madison 24.
Dr. Franklin 24.
F. Hopkinson  24.
Jas. Monroe 23 
Dr. Currie 23 
142.
Pd. do. for other books 3f.
9. Pd. package, portage &c. of Encyclopedie for Monroe & Currie 40f4.
Pd. for hair pencils & black lead do. for F. Hopkinson 12f12.
Note needle box for watch cost £2–9–6 sterl. <to be charged to J. Madison when I send it to him.>
10. Pd. Goldsmith for book 4f.
Pd.  Marc. May 1.—7.  
kitchen exp. (25) 356–  1–6
hhd. do. 123–  3
postage 12– 16
dress 13–  4
Patsy 2– 12
507– 16–6
Pd. at Concert19 6f.
11. Pd. Derome for binding books 55f8.
12. Lent Goldsmith 144f.
15. Gave Patsy 3f.
16. Pd. for garter buckles 2f.
17. Pd. for thermometer 6f—gave James 12f.
 
18. Pd. garçon tailleur 36f.
Pd.  Marc. May 8—14.
Kitchen exp. (25) 265– 15
hhd. do. 161–  1
hhd. furniture 20–  2
wine 40–
washing 83– 11
portage from Calais, Douaine &c.   104– 18
675–  7
coach hire 2f
May 19. Pd. Mark for Clothes for James 84f19.
Pd. do. bazin & buttons for pr. breeches for myself 19f10.
Gave Patsy 2f14.
20. Pd. for a set of buttons 168f.
21. Pd. for mending sword 15f.
22. Pd. Fouquet for the state of Virginia for model of the capitol20 in plaister 372f.
23. Pd. horsehire to Versailles 21f.
24.
Pd.  Marc. May 15—21. 
livre tournois
kitchen exp. (13) 137– 14
hhd. exp. 52–  8
Patsy 31– 12
servants clothes 5– 10
dress 13– 12
postage 10–  2
250– 18
26. Desired Mr. Grand to pay a bill of Mr. Carmichael’s21 out of the Virginia fund.
27. Gave Patsy 3f.
31. Gave in charity at different times 3f.
June 1. Recd. of Mr. Grand from Virginia fund 4000f as lent by that fund to the U. S. for my salary &c.
Pd.  Marc. May 22—28.   
 
livre tournois
kitchen expences (25) 174 –11
hhd. exp. 105 – 6–6
dress 2 – 8
washing 4 – 2
postage 24 – 7
Patsy 9
trifles 6 –15 326–9–6
Servants.  Marc 100
Petit 60
Cocher 60
Saget 50
la Cuisiniere  48
le Jardinier 45 363–0–0
Gouyon 300
989–9–6
Pd. Doctr. McMahon for attendance22 600livre tournois.
Pd. Meyer balance for watch,23 & key 507livre tournois–9.
Pd. Angenand, taylor’s bill in part 1000livre tournois.
2. Pd. Clerissaut for a book24 72f.
Pd. do. for plans for state of Virginia 288f.
Pd. for sundry trifles 4f10.
June 3. Pd. for a knife 6f.
4. Pd. breakfast at Neuilly25 2f2—gave Patsy 4f.
 
7. Gave Colo. Gouvion26 for Captain Castaign an order on Mr. Grand for the interest of year 1784. on his certificate, to be pd. out of Virginia fund.
Pd.  Marc. May 29—June 4. 
kitchen exp. (12) 187– 17
a month’s bread (May) 56–  6–6
hhd. exp. 146–  2
garden utensils 64–  3
postage 11– 16
Patsy 3–  6
469– 10–6
8. R. Simetiere.  pd. at Italian comedy27 6f.
9. Pd. hire of piano forte 12f—gave Patsy 2f2.
Pd. for 4 battledores 10f ½ doz. shuttlecocks 1f10.
11. Gave in Charity 96f.
12. Pd. at Italian comedy28 6f.
13. Received from Mr. Grand on acct. of Virginia 3000livre tournois as lent by that fund to U. S. for my salary &c.
Pd.  Marc. June 5—11 
livre tournois  
kitchen exp. (16) 109–15
hhd. exp. 49–15
dress 18
postage 9– 2
169–10
Pd. do. for state of Virginia duties & portage on the Model of the Capitol 25f18.
14. Given in charity at difft. times 3f.
 
15. Pd. at Concert spirituel29 6f.
16. Gave Patsy 3f—lent Mazzei 300f.
Pd. Chevr. Luzerne for 50. bottles Champagne 175f.
18. Pd. ticket to see Tetu go off in his balon30 6f.
19. Pd. Chantrot for a Conte-pas31 168f.
20. Pd. 720livre tournois for a bay chariot horse 8. y. old & 5 pi.32- 1½ po. high. star in forehd. gave drink money 6f—pd. for a waistcoat 12f.
21. Pd. Richard 720livre tournois for a bay chariot horse 6. y. old. 5 pi.- 1½ po. high. gave drink money 24f.
23. Pd. postage 294f1.
Recd. back money for the Conte-pas 168f & retd. the Conte pas.
June 26. Dismissed Marc.33
27. Pd. Marc on account 300f. Espagnol comes into my service.
28. Pd. seeing Hermitage34 4f4. do. Audinot’s garden35 2f8.
 
July 1. Recd. from Mr. Grand on acct. U. S. 4000f.36
Pd. Petit servants wages. viz.  Petit 60
Cocher 60
Saget 50
Cuisiniere 48
Jardinier 45
laveur des vaiss.   15
281 .37
Pd. do. for Gouyon horse hire 300f.
Pd. Marc June 12—18 56f2 being balance after paimt. of June 27. ante. viz.
livre tournois
   kitchen expences (25)  122– 16–6
houshold do. 100– 15–6
hhd. repairs 50–  9
washing 1– 10
dress 15
servts. do. 5– 10
carriage 42–
postage 25– 18
contingencies 6–  8
356–  2
Pd.  do. June 19—26. viz.
livre tournois  s
kitchen expences (17)  195–  4
hhd. do. 66–  6
hhd. furniture 2– 12
dress 14– 18
washing 42–  7
Patsy 2–  8
postage 5– 14
329–  9
Pd. do. his wages 100f.
 
livre tournois
Pd. 
Petit for  the Marchand Potier d’etain
the Marbrier, a marble mortar
Washing
 24
 30
 47–19
Do. for the Stuccateur packing Model of Capitol for Sta. Virga.   84
185–19
for Arthur for Paper hangings for hotel  70– 7 –3
256– 6 –3
July 3. Pd. for a Magnetic needle & gold box 44f10.
5. Pd. Petit expences June 27.—July 2. viz.
livre tournois  s
  Kitchen exp. (18) 158–  1
  hhd. do. 60– 18
  for Patsy 19– 10
  washing 6–  6
  dress  8
  postage 23– 18
  stable utensils &c.  37–  1
306–  2
Pd. do. for forage 164 
Repairs of chariot 9–  7
Bread for month June 44– 10–6
Chamouillet for bookshelves, Venetian blinds,38 &c. to the hotel 217livre tournois.
6. Pd. for books 1f4—gave Patsy 6f.
7. Given in small charities 3f.
10. Pd. Perrier for a year’s supply of a muid39 of water a day from the 1st. inst. 50f.
Pd. do. for fixing pipes &c. 50f.
Pd. hire of Piano forte 12f.
Gave M. de Langeac order on M. Grand for 1875f for a quarter’s rent.
 
Pd.  Petit July 3.—9. viz.
livre tournois  s d
kitchen expences (16)  247–  4–6
hhd. do. 86– 12–0
wine 29–
dress 6–  8
hhd. furniture 36– 11–6
postage 16–  5
garden 1–  4
carriage 10–
stable 6– 16
440–  1
Pd. coach hire 3f.
14. Gave Patsy 3f.
15. Paid portage of 288. bottles of wine40 from Bourdeaux, to wit 144. rouge & 144. blanc 158f16 (abt. 11s pr. bottle).
July 17. Pd. for an ivory book 12f for an Umbrella cane 24f.
Accepted Fr. Lewis’s bill of exchange for 1075½livre tournois paiable to Bouffé. Note this is for a pipe of Madeira, one half for the M. de la Fayette.41
19.
Pd. Petit  July 10.—16.
livre tournois
Kitchen exp. (17)  141–  2–6
Office42 exp. 132– 15
Servants clothes 12–
hhd. furniture 6–  9
books 9–  6
postage 18– 18
320– 10–6
livre tournois  
Pd. do. for  Jean a serrurier for houshold repairs 29–  4
Gabriel. water pipes & laying them 75–  9–10
Dupui. servants beds 234–  8– 4
Mouche. set of chariot wheels & chart. reprs.  279– 12–
618– 14– 2
 
Pd. for pencils 3f.
21. Pd. Upton for table on acct. 72f.
22. Pd. for a stewpan 7f10—gave Patsy 3f.
23. Gave in charity 6f.
24. Pd. for a lorgnette 24f.
28. Gave Patsy 3f.
Aug. 1. Recd. of Mr. Grand on acct. of U. S. 7000f.
Pd. postage 120f7.
2. Pd. for forage 87f—pd. Angenen in part of taylor’s bill 1000f.
Pd. Fras. Lewis’s bill of exchange on me for a pipe of Madeira 1075f10. Note one half is for the M. de la fayette.
Pd. Petit July 16—23. to wit
livre tournois  
 Kitchen exp. (19)    142– 18
 Office do. 82–  8–6
 hhd. utensils 6– 18
 Stable exp. 39– 16
 Dress 7– 13
 Patsy 3– 12
 postage 15–  3
298–  8–6
Pd. do.  July 24—31.
Kitchen exp. (21) 210– 16
Office do. 121– 17
Stable do. 20–  5
Wine 19–  8
hhd. utensils 12 
washing 38– 18–6
dress 2 
servants diet 34– 16
postage 10–  2
470–  2–6
Pd.  servants wages. to wit. livre tournois
Petit (60f for service & 12f for clothg.)  72
Espagnol. for 1. month—4 days 68
le Cocher 60
Saget 50
la Cuisiniere 48
le Jardinier 45
le garçon de cuisine 15
358 .
 
Pd. do.  for Godin for table linen 745livre tournois–9s–8d.
for Mr. Richards on Mr. Barclay’s draught for books43 750f.
Pd. balance for Umbrella 6f.
Pd. Umbrella for J. Madison 30f.
Aug. 3. Pd. for a glass 4f.
4. Gave Ledyard 132f—gave Patsy 3f—pd. clothes for do. 51f[ ].
Pd. at French theatre44 6f.
5. Pd. for 3 tickets to Suresne45 9f.
6. Pd. Goldsmith for books 32f12—pd. at Suresne 3f12.
7. Gave Ledyard 96f.46
9. Pd. hire of piano forte 12f.
Pd. Kendrick for a sorrel riding horse47 5. y. old 1320f.
Pd. do. for martingal 18f gave the groom 12f.
10. Pd. ferrge. to & from Suresne 10s.—pd. for waistcoat 18f.
11. Gave Patsy 12f.
13. Pd. at Italian theater48 6f.
15. Gave charity at Versailles 24f.
16. Recd. of Mr. Grand for the U. S. 1000f.
Pd. for Leyden gazette 36f. Courier de l’Europe 48f.
 
Pd. Petit on acct. 300f.
19. Pd. Goldsmith for books 39f12.
Recd. of Mr. Grand for charts49 from Engld. 24f.
20. Pd. Petit exp. of 3. weeks as follows (taking credit for 300livre tournois ante Aug. 16.

Aug. 1.—5. Aug. 6.—12. Aug. 13—20
  livre tournois  s livre tournois  s d
Kitch. exp. (24)  141–19 (21)  199– 0–6 (16)  144– 4–6 =  (61)
hhd. exp.  72–16  70– 1  72– 9–6
house  11– 8
hhd. furnit.  9– 6
stable  3–16  10– 4
garden  8– 4
washing  17–11
dress  13–17
postage  33– 5  15–14  15–15
servts. clothg.  9–11
269–1150 324–19 254– 1
Aug. 20. Pd. Petit for a ragout spoon & 6. teaspoons 85f.
Pd. do. portage & other expences of books51 from Engld. 25f17.
<Pd. do. for Col. Smith.>
Note I have not pd. the whole of the above by 59f8 to be paid him hereafter.
23. Pd. Le Couteulx’s order for transportation of Madeira wine 72f11 one half for M. de la fayette.
24. Pd. for a syringue 6f12—gave in charity 6f.
27. Gave Patsy 6f.
Sep. 1. Recd. from Mr. Grand for the U. S. 5000f.
Pd. at Panthemont for Patsy 900f.
Pd. servants viz.  Petit 72
Espagnol 60
le Cocher 60
Saget 50
la Cuisiniere 48
le Jardinier 45
garçon de cuisine   15
350 .
 
Pd. Petit balance above Aug. 20. 59f8.
Pd. do. for Barbier & Tetard balce. for damask 605livre tournois–5.
Pd. Gouyon in full for horse hire 300f.
Note returned his horses yesterday.
2. Pd. French & nephew a bill drawn on me by Jno. Bannister junr.52 for 240f which charge to Bannister. See post Dec. 22.
Pd. Goldsmith for books 6f10.
Pd. do.  for  19th. livraison of Encyclopedie. viz.
livre tournois       
for myself 24
J. Madison 24
Dr. Franklin 24
F. Hopkinson   24
Jas. Monroe 23
Dr. Currie 23
142
3. Pd. seeing gallery St. Cloud53 6f.
4.
Pd. Petit viz. Aug. 21—25.   Aug. 26—31.
livre tournois livre tournois  s d
  Kitchen exp. 234 (29) 213– 2–6 (20) = 49  
  Office 120– 9–6  73–14
  petites depences  54–18  32–15
  postage  41– 1  4
  washing  36–14
  waggon & harness hire  86
  Serrurier’s acct.  40– 9
  Marechal’s acct.  17–19

450– 8–6

504–13–6
 
Sep. 4. Pd. for buttons 22f10. gloves 4f6.54
5. Pd. seeing the king’s library55 3f Madrid56 6f.
7. Pd. seeing machine of Marly 6f the Chateau 6f.
Pd. Petit towards dinner at Marly 12f pd. at Louvechienne57 6f.
8. Paid at Concert Spirituel58 6f.
9. Paid seeing Gardes meubles59 12f—for books 2f10.
Pd. Mlle. Guyard60 for picture 240f.
Gave Patsy 6f pd. at Italians61 6f.
10. Pd. Valade62 for a picture 96f.
13. Pd. hire of Piano forte 12f.
14. Pd. Charpentier for a press63 for M. de lafayette 96f—for clamps 12f.
 
Pd. seeing machine 3f.
16. Pd. seeing Desert64 6f.
18. Pd. two Surgeons 12f.65
19. Pd. Petit on acct. 600f.
21. Pd. clothes for Patsy 64f10—lent Mazzei 36f.
22. Pd. postage 106f17—Petit on acct. 93f3.
 
Oct. 1. Pd. Corneillon engraving 27f do. for picture 48f.
2. State of expences of September.
Sep. 1—9 10—16 17—23 24—30
Kitchen exp. 266– 6–6 206–11 172–10 116– 4–6 (28)(26)(22)(13)
Office 107–16  88– 2–6  56–10 107– 8
Pet. depences 206–15  57– 4 128–19
Postage  49– 3  19– 0  28–17
630– 0–6 294–13–6 305– 4 381– 8–6 1611–6–6
Recd. of Mr. Grand 5000f.
livre tournois
Pd. Petit  balance of above account  918– 3–6
portage &c. of Madeira  29– 7
Serrurier  11– 6
Menuisier  35–10
Forage  for August
for September
 232– 7
 228
for Colo. W. S. Smith  164
Royez for books  87
Bohain Tapissier  685–18
Servants.  Petit 72    
Espagnol 60
le Cocher 60
Saget 50
Cuisiniere   48
Jardinier 45
Garçon 15  350
2741–11–6
Oct. 2. Paid Petit for Mercure de France 30livre tournois.
Gave Jame 12f.
3. Recd. back from Bohain 36f.
4. Recd. from P. Mazzei cash lent him in full 636f.
Pd. for a Cabriolet de voiage66 250f.
5. Pd. expences at St. Denis67 55f.
Pd. Cabaret Stationary 43f—do. bookbinding 409f6.
Gave Patsy 3f.
 
8. Acceptd. Le Fevre Roussac & co.’s bill for 344livre tournois–3 paiable Nov. 12. for wine.
Pd. Goldsmith copying apparatus for M. de la Fayette 49f10.
Pd. do. for myself 13f14.
9. Pd. Mr. Short’s exp. to Versailles for passport68 for arms for Virginia 22f.
10. Gave Patsy 3f.
12. Gave Ct. de Langeac ord. on Mr. Grand for quarter’s rent 1875f.
Pd. Charpentier for copying press 96f.
13. Pd. hire of Piano forte 12f.
Pd. for chemical box69 for Madison 59f vide post 16.
14. Pd. for a box 10f.
Pd. Petit  transportn. &c. Dr. Ramsay’s books70 from London 27livre tournois–19.
do. books71 for me from do. 69–7.
Pd.  do. exp. Oct. 1.—7. viz.
Wood 58–  4
Kitchen (26)  251– 14
Office 57– 19–6
Miscellanies 42– 12
postage 16– 14
427–  3
 
16. Pd. Le Vieillard additional for Madison’s chemical box 10f.
19. Gave Patsy 3f
20.
Pd. Goldsmith  for  20th. livraison of the Encyclopedie.
 livre tournois       
for myself 24
Madison 24
Monroe 23
Currie 23
Dr. Franklin   24
Hopkinson 24
142
Pd. do. for books for Colo. Smith 12f14 for myself for books 24f9.
Pd. do. for services 12f.
20. Pd. Bondfeild’s bill in favr. of Billon for wine72 498livre tournois.
24. Lent Goldsmith 48f.73
Nov. 1. Pd. at Concert spirituel74 6f.
2. Recd. from M. Grand for U. S. 5000livre tournois.
Pd. Chaplain75 for Cabriolet 1000livre tournois. reprs. of chariot &c. 179f15.
Pd. for forage 212f.
Pd. servants, viz.  Petit 72
Espagnol 60
Saget 50
Cocher 60
Cuisiniere 48
Jardinier 45
garçon de cuisine   15
350
 
4. Pd. Petit exp. from Oct. 8.—31. viz.

Oct. 8—14 15—21 22—31.
Cuisine  132–13  256– 5–6   218–11   (14)(34)(25)
Office  44– 8–6   69–18  93– 4
Miscellanies   20–15  68–18  181– 6
Postage  32– 5  33– 1–6  74– 4
 230– 1–6  428– 3  567– 5  = 1225–9–6
Pd. do.  portage of harness76 from England  88 f  2
2. voies de bois, cartage &c. 58 14
1½ doz. pr. of socks 25 16
portage wine 14 11
Marechal’s acct. 20  5
207  8
Pd. Toffart a pr. of handirons 74f.
Pd. Charpentier for a press 96f.
Pd. do. for do. for Madison 96f.
6. Pd. hire of Piano forte 12f.
7.
Pd. Goldsmith  for apparatus of copying press for Crevecoeur 24f.
Do. do.   do. & paper for Madison 36f.
Do. do. paper for myself 12f.
Do. do. balance for books 6f.
Gave in charity to Danl. Lemasney an Irish American 24f.
9.
Pd. Petit exp.  Nov. 1—5
livre tournois  
Cuisine (23) 197–13
Office 49– 1
Pet. depences  51–17
postage 18–10
317– 1
 
       Servants clothes 110livre tournois–10
2 voies de bois 62livre tournois–8
portage of books77 from Rouen 13f16
Gave Patsy 6f.78
10. Pd. for gloves 6f—for muff 60f.
13. Pd. Goldsmith for books 16f10.
Nov. 15.
Pd. Petit  exp. from Nov. 6—11. viz.
livre tournois
Cuisine (23) 117–  7
Office 38– 17–6
pet. depences   42– 19
postage 17– 12
portage 6–  7
223–  2–6
livre tournois  
Pd. do. for  2. voies de bois de hetre, sciage &c.   63– 0
1. voie de bois pour la poele 27– 6
1. voie bois flotté pour la cuisine 24–18
115– 4
Pd. do. for Patsy 5f12.
18. Inclosed to Frediani of Lucca for Anthony Giannini 24f.
19. A voie of hetre has lasted my two fireplaces 9½ days thro’ an excessive cold spell. This is about 32 sous a day for each fire.
22.
Pd.  Pet. from 12—18. viz.
livre tournois  
Cuisine (23) 222–10
Office 71–16
pet. depences   52– 2
postage 23–14
portage 33– 8
Patsy 16–14
420– 4
Gave in charity to American sailor 12f.
23. Pd. Le Fevre, Roussac & co.’s bill in favr. Lavisse for wine79 344livre tournois.
Gave Patsy 3f.
 
24. Pd. Goldsmith for books 3f—28. Pd. for a book 8f.
30. Pd. Petit 72f.
Dec. 1. Recd. of Mr. Grand for the U. S. 5000f.
Pd. Petit for Servts. viz.  Petit 72 f
Espagnol 60
Saget 50
Cocher 60
Cuisiniere   48
Jardinier 45
Garçon 15
350
Pd. do.  Coachman’s bill  16–  2
Washing 14– 15
forage 206– 12–6
Menuisier 115–  2
Serrurier 51– 14
404– 15–680
Pd. do. for Panthemont for Patsy 1200.
Pd. do. duty on harness 111livre tournois–0–6d.
Pd. do.  expences from the 18th. to the 24th. viz.
livre tournois s 
la Cuisine (30) 245– 15
l’Office 48– 16
petites depences 36– 12
Patsy 10–
1. voie de bois de hetre   31– 10
portage 39–  9
postage 24–  9
436– 11
Note in the paiments here entered I took credit for the 72f of Nov. 30. so that instead of 111livre tournois–0–6 entered here as now paid, I paid the balce. only 39livre tournois–0–6.
Dec. 7. Pd. for books 15f—gave James 12f.
8. Pd. Corneillon for pictures 96f for engraving utensils81 88f.
Pd. do. for services 44f.
1. Gave Patsy 3f.
2. Pd. Upton on acct. for Cabinet work 72f.
 
Pd. Espagnol 8f2—pd. at Italian theatre82 6f.
3. Pd. Charpentier for a press 96f.
Pd. do. for alteration of level 12f.
4. Pd. at French theatre83 6f.
(Here shd. come in the entries of Dec. 7. 8. above.)
9. Pd. for Piano forte 12f.
Pd. Petit  exp. Nov. 25—Dec. 2. livre tournois
Cuisine (21) 164–  8
Office 83–  3
Petites depences 114–  1
1. voie of wood for stove  27–  4
1. do. hetre for study 32–  6
Patsy 31–  8
Soup ladle 121–
postage 15–  1
588– 11
Pd. for seeing Phoca84 1f4—waistcoat 15f.
11. Pd. for waistcoat 15f.
Pd. Charpentier 1f16.
Dec. 14.
Pd.  Petit exp. Dec. 3.—9.
livre tournois s 
Cuisine (12) 167– 18
Office 36– 10
Pet. dep. 58– 19
10. voies de b. de hetre  299– 10
Cocher de remise 24–
portage 8–  8
postage 46–  1
641–  6
Note85 on an examination of Marc’s <kitchen> expences, and Petit’s from Jan. 23. to Dec. 9. excluding the time I was in England they stand as follows
  livre tournois  s d livre tournois s
Kitchen  Marc. 274. dinners amt. to  2701–12–6  which is  9–17 } a  head
livre tournois
Petit 521 4568–15 8–15 } 15–6  Marc
Office Marc. 274 1498– 3 5– 9 12–5  Petit
Petit 522 1847–10–6 3–10 3–1  diffce.
Dec. 14. Pd. Royez for books 70f14—gave Patsy 3f.
15. Gave Alexr. McIntosh, shipwreckt sailor from N. Y. 24f.
19. Recd. of M. St. John de Crevecoeur 120f86—pd. Molini books 63f.
20. Pd. for Stockdale for books 13f4.
21. Pd. for books 7f16—gave Patsy 3f.
Indorsed J. Bannister’s bill for 100£ sterl.
22. Recd. of J. Bannister the 240f pd. for him ante Sep. 2.
23. Pd. seeing figure of K. of Prussia87 12f.
24. Pd. Goldsmith for books 13f6.
Pd. do. for  Jas. Madison. Ordonnance marine88  4–4
a vol. of Encyclop. 1re. partie Oiseaux   7
11–4
Petit’s acct. of exp. Dec. 10—16 are as follows:
   Cuisine (18) 163– 12
Office 45–  7
Petites depences 56–
hhd. furniture 18–
Patsy 8–  8
1. voie of wood for stoves  27–  6
postage 20– 17
339– 10
pd. him 200 
remains due 139– 10
26. Limozin debits me 22f4 for transportn. of Model of the Capitol for Virginia.
Given in charity at sundry times 9f.
 
Dec. 28.
Petit’s  accts. Dec. 17—23 are as follows
Cuisine (33) 251– 15
Office 92– 18–6
Petites depences 73–  2
Patsy for etrennes   58–  2
postage 26–  3
502–  0–6
Pd. Upton on acct. 72f—gave Patsy 6f.
29. Repd. Colo. Franks lodge at the Variety89 12f.
Pd. him for Moorish coins90 60f.
30. Recd. of Mr. Grand for U. S. 6000f.
Pd. Bazin for plateaux de Dessert 422livre tournois–16.
Pd. Apothecary’s account 314livre tournois–14.
Pd. Gouyon a month’s hire of horses 300livre tournois.
Pd. do. repairs of carriage 56livre tournois–10.
31. Pd. as follows 450livre tournois. viz.
   wages etrennes livre tournois
Petit 72livre tournois  +  24livre tournois =  96
Espagnol   60 + 12 = 72
Saget 50 + 12 = 62
Cocher 60 + 12 = 72
Cuisinier 52 + 12 = 64
Jardinier 45 + 12 = 57
Garçon 15 + 12 = 27
450
Pd. Petit  balce.  ante Dec. 24.
do. ante Dec. 28.
139 –10
502 – 0–6
1091 –10–6
Pd. do. for Genen Taylor’s acct. to July last 860livre tournois–3.
Pd. do. acct. for forage 179livre tournois.
Pd. do. for M. Louis, Surgeon 200f (20 visits).
 
Pd. do. for the Chevalr. de la Vallette91 <540> 507livre tournois. & took from him La Fleury’s note which constitutes me creditor of the U. S. for that sum to be taken out of the interest due to La Fleury as a foreign officer & paiable at Mr. Grand’s bureau.
Lent J. Bannister junr. 400livre tournois.

17 Boullié was William Short’s manservant (Short’s journal of expenses, 23 Jan. 1786, PHi).

18See also 10 Jan. 1786, where TJ completed the obligatory distribution of étrennes to various servants at court. TJ followed Benjamin Franklin’s customary allocation and charged these “Court fees” to the United States (Papers, xvi, 358-9 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; Account with U.S. 1792, 1 and 10 Jan. 1786 description begins “Account with U.S. of America as their Minister Plenipotentiary in Europe. Exact copy as given in to the Auditor July. 1792” DLC: TJ Papers, 13286-94. See Papers, XXIV, 175-89. description ends ). Abigail Adams gives an amusing account of New Year’s Day and its gratuity seekers in a letter to Cotton Tufts, 3 Jan. 1785 (MHi: Adams Family Papers). The introducteurs were a M. Tolozan and one of the Comtesse d’Houdetot’s brothers, Alexis Janvier de Lalive de la Briche, who had died at the end of 1785; François Pierre Leroi de Séqueville was secrétaire (Almanach royal [1789], ed. F.J.N. Debure [Paris, n.d.], p. 156).

19Besides the Courrier de l’Europe, Gazette de France, Gazette de Leyde, Journal de Paris, and Mercure de France, already noted, TJ was probably receiving the Petites Affiches at this time (see MB 26 Feb. 1788).

20This table ornament is described in TJ to Abigail Adams, 25 Sep. 1785.

21 Joseph Mathias Gérard de Rayneval (1746-1812) was the Comte de Vergennes’ premier commis. For TJ’s opinion of him, see TJ to James Madison, 30 Jan. 1787.

22A Grand & Cie. manuscript reveals that the bill was assigned to “E. A. & C. Dutilh” of Philadelphia (DLC: TJ Papers, 14928-9).

24Over thirty copper saucepans and frying pans were shipped to Philadelphia in 1790 (Packing List 1790, Crate No. 29 description begins Itemized invoice of Grevin, maitre layetier, 17 July 1790. DLC: William Short Papers description ends ). A bill of the chaudronnier Chapsah, dated 21 June 1790, for retinning TJ’s kitchen utensils, is in DLC: Short Papers.

25TJ saw the fifth performance of Pénélope, another collaboration of Piccinni and Marmontel (Journal de Paris, 20 Jan. 1786; Sowerby, No. 4561 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

26 Charles Vincent Vera’s machine funiculaire for raising water was first examined by the Académie des Sciences in 1782. A revolving endless band, without buckets or other vessels, carried the water up by adhesion alone. Despite numerous attempts to perfect this machine, either by using different materials for the band or by changing the positions of the pulleys or driving wheel, Vera’s pump had failed to come into general use by 1788 (Bibliothèque Physico-Économique, instructive et amusante, Année 1782 [Paris, 1785], p. 173-87 and Plate ii; Année 1788 [Paris, 1788], i, xii-xiii; Shelby T. McCloy, French Inventions of the Eighteenth Century [Lexington, Ky., 1952], p. 116).

27The books are listed in TJ to Samuel Henley, 3 Mch. 1785.

28Correctly 369livre tournois–11.

29TJ saw two durable favorites: P. A. Monsigny’s La Belle Arsène, with a libretto after Voltaire’s “La Bégueule” by C. S. Favart, and Nicolas Dalayrac’s L’Éclipse Totale, with libretto by A.E.X. Poisson de La Chabeaussière (Journal de Paris, 28 Jan. 1786; Sowerby, No. 4568 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

30This figure and all succeeding similar figures (which until 14 Dec. 1786 were added by TJ after the pages were complete) make it possible to gauge the scale of TJ’s entertaining. They indicate the number of people, including TJ and William Short, who took the main meal at the Hôtel de Langeac each week. Short was periodically absent at Saint-Germain-en-Laye and TJ often dined out, but if Short and TJ dined in every day, the minimum number of dinners per week would be fourteen; TJ, therefore, had at least eleven dinner guests the week of 23 to 30 Jan.

31 Ezra Bates, “a careful man of Connecticut, who has been hitherto servant to the M. de la fayette,” was returning to America (TJ to Francis Hopkinson, 26 Jan. 1786).

32The wallpaper factory of Jean Arthur and Réné Grenard was at the corner of the present Rue Louis-le-Grand and the Boulevard des Italiens. TJ ordered a great deal of wallpaper from Arthur in 1790 (Cradock, Journal, p. 72-3; Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 49 description begins Journal de Madame Cradock, trans. Mme. O. Delphin Balleyguier, Paris, 1896 description ends ; MB 4 Feb. 1791).

33The program included symphonies by Haydn and F. A. Rössler, a Piccinni air, a Mysliviček duet, and works by F. J. Gossec, Paul Alday, and Julie Candeille (Journal de Paris, 2 Feb. 1786).

34Of the Encyclopédie methodique.

35 Diderot and d’Alembert’s Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des metiers (Geneva: Pellet, 1777-79). In 1789 TJ turned this set in to J. F. Froullé for full credit (see Froullé invoice in MHi).

36TJ saw Racine’s Les Plaideurs and Marc Antoine Legrand’s Le Roi de Cocagne (Journal de Paris, 3 Feb. 1786).

37This was an octavo version of the Pellet edition of the Diderot and d’Alembert Encyclopédie, put out by the Sociétés Typographiques of Lausanne and Berne between 1779 and 1782. TJ sold this set to Edmund Randolph in 1789, after purchasing the same edition in unbound form (MB 20 Jan. and 10 Dec. 1789, 25 Nov. 1790; Sowerby, No. 4890 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

38The Salon des Echecs was an exclusive chess club in the Galerie de Montpensier of the Palais-Royal, above the Café de Foi. TJ probably joined at the suggestion of Jean Nicolas Démeunier (1751-1814), with whom he had met several times in January and through whom he canceled his membership the following year (Thiéry, Guide, i, 279-80 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends ; Démeunier to TJ, 6 Jan. 1787). TJ’s granddaughter later wrote: “I have heard him say that when, on his arrival in Paris, he was introduced into a Chess Club, he was beaten at once, and that so rapidly and signally that he gave up all competition. He felt that there was no disputing such a palm with men who passed several hours of every evening in playing chess” (Ellen W. Coolidge MS notebook, p. 37, ViU). TJ owned a tract on chess by the members of the Salon (Sowerby, No. 1174 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

39 François Hoffmann’s Journal Polytype des Sciences et des Arts first appeared 20 Feb. 1786 and expired in 1787, when Hoffmann’s privilege was suppressed. For TJ’s interest in Hoffmann and polytype printing, see Papers, x, 318-26 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends , and Sowerby, No. 1096 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends .

40TJ and Lafayette had persuaded Baron Grimm, Catherine ii’s confidential correspondent, to give John Ledyard twenty-five guineas for his support until the Empress granted him permission to cross her territories. This permission was denied in August, by which time the impatient Ledyard had left for London and then St. Petersburg, where he obtained a passport and began his trek across the Asian continent. His Russian adventure came to an end when he was arrested in Siberia and deported (TJ to Lafayette, 9 Feb. 1786; TJ to Ledyard, 16 Aug. 1786; MB 1 June 1785, 7 Aug. 1786).

41TJ again went to the Opera ball with William Stephens Smith, who had arrived on this date with John Adams’ urgent request that TJ come to London for a variety of final treaty negotiations (Adams to TJ, 21 Feb. 1786). It was probably at this lundi gras ball that TJ and Smith encountered a predatory Dutch baroness, about whom Smith later wrote: “When Mr. Jefferson had made his escape, she had fastened her talons on me” (Smith to William Short, 30 July 1787; Short to Smith, 23 June 1787, DLC: Short Papers).

42This was Sanson’s severance pay. Adrien Petit had returned as TJ’s valet de chambre.

43 Espagnol was David Humphreys’, and later TJ’s, valet de chambre (William Short to Humphreys, 1 Aug. 1787, DLC: Short Papers).

44TJ’s list of desiderata, including several drafting instruments, is in TJ to David Humphreys, 5 Jan. 1786. Humphreys had been in London since early Dec. 1785.

45TJ and Smith may have only stopped at the posthouse for a meal. There is no record that they viewed the magnificent seat of the Prince de Condé, but if they did their visit would have been brief, as the Paris-Breteuil journey generally required about ten hours on the road (Dutens, Itinéraire, p. 10-12, 246).

46The Adams family generally went to Hackney for the Sunday religious meetings of Richard Price (1723-1791). TJ accompanied them on this date and there first met Benjamin Vaughan (1751-1835) (Vaughan to Lansdowne, Mch. 1786, typescript, PPAP: Vaughan Papers). TJ’s social activities while in London can be followed in Adams, Diary, iii, 182-91 description begins Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, ed. L. H. Butterfield, Cambridge, Mass., 1961, 4 vols. description ends ; TJ to W. T. Franklin, 7 May 1786; TJ to W. S. Smith, 15 Jan. 1787; and Papers, ix, 363-4 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends .

47TJ had his first sight of the famous Sarah Siddons in the third and final performance of John Delap’s The Captives at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. Despite Mrs. Siddons’ efforts, this tragedy based on characters from Ossian closed to roars of laughter. Also part of this Scottish evening were Richard Tickell’s version of Allan Ramsay’s The Gentle Shepherd and a highland reel (Hogan, London Stage, ii, 865, 868-70 description begins Charles Beecher Hogan, The London Stage, 1776-1800, Carbondale, Ill., 1958, 2 vols. description ends ).

48St. James’ Palace was used by George iii for ceremonial purposes only; he and his family lived while in London in Buckingham House. TJ’s entry differs from contemporary newspaper accounts, which report that he attended the King’s Levee on Wednesday, 15 Mch., and the Queen’s Drawing Room the following day (London Chronicle, 20 Mch. 1786). TJ referred in later years to his “ungracious” reception by the royal pair. His first meeting with the foreign minister, the Marquis of Carmarthen, probably took place before the Wednesday Levee (L & B, i, 94 description begins Andrew A. Lipscomb and Albert E. Bergh, eds., The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, “Memorial Edition,” Washington, D.C., 1903-1904, 20 vols. description ends ; Adams to Carmarthen, 13 Mch. 1786, in Papers, ix, 327).

49 Edward Bancroft (1744-1821) had purchased for TJ one of John Henry’s maps of Virginia (TJ to Bancroft, 26 Feb. 1786; MB 6 Apr. 1768, cash accounts).

50 William Faden (1750-1836), at the corner of St. Martin’s Lane, Charing Cross, was in TJ’s opinion the best of the London map engravers (TJ to W. S. Smith, 20 Dec. 1786; Ronald Vere Tooley, Tooley’s Dictionary of Mapmakers [New York, 1979], p. 201).

51Although there was a comic opera performed on this date at Covent Garden, TJ’s entry most likely refers to the King’s Theatre in the Haymarket on the site of the present Her Majesty’s Theatre. On the program was Antonio Salieri’s comic opera, La Scuola de Gelosi, with additional music by Sacchini, Anfossi, Paisiello, Mazzoni, and Mazzinghi (Hogan, London Stage, ii, 869-71 description begins Charles Beecher Hogan, The London Stage, 1776-1800, Carbondale, Ill., 1958, 2 vols. description ends ).

52TJ bought from Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800), optician and instrument maker at “the Golden Spectacles, opposite Sackville Street Piccadilly,” “a Boilg. Water Thermometer on a Brass Scale in a Case,” “an Ivory Protractor,” and “a Pocket Globe” (Ramsden invoice, undated, MHi). By the time he wrote that the “mechanical arts in London are carried to a wonderful perfection,” TJ had spent £56 on mathematical instruments (TJ to John Page, 4 May 1786; see TJ’s list of his “Mathematical Apparatus,” half of which was bought in London on this trip, in his MS Library Catalogue, MHi). He also spent about £12 on tools, £20 on sadlery, and £60 on books, and his interest in the London shops is further attested by the number of goldsmiths’ and other trade cards which survive in MHi and ViU; several have TJ’s notes about prices of tea trays, butter boats, and other table furniture he never purchased.

53 John and Peter Dollond (1730-1820), who had shops in the Haymarket and in Saint Paul’s Church Yard, still held the patent for achromatic telescopes developed by their father, John Dollond (1706-1761). TJ’s list of “Mathematical Apparatus” (MHi) includes “an Acromatic telescope with three object glasses. by Dolond 10–10” and a “Solar microscope in brass. by Dollond 5–16–6.” The telescope is probably one of two Dollond telescopes now at Monticello. TJ later gave the microscope to his grandson Francis Wayles Eppes (TJ to JWE, 4 June 1808).

54This black Yorkshire barrow, immortalized in the conversation of Dr. Samuel Johnson and a print by Thomas Rowlandson, had begun giving performances in Charing Cross early in 1785. By fetching typographical cards in response to questions from the audience, he gave the impression of being able to solve arithmetical problems and read and write in several languages (Altick, Shows of London, p. 40-2 description begins Richard D. Altick, The Shows of London, Cambridge, Mass., 1978 description ends ; The Diary and Selected Papers of Chief Justice William Smith 1784-1793, ed. L.F.S. Upton [Toronto, 1963-65], i, 204-5).

55These flintlock pistols, now at Monticello, were probably bought from Dealtry, a sword-cutler at No. 85, Cornhill. His name appears on the frames, but the barrels bear Birmingham proofmarks (London Chronicle, 27 Mch. 1786; Ashley Halsey, Jr., “How Thomas Jefferson’s Pistols were Restored,” The American Rifleman [Nov. 1969], p. 21-2).

56For the round robin that resulted from TJ’s visit, with W. S. Smith and Richard Peters, to Dolly’s Chop House in Paternoster Row, see Papers, ix, 350 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends (Bryant Lillywhite, London Coffeehouses [London, 1963], p. 692-3).

57 John Briesler, the Adamses’ American manservant, was evidently lent to TJ during his stay in London (Papers, xi, 531 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; Adams, Diary, iii, 156 description begins Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, ed. L. H. Butterfield, Cambridge, Mass., 1961, 4 vols. description ends ).

58Perhaps TJ was in New Burlington Street, where Gilbert Stuart lived and displayed his paintings in magnificently furnished rooms (La Roche, Diary, p. 153 description begins Sophie in London 1786; Being the Diary of Sophie V. La Roche, trans. Clare Williams, London, 1933 description ends ).

59Designed by James Wyatt and opened in 1772, this sumptuously decorated hall in Oxford Street was the setting for concerts, masquerades, and assemblies in the winter season. On this date TJ heard a concert which included “some favourite glees” (London Gazetteer and New Daily Advertizer, 23 Mch. 1786).

60 James Lyons (1762-1830), son of Judge Peter Lyons of Hanover County, Va., was about to return to the United States after medical studies in Edinburgh (TJ to John Adams, 7 Feb. 1786; Latrobe, Virginia Journals, ii, 327 description begins Edward C. Carter II, ed., The Virginia Journals of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, New Haven, 1977, 2 vols. description ends ). The book was John Parkhurst, A Greek and English Lexicon to the New Testament, published in London in 1769 (Sowerby, No. 4773 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ; Lyons to TJ, 27 Feb. 1786).

61This “red & white speckled calico” was bought from Thomas Roe, linen draper, No. 58, Strand (trade card in MHi).

62This was an Argand cylinder lamp. On 30 Mch. TJ bought two more and sent them to Richard Henry Lee and Charles Thomson (TJ to Lee and Thomson, 22 Apr. 1786; for TJ’s description of the invention, see TJ to Thomson and James Madison, 11 Nov. 1784).

63The theodolite, bought from John Troughton, No. 136, Fleet Street, was described by TJ in his list of “Mathematical Apparatus” (MHi) as “a pocket graphometer by Cole 3⅞ I. diam.” Also on the list is “a Ring dial 5. I. diam.” (Troughton trade card, ViU).

64The London Tavern was at the site now occupied by the Royal Bank of Scotland, No. 3 Bishopsgate (Bryant Lillywhite, London Coffeehouses [London, 1963], p. 710-11).

65Barnet was the first post out of London to the north. Just east of Barnet in Enfield Chase TJ had his first sight of an English landscape garden, that laid out by William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, at South Lodge. The buildings and gardens of Pitt’s time no longer survive. Since TJ’s expenses for this date were quite large (according to a supplementary memorandum W. S. Smith paid out a further £3–11–1½ for him), he probably made on this date a western detour to Moor Park, near Rickmansworth. The building, which TJ thought “superb,” still stands, but lacks Robert Adam’s wings and colonnades, which were being taken down at the time of TJ’s visit. Lancelot “Capability” Brown was responsible for the landscaping (“Notes of a Tour of English Gardens,” Papers, ix, 372-3; memorandum of “Joint expenses from Paris to London,” MHi).

66This debt was for the windows for Monticello shipped to TJ in 1774 by Robert Cary & Company in London. On 25 Apr. 1786 TJ paid £40 on the debt, the equivalent of the interest since 1774 on the £87 purchase. This was the only instance when TJ did not insist on deduction of interest for the war years from a British debt. He made the exception in the case of Cary & Co. because they had shipped him goods without having any personal knowledge of him (TJ to Littleton W. Tazewell, 10 Apr. 1800; MB 11 Aug. 1775, cash accounts). In 1797 TJ executed a bond for payment of this debt, which subsequently became blended with his larger debt to Cary & Co. for the Wayles estate; £684 plus interest remained unpaid on these combined debts at TJ’s death (MB 20 Jan. 1797).

67The bridle and stirrups were bought from “Mackintosh Sadler . . . No. 10 Haymarket” for £3–13 and £1–6 respectively (trade card, ViU).

68These two payments were to H. Porter, an ivory-turner in the Strand (Porter invoice, 17 Apr. 1786, ViU). TJ sent one of the two chess sets he bought in London to Francis Eppes (TJ to Eppes, 22 Apr. 1786).

69TJ and William Stephens Smith’s first stop on their two-day tour of Surrey and Middlesex landscape gardens was Chiswick House, the Palladian villa built by Richard Boyle, third Earl of Burlington, with gardens laid out by William Kent; it is now a public park. They next stopped in Twickenham, to view one of the earliest of picturesque gardens, that created by Alexander Pope. After viewing Hampton Court, they travelled south to Esher, where they visited Claremont and Esher Place. The dwelling house at Claremont, now a school, was built for Lord Clive by “Capability” Brown and Henry Holland, and Brown had improved the grounds originally laid out by William Kent and presently undergoing restoration. At Esher Place (only its gatehouse survives) TJ saw a remodelled Gothic palace and extensive park, the work of William Kent for Henry Pelham. TJ’s final stop of the day was one of the most famous landscape gardens of the eighteenth century, Painshill Park near Cobham, the creation of Charles Hamilton with the assistance of William Kent. The grounds were laid out in the picturesque style, in conscious imitation of the paintings of Salvator Rosa and Gaspard Dughet. For TJ’s reactions to these country seats, see “Notes of a Tour of English Gardens,” Papers, ix, 369-70. For contemporary accounts, see Whately, Observations, p. 184-92 description begins Thomas Whately, Observations on Modern Gardening, London, 1770 description ends , and Ambulator: or, a Pocket Companion in a Tour Round London (London, 1792), p. 65-6, 86, 177-82, 235-6.

70TJ and Smith stayed at the Postman’s Arms in Weybridge (tavern bill, Apr. 1786, ViU).

71Hardly a trace remains of Woburn Farm, the first and foremost example of a ferme ornée, created just outside Weybridge by Philip Southcote, with the aid of William Kent. TJ was impressed by its “mixture of the Utile dulci” (Papers, xiii, 270 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; “Notes of a Tour,” Papers, ix, 370; Whately, Observations, p. 177-82 description begins Thomas Whately, Observations on Modern Gardening, London, 1770 description ends ).

72On this date TJ bought a hydrostatic balance, a scioptric ball, a Robinson’s scale, two double convex lenses, and a compass needle (Dollond invoice, 3 Apr. 1786, ViU). He gave the hydrostatic balance to his grandson in 1808 (TJ to JWE, 4 June 1808).

73This chest of tools, bought from Thomas Robinson, ironmonger in Charing Cross, was part of TJ’s baggage in 1790, along with a locksmith’s pouch of iron tools (Robinson to TJ, 25 Mch. 1786; Packing List 1790, Crates Nos. 40 and 43 description begins Itemized invoice of Grevin, maitre layetier, 17 July 1790. DLC: William Short Papers description ends ). Before leaving for London TJ had requested a passport for a “box containing small tools for wooden and iron work” (TJ to Rayneval, 3 Mch. 1786). Many accounts of TJ make note of the tools and workbench he always kept close at hand, but less is said about what he actually made. Margaret Bayard Smith mentions “curious implements and models” and the slave Isaac tells of ”keys and locks and small chains, iron and brass” (A Winter in Washington; Or, Memoirs of the Seymour Family [New York, 1824], iii, 265; Bear, Jefferson at Monticello, p. 18 description begins Jefferson at Monticello, ed. James A. Bear, Jr., Charlottesville, Va., 1967 description ends ).

74Caversham Park, near Reading, was a landscape garden by “Capability” Brown. On 28 Mch. TJ had expected to leave London in a week “without fail,” but on 3 Apr. he returned from his overnight expedition to find the door opened to further treaty negotiations with the British foreign ministry. TJ and John Adams quickly dispatched to Carmarthen a “Project of a Treaty of Commerce” and then set off on a tour of gardens and battle sites (TJ to William Short, 28 Mch., 3 Apr. 1786; Commissioners to Carmarthen, 4 Apr. 1786, and note). For information on this week of travel, which prompted TJ to declare that English pleasure gardening “is the article in which it surpasses all the earth,” see TJ’s “Notes of a Tour of English Gardens,” Papers, ix, 369-75, and Kimball, Jefferson, iii, 147-52 (TJ to John Page, 4 May 1786). A number of TJ’s tavern bills survive in ViU.

75Wotton House, six miles north of Thame, was the Buckinghamshire estate of the Grenvilles. Its landscape garden, probably laid out by “Capability” Brown, partially survives (“Notes of a Tour,” Papers, ix, 370-1; Whately, Observations, p. 84-8 description begins Thomas Whately, Observations on Modern Gardening, London, 1770 description ends ).

76The gardens of Stowe, with their multitude of temples and buildings, are today the best preserved of the landscape gardens TJ saw. Laid out by Richard Temple, Viscount Cobham, and his successor, Richard Grenville, Earl Temple, with the assistance of Bridgeman, Kent, and Brown, among others, it was probably the most famous garden in England at this time and was widely imitated abroad. John Adams, and probably TJ too, climbed to the top of the 115-foot Lord Cobham’s Pillar, designed by James Gibbs (Papers, ix, 375 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

77In Shakespeare’s house in Henley Street was a wooden chair, from which TJ and John Adams each “cutt off a Chip according to the Custom” (Adams, Diary, iii, 185 description begins Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, ed. L. H. Butterfield, Cambridge, Mass., 1961, 4 vols. description ends ).

78In Birmingham TJ and John Adams dined at the Swan Tavern and, according to Adams, they “only walked round the Town and viewed a manufactory of Paintings upon Paper,” probably Henry Clay’s establishment for the production of decorated papier maché ceiling panels, tables, and tea trays (Tavern bill, ViU; Adams, Diary, iii, 185; Edward Daniel Clarke, A Tour through the South of England [London, 1793], p. 376-7). Evidently they did not see Matthew Boulton’s Soho works. It is also possible that Adams was referring to the production of mechanical paintings once under Boulton’s direction but at this time being carried on in a limited way by Francis Eginton. TJ did see the “copying of paintings” while in England, if not in Birmingham then at No. 381 in the Strand, London, where Joseph Booth’s Polygraphic Society had an exhibition (TJ to Ezra Stiles, 1 Sep. 1786; Eric Robinson and Keith R. Thompson, “Matthew Boulton’s Mechanical Paintings,” Burlington Magazine, cxii [1970], 497-507; The Diary and Selected Papers of Chief Justice William Smith 1784-1793 [Toronto, 1963-1965], i, 258).

79The books were probably Joseph Heely, Letters on the Beauties of Hagley, Envil, and the Leasowes, and a duodecimo edition of William Shenstone’s Works (Sowerby, Nos. 4228 and 4430 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ; see TJ’s joint account with Adams, wherein TJ excludes the purchase of “Shenstone, Heely & other little articles purchased for myself,” DLC: TJ Papers, 2006).

80Little of the Leasowes, William Shenstone’s domain near Halesowen, survives today. After the opulence of Stowe, TJ was struck by the lack of architectural embellishments in this ornamented farm, which had been such an important influence on his early thoughts on landscape gardening (“Notes of a Tour,” Papers, ix, 371-3). TJ and Adams spent the night at the Talbot Inn in Stourbridge (tavern bill, ViU).

81Hagley Hall was built for George, first Baron Lyttelton. The most notable ornaments of its celebrated park are James “Athenian” Stuart’s miniature Theseion and Sanderson Miller’s ruined Gothic castle, to the top of which TJ and Adams climbed (“Notes of a Tour,” Papers, ix, 372; Papers, xiii, 17 and 35 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

82The bill of the Hop Pole Inn, Worcester, is in ViU.

83Here, and on the next line, TJ has inexplicably written “Winchcomb” over “Benchworth.” The latter—that is, Bengeworth—is correct, as payments for post horses, at one shilling per mile, indicate no diversion from the direct route from Worcester to Woodstock (Bill for post horses, 8 Apr. 1786, ViU).

84Their total joint expenses were £35–16–9; the remaining £8–9–4½ owed by Adams was entered into their private account (TJ to Abigail Adams, 9 Aug. 1786; TJ-Adams joint account, Apr. 1786, DLC: TJ Papers, 2006).

85Bills from the Antelope Inn, High Wycombe, and the White Hart, Uxbridge, are in ViU.

86 Henry Shuttleworth, mathematical instrument maker at No. 23 Ludgate Street, sold TJ a “Pantographer for reducing drawings” (TJ list of “Mathematical Apparatus,” MHi).

87The iron bridge over the Severn at Coalbrookdale, the first structure of its kind, was completed in 1780 and still stands today (David Humphreys to TJ, 30 Jan. 1786; “Catalogue of Paintings,” No. 80).

88The bookshop of James Lackington (1746-1815) on Chiswell Street was one of the sights of London. TJ continued to buy from Lackington’s catalogues (TJ to John Stockdale, 1 July 1787; TJ to John Trumbull, 18 May 1788).

89 William Jones (1763-1831), optician and mathematical instrument maker, was at this time working with his father, John Jones, at 135 Holborn. TJ ordered some instruments from Jones during his presidency (MB 12 Dec. 1805, 7 Mch. 1808).

90At this time one of the major attractions of the Tower of London was its menagerie, which TJ later compared to the courts of Europe (Papers, xiii, 269-70 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ). There is a good contemporary description of the tower in La Roche, Diary, p. 126-30 description begins Sophie in London 1786; Being the Diary of Sophie V. La Roche, trans. Clare Williams, London, 1933 description ends .

91“Birks & Pearce, Saddle, Cap and Whip Makers, No. 36 Top of the Hay Market” (trade card, MHi).

92TJ, who was already familiar with the buildings at Kew from the works of Sir William Chambers, commented in his “Notes of a Tour” only on John Smeaton’s hydraulic machine, which used an Archimedes screw (Papers, ix, 373 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; Sowerby, No. 4225 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ; Eye of TJ, No. 358 description begins William Howard Adams, ed., The Eye of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1976 description ends ).

93“The Amusement here is to walk round till one is tired and then sit down to Tea and Rolls,” wrote Gouverneur Morris of a later visit to the Rotunda of Ranelagh, a vauxhall for the decorous once located in the present grounds of the Royal Hospital, Chelsea. Ranelagh opened for the season on this date, Easter Monday. A newspaper reported that the music “was extremely well performed” and, “considering that it is not the fashion to be there the first week, a very respectable company graced the room” (Morris, Diary, i, 525 description begins Gouverneur Morris, A Diary of the French Revolution, ed. Beatrix Cary Davenport, Boston, 1939, 2 vols. description ends ; London Chronicle, 18 Apr. 1786).

94Now Buckingham Palace, the Queen’s House, as it was also called, was the London residence of the royal family. TJ would have seen in the Saloon Room seven of Raphael’s cartoons for the tapestries in the Sistine Chapel; they are now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. See La Roche, Diary, p. 145-7 description begins Sophie in London 1786; Being the Diary of Sophie V. La Roche, trans. Clare Williams, London, 1933 description ends , for a contemporary description.

95 Sir Ashton Lever (1729-1788) had opened his “Holophusicon” at Leicester House in Leicester Square in 1775; his natural history collection was one of the most extensive in Europe. At the time of TJ’s visit, Lever had just disposed by lottery of his collection at great loss; it was dispersed by auction in 1806 (La Roche, Diary, p. 111-14 description begins Sophie in London 1786; Being the Diary of Sophie V. La Roche, trans. Clare Williams, London, 1933 description ends ; Altick, Shows of London, p. 28-32 description begins Richard D. Altick, The Shows of London, Cambridge, Mass., 1978 description ends ; London Chronicle, 22 and 28 Mch., 1 Apr. 1786).

96The Amphitheatre Riding House of Philip Astley (1742-1814), recently redecorated and retitled “Royal Grove,” was located in Westminster Bridge Road, Lambeth. Trick riding was the main entertainment; there were also short comedies, ballets, and fireworks (La Roche, Diary, p. 96 description begins Sophie in London 1786; Being the Diary of Sophie V. La Roche, trans. Clare Williams, London, 1933 description ends ; Altick, Shows of London, p. 119 description begins Richard D. Altick, The Shows of London, Cambridge, Mass., 1978 description ends ).

97TJ saw William Congreve’s tragedy, The Mourning Bride, and the Two Misers, a musical farce by Kane O’Hara (Hogan, London Stage, ii, 877-8 description begins Charles Beecher Hogan, The London Stage, 1776-1800, Carbondale, Ill., 1958, 2 vols. description ends ). In 1786 Covent Garden, on the site of the present Royal Opera House, was managed by Thomas Harris.

98“Barclay, Boot and Shoe Maker, Nos. 5 & 6, Duke’s Court, St. Martin’s Lane” (trade card, MHi).

99TJ and the Adams family travelled just beyond Brentford in Middlesex to see two mansions remodelled by Robert Adam. They were unable to view the interior of Osterley, the seat of the widow of the banker Robert Child; Syon House belonged to the Duke of Northumberland. Both buildings still stand. See Adams, Diary, iii, 189-90 description begins Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, ed. L. H. Butterfield, Cambridge, Mass., 1961, 4 vols. description ends , and La Roche, Diary, p. 224-8 description begins Sophie in London 1786; Being the Diary of Sophie V. La Roche, trans. Clare Williams, London, 1933 description ends .

1 Sarah Siddons played Portia in The Merchant of Venice. The afterpiece was Isaac Jackman’s farce, All the World’s a Stage (Hogan, London Stage, ii, 878 description begins Charles Beecher Hogan, The London Stage, 1776-1800, Carbondale, Ill., 1958, 2 vols. description ends ; London Chronicle, 21 Apr. 1786).

2The program at this Islington music hall included the feats of tumblers, rope dancers, and strong men, interspersed with burlettas, ballets, and a pantomime. The latter at the time of TJ’s visit was a popular item called “The Restoration of Hymen,” with scenery by Thomas Greenwood (London Chronicle, 19 Apr. 1786; La Roche, Diary, p. 132-3 description begins Sophie in London 1786; Being the Diary of Sophie V. La Roche, trans. Clare Williams, London, 1933 description ends ).

3TJ’s portable air-pump was made on the principles of Benjamin Martin; TJ gave it to his grandson in 1808 (list of “Mathematical Apparatus,” MHi; TJ to JWE, 4 June 1808). For TJ’s efforts to promote an improved air-pump by the American John Prince, see William Jones to TJ, 10 Nov. 1786, and TJ to Benjamin Vaughan, 23 July 1788.

4 James Woodmason, stationer at No. 5 Leadenhall Street, was agent for the Watt copying presses and their apparatus (Woodmason & Page invoice, 26 Feb. 1788, MHi).

5TJ saw Sarah Siddons in her most famous role as Lady Macbeth; the afterpiece was James Cobb’s farce, The Humourist; or Who’s Who? (Hogan, London Stage, ii, 878 description begins Charles Beecher Hogan, The London Stage, 1776-1800, Carbondale, Ill., 1958, 2 vols. description ends ).

6This may be William Jones’ “magic or electrical bottle, that is charged by the rubbing of a ribband only, and will give a shock to five or six persons, with apparatus, in a pocket case” (W. & S. Jones catalogue, p. 13, in George Adams, Geometrical and Graphical Essays [London, 1797]). The apparatus, besides the Leyden jar and ribbon, included a discharger and two fur finger-caps. This contrivance was sometimes called the “Magic Smelling Bottle” because, “if diversion is intended,” it could be used to give shocks to the unsuspecting (Charles Hutton, A Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary [London, 1815], ii, 203-4).

7TJ sat for American painter Mather Brown (1761-1831), probably at his studio at No. 1 Wells Street rather than his residence in Cavendish Square. The portrait, received by TJ in 1788, is now lost (TJ address list, Papers, ix, 364; Bush, Life Portraits, p. 20-3 description begins Alfred L. Bush, “The Life Portraits of Thomas Jefferson,” Jefferson and the Arts: An Extended View, ed. William Howard Adams, Washington, D.C., 1976 description ends ).

8 John Stockdale (1749?-1814), who had been TJ’s London bookseller since 1784, had a bookshop opposite Burlington House, Piccadilly (TJ to Stockdale, 1 Sep. 1784, 26 Sep. 1785).

9A receipt for this payment, signed by William Reeves and dated 25 Apr. 1786, is in MoSHi.

10 Robert Cannon made for TJ “A pr. Sattin florentine breeches,” “a waistcoat Silk Strip’d,” “A pr. Nankeen riding breeches,” “A waistcoat and breeches buff Kersymere Gilt butts.,” and “2 pr. buff ribdelure breeches Gilt Buttons” (Cannon invoices, 14 Mch., 1 and 24 Apr. 1786, ViU).

11A receipt for this payment, signed “Grace Roberts,” is in ViU. No. 14, which has since been completely rebuilt, is on the south side of Golden Square.

12 James Lee (1715-1795) was a prominent gardener and nurseryman at The Vineyard, on the site of the present Olympia Building in Hammersmith Road. Lee’s itemized invoice, which included several plants each of sixteen varieties of native American shrubs and trees, is printed in Betts, Garden Book, p. 115 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Garden Book, ed. Edwin M. Betts, Philadelphia, 1944 description ends .

13TJ gave half-guineas to nine men, three each at John Adams’, William S. Smith’s, and Mrs. Conners’ houses (memorandum of expenses in London, CSmH: HM 5945). This is TJ’s first recorded use of “vales” (also vails), an English term for gratuities, especially those given to servants at the end of a visit at a private residence (OED description begins A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, ed. Sir James Murray and others, Oxford, 1888-1933 description ends ). TJ used this word for his parting gifts to servants for the rest of his life.

14TJ’s new friend John Paradise (1743-1795) accompanied him as far as Greenwich and apparently introduced him to Nevil Maskelyne (1732-1811), Astronomer Royal. The chapel of Wren’s Greenwich Hospital was being rebuilt at this time by James “Athenian” Stuart (TJ to Paradise, 4 May 1786; MB 2 July 1788; Archibald B. Shepperson, John Paradise and Lucy Ludwell of London and Williamsburg [Richmond, 1942], p. 90).

15 Payne was proprietor of the York Hotel, Dover (R. Valpy, “A Short Sketch of a Short Trip to Paris in 1788,” The Pamphleteer, iii, No. 6 [1814], 493; Morris, Diary, i, 211 description begins Gouverneur Morris, A Diary of the French Revolution, ed. Beatrix Cary Davenport, Boston, 1939, 2 vols. description ends ).

16The reference is to Yorick’s encounter with the Franciscan in the first pages of Laurence Sterne’s A Sentimental Journey. TJ considered Sterne’s works “the best course of morality that ever was written” and found the incident of Yorick’s rebuke of the monk particularly instructive (TJ to Peter Carr, 10 Aug. 1787; TJ to Robert Skipwith, 3 Aug. 1771).

17Another Sterne character, Pierre Dessin, was proprietor of the magnificent Hôtel d’Angleterre, Calais (TJ to Dessin, 17 May 1786; Morris, Diary, i, 212-13 description begins Gouverneur Morris, A Diary of the French Revolution, ed. Beatrix Cary Davenport, Boston, 1939, 2 vols. description ends ; R. Valpy, “A Short Sketch of a Short Trip to Paris in 1788,” The Pamphleteer, iii, No. 6 [1814], 496-97).

18This and the grand total are fifteen livres greater than the sum of the given figures. TJ probably omitted a figure for one of the blank categories when transcribing this analysis into the MB from a work sheet.

19This was a benefit concert in the regular hall of the Concert Spirituel for two young harpists, Caroline and Sophie Descarsins, aged twelve and seven, who played works by J. B. Krumpholz, Louis Cardon, Jean Bernard Mayer, François Petrini, and Exupère de La Manière. Also on the program were a Haydn symphony, a new Clementi sonata, and works by Sacchini, Tommaso Traetta, and J. B. Davaux (Journal de Paris, 10 May 1786).

20The model of TJ’s design for the Virginia State Capitol, now in the Capitol at Richmond, did not arrive in Virginia until some time in 1787, well after work on the structure had begun (Papers, ix, xxvii description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; MB 2 June 1786). At some point TJ must have viewed Fouquet’s models of Grecian buildings on display in his atelier in the Rue Pagevin, just southeast of the Place des Victoires (Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 129 description begins Howard C. Rice, Jr., Thomas Jefferson’s Paris, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends ).

21 William Carmichael (d. 1795) was American chargé d’affaires at the court of Spain.

22As neither TJ nor Martha was ill at this time, TJ probably paid Dr. MacMahon for attendance from the time of his arrival in Paris.

23This large gold timepiece cost about 576 livres and pleased TJ so much that he persuaded two friends to order identical watches. It was made by Louis Chantrot, who did most of TJ’s Paris watchmaking and who made the identical watches for Nathaniel Barrett and James Madison. Chantrot was apparently working under François Meyer at this time and later styled himself Meyer’s successor. TJ at this time considered him “the best and most faithful hand in Paris” (TJ to Madison, 8 Feb. 1786, 17 Sep., 8 Oct. 1787; TJ to Barrett, 26 July 1787; Chantrot to TJ, 24 July 1791; MB 1 Mch. 1788; G. H. Baillie, Watchmakers and Clockmakers of the World [London, 1929], p. 66, 251).

24The book was Charles Louis Clérisseau’s own Antiquités de la France, which contained plates of the ancient monuments of Nîmes (Sowerby, No. 4209 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ). Clérisseau (1721-1820) had assisted TJ in his preparation of a design for the Virginia State Capitol based on the Maison Carrée at Nîmes. This payment was for draftsmen’s fees for the plans; Clérisseau would accept no compensation for his own work on the project and TJ had to find other means of expressing his appreciation (TJ-Clérisseau correspondence and invoice of 2 June 1786; TJ to Buchanan and Hay, 26 Jan. 1786, its note, and sources therein cited; MB 10 May 1787, 3 June 1789).

25TJ’s Pentecostal destination is not known, but he breakfasted near a structure he greatly admired, Jean Rodolphe Perronet’s now vanished Pont de Neuilly. Also at Neuilly was the celebrated Folie de Saint-James, which TJ at some point certainly visited. The house and elaborate English-style garden were designed by François Joseph Bélanger (Morris, Diary , i, 83 description begins Gouverneur Morris, A Diary of the French Revolution, ed. Beatrix Cary Davenport, Boston, 1939, 2 vols. description ends ; TJ to Anne W. Bingham, 7 Feb. 1787; Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 103-4 description begins Howard C. Rice, Jr., Thomas Jefferson’s Paris, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends ).

26 Jean Baptiste de Gouvion (1747-1792) was a veteran of American service during the Revolution and an intimate of Lafayette. Pierre Castaing (1751-1795?) had been aide-de-camp to General Duportail (André Lasseray, Les Français sous les treize étoiles [Macon, 1935], i, 146-7, 234). The 1784 interest referred to was the last American payment until shortly before TJ left France made to French officers who had served in the Revolution. For his role in appeasing these “needy and noisy creditors” of the new republic, see TJ to Commissioners of Treasury, 7 May, 26 Jan. 1786; TJ to George Washington, 2 May 1788; TJ to La Rouerie, 16 Sep. 1788; TJ to Gouvion, 5 June 1786, 19 Mch. and 15 Aug. 1789; and TJ to John Jay, 27 Aug. 1789.

27TJ saw the new and very popular Nina ou la folle par amour, with music by Nicolas Dalayrac and libretto by B. J. Marsollier de Vivetière. The program also included two old favorites: Nicolas Médard Audinot’s Le Tonnelier and Sedaine and Duni’s Les Sabots. In the role of the unfortunate Nina, Madame Dugazon had one of her greatest successes, despite her “dreadful wheeze or rather whistle in respiration” remarked by TJ (TJ to William Short, 29 Mch. 1787; Journal de Paris, 8 June 1786).

28The main piece was La Bonne Fille, a French version of Goldoni and Piccinni’s La Buona Figliuola, by Jean François Cailhava and Domenico Baccelli. It was accompanied by Les Amours d’été, a divertissement en vaudevilles by P. Y. Barré and Augustin de Piis (Journal de Paris, 12 June 1786).

29The Descarsins sisters were again featured, performing harp works of La Manière, J. G. Burkhoefer, and L. C. Ragué. The rest of the concert consisted of two Haydn symphonies, airs of Sarti and J. G. Naumann, a symphonie concertante by Davaux, and Sacchini’s oratorio, Esther (Journal de Paris, 15 June 1786).

30 Testu-Brissy’s balloon left the Luxembourg Gardens at 4:51 p.m. and landed eleven hours later, after two intermediate descents, seventy-five miles from Paris, near Breteuil. The balloon was equipped with six-foot taffeta-covered oars, which fell victim to the local peasantry on one of the descents. Testu’s account of his voyage is in Journal de Paris, 24 June 1786. See also Louis Figuier, Les Merveilles de la Science (Paris, 1867-70), ii, 488-9, where Testu’s balloon is illustrated.

31Correctly compte-pas. Although TJ returned this particular pedometer, he did buy at least two while in Paris and may have used one in preparing his undated memoranda on his walking pace and stride (DLC: TJ Papers, 41941; Papers, xi, 484 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

32“5 pieds 1½ pouces.” These matched bays brought only 432 livres when William Short sold them for TJ in 1790 (TJ to Anthony Garvey, 14 July 1785; Short account with TJ, DLC: TJ Papers, 12179).

33 Marc was dismissed for “embezzlements and depredations” (William Short to W. S. Smith, 6 Aug. 1786, Papers, x, 213-14 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ). Adrien Petit was promoted to the rank of maître d’hôtel and Espagnol, formerly David Humphreys’ servant, became TJ’s valet de chambre. For TJ’s comparison of Marc’s and Petit’s financial management, see MB 14 Dec. 1786.

34The Hermitage was probably the cottage in Montmorency, present No. 10 Rue de l’Ermitage, occupied in 1756 and 1757 by Jean Jacques Rousseau (L. V. Thiéry, Guide des amateurs . . . aux environs de Paris [Paris, 1788], p. 186). TJ doubtless dined with the Comtesse d’Houdetot at nearby Sannois on this date, having been invited for either 25 or 28 June. Thus in one day he visited both the site of composition and the source of inspiration of a work he admired, La Nouvelle Héloïse. Rousseau’s version of his passion for the Comtesse, in his Confessions, was not published until after TJ left France (D’Houdetot to TJ, 23 June 1786; TJ to St. John de Crèvecoeur, 11 July 1786; TJ to Robert Skipwith, 3 Aug. 1771; William Short to TJ, 30 Nov. 1789; TJ to Short, 6 Apr. 1790).

35 Nicolas Médard Audinot, playwright and manager of the Théâtre de l’Ambigu-Comique in Paris, had laid out an unusual garden in Cernay, just north of Sannois. It contained a pheasantry and an antique temple, but lacked any water source. By a “singulier stratagème,” Audinot had nevertheless managed to create the illusion of waterworks for nighttime visitors to his garden (J. C. Le Prieur, Description d’une partie de la vallée de Montmorenci, et de ses plus agréables jardins [Paris, 1784], p. 5-6).

36Ferdinand Grand’s use of Virginia funds for United States’ purposes, begun 16 Jan. 1786, ceased with this entry. TJ himself was responsible for temporarily filling Grand’s American account. He had persuaded the Commissioners of the Treasury to permit European use of over 100,000 livres in prize money John Paul Jones had obtained for the crew of the Bonhomme Richard (TJ to Commissioners, 26 Jan. 1786; TJ to Grand, 11 July 1786). The Commissioners’ letter of authorization, 9 May 1786, was received by TJ on 25 June 1786.

37Correctly 278livre tournois.

38TJ had these blinds, 7′ by 4′3″, shipped to Philadelphia in 1790; they were eventually used at Monticello (TJ to William Short, 6 Apr. 1790; Packing List 1790, Crates Nos. 56 and 80 description begins Itemized invoice of Grevin, maitre layetier, 17 July 1790. DLC: William Short Papers description ends ; Nichols, No. 147b, p. 15 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Architectural Drawings, ed. Frederick D. Nichols, 4th ed., Charlottesville, Va., 1978 description ends ).

39A muid was the equivalent of 268 liters. Soon after his arrival in Paris, TJ had viewed the two immense single-acting Watt steam engines which supplied the right bank of Paris with water from 1782 to 1852. Jacques Constantin and Auguste Charles Périer had erected them near the present Rue des Frères-Périer. Water from the Seine was pumped up to four reservoirs on a Chaillot hill; it could thus rise to the second floors of most subscribers’ houses. The Hôtel de Langeac had a room for bathing on the ground floor, as well as water closets, or “lieux à l’anglaise,” on the upper floors. See TJ to Rev. James Madison, 2 Oct. 1785; Thiéry, Guide, i, 44-51 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends ; and Howard C. Rice, L’Hôtel de Langeac (Paris and Monticello, 1947), p. 15.

40This is the wine paid for in October (MB 20 Oct. 1786).

41Finding it impossible to get “good and genuine” Madeira in Paris, TJ had ordered it from New York (TJ to Francis Lewis, 9 Feb. 1786; Lewis to TJ, 9 and 11 May 1786). Lafayette repaid TJ in 1788 (MB 3 Feb. 1788).

42TJ henceforth used the French term l’office instead of the word “household” in the category of household expenses.

43Eight titles for TJ’s collection of “the original Spanish writers on American history” were bought in Cadiz by Thomas Barclay for 127.9 Spanish dollars. John Richard was Barclay’s secretary (TJ to James Madison, 2 Aug. 1787; Barclay to TJ, 26 May 1786; TJ to Barclay, 3 Aug. 1787; Sowerby, Nos. 3932, 4084, 4097, 4107, 4110, 4127, and 4131 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

44TJ finally saw Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais’ La Folle Journée ou le Mariage de Figaro, which had opened in Apr. 1784 (Journal de Paris, 4 Aug. 1786; Sowerby, No. 4594 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

45On 6 Aug. the crowning of the rosière, “the most amiable, industrious and virtuous poor girl of the parish,” took place after the vespers service in the church of Suresnes. This kind of traditional village ceremony, beloved by Rousseau, had become a fashionable entertainment of the aristocracy. TJ was accompanied by William Short and John Trumbull, who had arrived in Paris the week before and was living at the Hôtel de Langeac (Trumbull, Autobiography, p. 98-9 description begins The Autobiography of Colonel John Trumbull, ed. Theodore Sizer, New Haven, 1953 description ends ; Journal de Paris, 6 Aug. 1786; Short’s “Journal of Expences from Decr. 1785,” 6 Aug. 1786, PHi). Trumbull’s account of his first three weeks in Paris, wherein TJ makes an occasional appearance, is in his Autobiography, p. 96-121.

46The impatient John Ledyard left for London at this time, just a few days before TJ learned that Catherine ii refused to sanction Ledyard’s plan to cross Russia (TJ to Ledyard, 16 Aug. 1786).

47It seems TJ may have satisfied his desire for an English riding horse. This sorrel, lame when TJ left France in 1789, was sold to the Comte de Langeac for 300 livres credit on house rent (TJ to Rayneval, 3 Mch. 1786; TJ to W. S. Smith, 4 June 1786; William Short to TJ, 25 Nov. 1789).

48TJ saw André Grétry’s L’Épreuve villageoise, with libretto by P.J.B. Desforges, and Rose, a sequel to the popular Fanfan et Colas, by Robineau de Beaunoir, who provided the libretto for the third piece on the program, Le Mariage d’Antonio, by Grétry’s thirteen-year-old daughter Lucile (Journal de Paris, 13 Aug. 1786).

49The charts were Joseph Priestley’s A Chart of Biography and A Chart of Universal History, with their descriptive pamphlets (TJ to John Stockdale, 24 July 1786; Stockdale to TJ, 8 Aug. 1786; Sowerby, No. 118 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

50Correctly 270livre tournois–1.

51The books are listed in John Stockdale to TJ, 8 Aug. 1786.

52 John Banister, Jr., son of TJ’s friend John Banister of Battersea, had arrived in Paris in June 1785 and was at this time touring France. By the time this young Virginian returned to America in 1787 TJ had lent him a total of 3,173livre tournois–19. In an interceding letter to the elder Banister, TJ diplomatically attributed Jack’s tremendous expenses to “the allurements of Paris.” A less diplomatic commentator later recalled that Banister had been “deeply enamour’d of an impure,” a certain Madame de Villecour. The deaths of both father and son in 1788 delayed TJ’s recovery of his advances until 1796 (TJ to Banister, Sr., 7 Feb. 1787; J. B. Cutting to William Short, 2 Aug. 1788, and Short to Banister, Jr., 4 May 1787, DLC: Short Papers; TJ to John Dunbar, 15 Dec. 1789; enclosure to TJ to Francis Eppes, 11 Mch. 1792; MB 31 July 1796).

53The galleries painted by Pierre Mignard and Jean Nocret in the palace of Saint-Cloud were destroyed in 1870; the park and its fountains, which were in full display on this Sunday, remain (L. V. Thiéry, Guide des amateurs . . . aux environs de Paris [Paris, 1788], p. 324-9). The date of TJ’s first meeting with Maria Cosway has never been determined with certainty. This date is one candidate, because TJ later referred to a visit to Saint-Cloud on the day they met (TJ to Mrs. Cosway, 12 Oct. 1786). For accounts of their meeting and their travels together about Paris in succeeding weeks, see Malone, Jefferson, ii, 70-3 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends , Kimball, Jefferson, iii, 162-70, and Helen Duprey Bullock, My Head and My Heart (New York, 1945), p. 21-6.

54TJ wrote this and all succeeding entries until 9 Nov. 1786 with his left hand (see below, note 65).

55The Bibliothèque du Roi, now the Bibliothèque Nationale (see Trumbull, Autobiography, p. 100-1 description begins The Autobiography of Colonel John Trumbull, ed. Theodore Sizer, New Haven, 1953 description ends ; Thiéry, Guide, i, 198-212 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends ).

56The Château de Madrid, built for François I and demolished in 1793, was in the Bois de Boulogne (Thiéry, Guide, i, 31-2 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends ).

57This is no doubt “the day we went to St. Germains,” happily recalled by TJ in his letter to Maria Cosway of 12 Oct. 1786. Jules Hardouin Mansart’s chateau at Marly was destroyed in the Revolution, but Claude Nicolas Ledoux’s pavilion at Louveciennes still stands. John Adams called it “the elegant retreat for devotion, Penitence and Mortification of Madam Dubarry,” who was often encountered in her English-style garden (Adams, Diary, iv, 121, ii, 318 description begins Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, ed. L. H. Butterfield, Cambridge, Mass., 1961, 4 vols. description ends ; Morris, Diary, i, 74).

58The program for this concert included two Haydn symphonies, airs of A. F. Gresnick and Giacomo Rust, Prosper Deshayes’ oratorio, Le Sacrifice de Jephté, and works by Henri Berton and Franz Lamotte (Journal de Paris, 8 Sep. 1786).

59Royal possessions, including arms and armor, furniture, tapestries, and jewels, were housed in what is now the Ministère de la Marine on the Place de la Concorde. TJ considered the façade of this building, by Ange Jacques Gabriel, a possible model for the President’s House in Washington (TJ to L’Enfant, 10 Apr. 1791; Thiéry, Guide, i, 97-8 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends ).

60Three or four lined out and illegible words follow. They may hold the only clue to the identity of the most expensive work of art TJ bought while in Paris. None of the catalogues of his art collection include the name of Adélaïde Labille-Guiard, one of the very few female members of the Academie Royale de Peinture. She was at the height of her fame in this period and could command large fees for her portraits. TJ may, therefore, have purchased a pastel or miniature.

61 Maria Cosway was probably with TJ at the Théâtre Italien, as TJ refers to one of the offerings, J. B. Claris de Florian’s arlequinade, Les Deux Billets, in his letter to her of 12 Oct. 1786. TJ had already seen the other works on the program: Grétry and Sedaine’s Richard Coeur de lion and Lucile Grétry’s Le Mariage d’Antonio (Journal de Paris, 9 Sep. 1786; Sowerby, No. 4597 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

62 Jean Valade sold TJ the portrait of Benjamin Franklin now at Monticello. TJ catalogued it as “an original drawn for the Abbe Very by Greusz,” but it is now known to be a copy after the “fur collar” portrait of Franklin by Joseph Silfrède Duplessis. One authority supposes that it was painted by Valade himself (Catalogue of Paintings, No. 21 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s “Catalogue of Paintings &c. at Monticello,” c. 1815. ViU description ends ; Valade to TJ, 24 Aug. 1787; Charles Coleman Sellers, Benjamin Franklin in Portraiture [New Haven and London, 1962], p. 253-4).

63While in London TJ had completed a design for a portable copying press using the same principle as his large Watt roller press. The press produced from this design by a London workman cost £5–10 and had arrived in Paris in July. TJ immediately set about having it duplicated for his friends by François Philippe Charpentier (1734-1817), a mécanicien working in the Louvre (TJ to W. S. Smith, 9 July 1786; TJ to William Carmichael, 26 Dec. 1786; TJ to James Madison, 30 Jan. 1787). Neither the English press nor any of Charpentier’s presses are known to have survived, but various TJ designs and specifications for small copying presses are in MHi, ViU, and DLC: TJ Papers, 22140-1. TJ was not the first to conceive a reduced version of the Watt patent press; portable presses, like TJ’s in the form of a small writing desk, were available in London by 1784 and apparently Charpentier had made portable copying presses before he received TJ’s commissions (W. T. Franklin to Benjamin Franklin, 13 Oct. 1784; Dupré to W. T. Franklin, 16 May 1785, PPAP: Franklin Papers).

64Located in the village of Chambourcy west of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the Désert was the creation of François Racine de Monville, assisted by François Barbier. This Anglo-Chinese garden was embellished with a variety of intentional ruins, the most striking of which was the dwelling house in the form of a broken column. It caused TJ’s “Heart” to exclaim: “How grand the idea excited by the remains of such a column! The spiral staircase too was beautiful” (TJ to Maria Cosway, 12 Oct. 1786). For full accounts and illustrations of the Désert, parts of which remain today, see Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 110-12 description begins Howard C. Rice, Jr., Thomas Jefferson’s Paris, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends , and Osvald Sirén, “Le Désert de Retz,” Architectural Review, cvi (1949), 327-32.

65On this date TJ dislocated his right wrist in a fall. According to the most contemporaneous report, the injury occurred when he attempted to jump a fence in the Cours-la-Reine. Both TJ’s daughter and Philip Mazzei, writing long after the event, reported that TJ was out for a walk when the accident occurred, and MJR added that he was “earnestly engaged in conversation” with a friend. While it has been conjectured that his companion was Maria Cosway, TJ’s manner of referring to the mishap in a letter of 1820 casts some doubt on this supposition. Interestingly, the Paris bookseller Goldsmith, who acted as TJ’s amanuensis after the injury, remembered twenty years later that TJ’s fall was from a horse (L. G. Le Veillard to W. T. Franklin, 20 Sep. 1786, in Papers, x, 432; Randall, Jefferson, ii, 456 description begins Henry S. Randall, The Life of Thomas Jefferson, New York, 1858, 3 vols. description ends ; Mazzei, Life, p. 412 description begins Philip Mazzei: My Life and Wanderings, trans. S. Eugene Scalia, ed. Margherita Marchione, Morristown, N.J., 1980 description ends ; TJ to Maria Cosway, 27 Dec. 1820; Goldsmith to TJ, 20 Apr. 1807). One of the two surgeons summoned to set the bones was Antoine Louis (1723-1792), permanent secretary of the Academy of Surgery and, according to TJ, the “best surgeon in Paris.” That the joint was not in fact well set became evident to TJ only after a long course of pain, poultices, and mineral baths. In 1788 he lamented: “I have forever lost the use of my hand, except that I can write, and a withered hand and swelled and crooked fingers still remaining 27. months after the accident make me fear I do not yet know the worst of it” (TJ to James Currie, 4 Aug. 1787; TJ to George Gilmer, 16 Dec. 1788). Although his condition seems to have considerably improved as time went on, in his old age the wrist stiffened so much that even writing was painful (TJ to Lafayette, 26 Dec. 1820). This accident ended TJ’s outings with Maria Cosway and forced him to postpone his proposed journey to the south of France. For the next month he was virtually confined to his house, neither attending Ambassador’s Day at Versailles nor following the Court to Fontainebleau (TJ to Vergennes, 15 Oct. 1786; TJ to John Trumbull, 13 Oct. 1786).

66This cabriolet, with the chariot bought in 1785, was sold in 1790 for 300 livres (MB 5 Mch. 1785). For a denunciation of the Parisian cabriolet, a “one-horse booby hutch,” and its impetuous drivers, see Young, Travels, p. 85 description begins Arthur Young, Travels in France and Italy during the Years 1787, 1788, and 1789, 1792, 1793, repr. London, 1942 description ends .

67At Saint-Denis TJ provided refreshments for the departing Cosways (TJ to Maria Cosway, 5 and 12 Oct. 1786; Mrs. Cosway to TJ, 5 Oct. 1786).

68As the export of arms was prohibited without special permission as well as being subject to export duties, TJ applied to Vergennes for a passport for the shipment of guns and ammunition bought for Virginia by Thomas Barclay (TJ to Vergennes, 16 Aug. 1786; see also TJ to Governor of Virginia, 24 Jan. 1786; TJ to John Bondfield, 8 Aug. and 2 Nov. 1786, 11 Jan. 1787; Bondfield to TJ, 12 Dec. 1786 and 30 Mch. 1787).

69James Madison, professing “a little itch to gain a smattering in Chymistry,” asked TJ to buy him Louis Bernard Guyton de Morveau’s “le Nécessaire chimique,” which consisted of two small boxes containing all the reagents and instruments required for a wide variety of mainly mineralogical experiments. Unable to find Guyton’s portable laboratory, TJ had his friend Louis Guillaume Le Veillard (1733-1794), an amateur chemist, find him something similar (Madison to TJ, 19 June 1786; TJ to Madison, 30 Jan. 1787; Bibliothèque Physico-économique, instructive et amusante, Année 1784 [Paris, 1785], p. 137-46; W. A. Smeaton, “The Portable Chemical Laboratories of Guyton de Morveau, Cronstedt and Göttling,” Ambix, xiii [1966], 85-6).

70TJ had imported from London a number of copies of David Ramsay’s History of the Revolution of South-Carolina to be lodged with the bookseller Froullé. He had heard that Ramsay’s London bookseller was about “to gut [the book] in order to accomodate it to the English pride and palate” and hoped that interested English readers would order the unadulterated version from France (TJ to Ramsay, 10 July 1786; Sowerby, No. 488 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ; Robert L. Brunhouse, “David Ramsay’s Publication Problems, 1784-1808,” Bibliog. Soc. Amer., Papers, xxxix [1945], 51-67).

71These books ordered from John Stockdale and James Lackington are listed in TJ to Stockdale, 13 Sep. 1786, and enclosure to TJ to William S. Smith, 13 Sep. 1786.

72TJ had ordered Bordeaux wine “of fine quality” in Jan. 1786. He received 144 bottles of claret, evidently Château Haut-Brion, which he found “excellent,” and 144 bottles of white Graves, “a little hard” (TJ to John Bondfield, 24 Jan. and 8 Aug. 1786; Thomas Barclay to TJ, 24 Feb. 1786; Bondfield to TJ, 14 Oct. 1786). Of this bill, 119livre tournois–18–9 was for foodstuffs sent at TJ’s order to Francis Eppes.

73Goldsmith was acting as TJ’s amanuensis in this period (see Goldsmith to TJ, 20 Apr. 1807).

74This All Saints’ Day concert included a symphony of L. C. Ragué and works by Sarti, Mysliviček, Leopold Kozeluch, J. C. Vogel, François Petrini, A. F. Gresnick, and Isidore Bertheaume (Journal de Paris, 1 Nov. 1786).

75 Chaplain, maitre sellier bourrelier in the Rue de Caumartin, tended the contents of TJ’s carriage house throughout his stay in Paris (Chaplain invoice, 10 Nov. 1786, DLC: Short Papers). This “new” cabriolet, perhaps made to TJ’s specifications, followed him to Philadelphia in 1790 (TJ to William Short, 6 Apr. 1790).

76This plated harness for TJ’s chariot and cabriolet, which cost £25–4, had arrived at the Paris customs office in October and, as an article of contraband, languished there for over a month. TJ finally achieved its release by applying to Comptroller General Calonne. Although he believed his diplomatic privileges included the right to free import of both prohibited and dutiable items, TJ waived his right to exemption from duty in this case (see MB 1 Dec. 1786; TJ to W. S. Smith, 9 July, 10 Aug. and 22 Oct. 1786; Smith’s account with TJ, 3 Dec. 1787, MHi; Vergennes to TJ, 4 Nov. 1786; TJ to Colonia, 22 Nov. 1786; TJ to Durival, 13 Apr. 1789). TJ found the act of soliciting passports disagreeable and preferred “to pay small sums of money rather than to ask favors” (TJ to John Jay, 21 June 1787).

77These were more copies of David Ramsay’s History of the Revolution (see above, note 70).

78With this entry TJ resumed transcribing into these accounts with his right hand.

79This payment was for seventy-two bottles of Madeira Malmsey. TJ also received at this time 140 bottles of Portuguese wine costing 450 livres, which were paid for by his banker Ferdinand Grand (Lefévre, Roussac & Cie. to TJ, 1 and 11 July, 12 Sep. 1786; TJ to Lefévre, Roussac & Cie., 8 Aug. 1786; “Abstract of charges against Thomas Jefferson,” DLC: TJ Papers, 14958).

80Actually 404livre tournois–5–6. TJ failed to erase the “1” when he recomputed the total after changing the figure for “Washing.”

81In 1805 TJ wrote that he “was intimate with the Abbé Rochon having myself tried several of his processes,” one of which was no doubt Rochon’s method of engraving (TJ to J. P. Reibelt, 5 May 1805; Papers, x, 324-6 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ). Some of the silver forks bought in Aug. 1784 and now at Monticello are rather crudely engraved “Th: J,” possibly by TJ himself.

82TJ saw Beaunoir’s Fanfan et Colas and a revival of Grétry and Favart’s L’Amitié à l’épreuve (Journal de Paris, 2 Dec. 1786; Sowerby, No. 4598 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

83TJ saw Jean François Collin d’Harleville’s successful first comedy L’Inconstant, which had opened in June. It was accompanied by Les Trois Cousines by Florent Carton de Dancourt (Journal de Paris, 4 Dec. 1786).

84Phoca, a seal.

85It was probably at this point that TJ went back over the 1786 MB, entering the number of dinners in the weekly household accounts (see MB 2 Feb. 1786, note 30).

86For the copying press and apparatus paid for in November (MB 4 and 7 Nov. 1786).

87TJ may have seen a figure of Frederick the Great, who had died in August, in the cabinet de cire in the Palais-Royal. One visitor thought this wax portrait the most lifelike in this gallery formed by P.G.M. Curtius (1737-1794), the uncle of Madame Tussaud (Thiéry, Guide, i, 273 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends ; Cradock, Journal, p. 59-60 description begins Journal de Madame Cradock, trans. Mme. O. Delphin Balleyguier, Paris, 1896 description ends ; E. J. Pyke, A Biographical Dictionary of Wax Modellers [Oxford, 1973], p. 34-5).

88TJ also bought a copy of Ordonnances et Règlemens concernant la Marine, published in Paris in 1786 (Sowerby, No. 2222 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ; TJ to James Madison, 2 Aug. 1787).

89The Théâtre des Variétés Amusantes was a stage for farce and light comedy at the Palais-Royal. The young John Quincy Adams marveled at the tremendous popularity with the upper classes of this and other Parisian petits spectacles, which in his opinion offered “nothing but low buffoonery, and scurrility,” the plays being both witless and “very indecent” (Diary of John Quincy Adams, ed. David Grayson Allen et al. [Cambridge, Mass., 1981], i, 212-14; Max Aghion, Le Théâtre à Paris au xviiie siècle [Paris, 1926], p. 279-82, 288-92). TJ may have attended the Variétés the previous night, when the program was Desenne’s Le Revenant ou les Deux Grenadiers, L.J.H. Dancourt’s Jacquot et Colas duellistes, and Thomas d’Hèle’s Gilles ravisseur (Journal de Paris, 28 Dec. 1786).

90Although David Franks had intended these coins as a gift, TJ sent him three louis in a “packet,” which Franks acknowledged in an undated, but probably 29 Dec. 1786, letter printed in Papers, x, 651-2 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends .

91 Charles François Chandéon, Chevalier de La Valette (see TJ to La Valette, 31 Dec. 1786).

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