Thomas Jefferson Papers
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Memorandum Books, 1785


Jan. 4.
Pd. Marc  Dec. 27.—Jan. 2.
livre tournois
postage 2
washing 22 – 8
hhd. repairs  12
traiteur 140
hhd. xp. 99 – 4
275 –12
7. Pd. pr. slippers 6f.
8. Pd. portage piano forte28 1f4.
9. Pd. Molini for books 18f.
10. Pd. for a picture with six figures 24f.
11. Recd. of Monsr. Grand for the U. S. 4000f.
Pd. Wm. Short 1000f.
Pd. Marc.  Jan. 3.—9
livre tournois    s
postage 4–  7
dress 7– 10
traiteur 92–
hhd. xp.  82– 15–6
189– 12–629
12. Pd. for books 5f8—gave Patsy 12f.
13. Pd. Royez for books 154f10.
Pd. do. do. for J. Madison 3f.
Gave a servt. 6f.
14. Pd. at Petit Dunquerque30 for pr. large candlesticks 72f.
Gave James 6f.
15. Pd. for pr. handirons 112f—pd. for paper 1f10.
18. Pd. Molini for books 96f.
Pd. Marc  10—16
livre tournois  
washing 8– 10
dress 17
charity 9 
postage 5– 10
hhd. furn.  14– 18
trifles 3– 18
traiteur 118–
hhd. xp. 127–  3
288 –  431
Pd. Marc for plaisterer 28–5—for paper hangings 363livre tournois–16s.
Pd. at Pet. Dunq. for pr. small candlesticks 36f.
Pd. at do. for do. for etrennes for Patsy 36f.
Jan. 21. Pd. for 2. pictures 9livre tournois.
22. Garçon 1f4—for seeing Beaujon’s hermitage32 6f.
Pd. for socks 3livre tournois—gloves 4livre tournois—waistcoat 48livre tournois.
23. Gave garçon 1f4.
24. Pd. for gum elastic 3f10—bird organ33 18f.
Pd. Marc  for Jan. 17—23. viz.
livre tournois  
postage 6–
dress 3 
traiteur 119– 10
hhd. exp.  100– 17–6
229–  7–6
livre tournois
Pd. do.  for 6. voies of new wood 144
carriage, cutting, drink money &c.   17–2
   livre tournois
do.  for Bouché balance for hhd. furniture  233–12
for paper hangings 109– 5
for hhd. repairs, a menuisier  44–
27. Pd. for a picture 6f.
28. Pd. Royez for books 183f5.
29. Pd. for dial 12f—lent Mr. Short 90f—pd. for a prism 9f.
31. Pd. Gouyon chart. hire for the month 384f.
Pd. for books 41f12.
Feb. 1. Recd. of Mr. Grand for the United states 4000f.
livre tournois
Pd. servts.  Marc 100
Le grand 50
Vendome 62
le Frotteur  50
Pd. Marc  Jan. 24—30 towit
livre tournois
postage 2 –17
dress 8
washing 12 –11
drink money  6
hhd. exp. 128 –10
traiteur 90
hhd. furn. 14
261 –18
4. Pd. Frouillé for books 207f—Williamos 20 ℔ bougies 50f—Patsy 6f.
6. Pd. for shoes 7f Mazzard.
7. Pd. La Forest, pedicure 12f.
Feb. 8.
Pd. Marc.  Jan. 31. to Feb. 6. viz.
livre tournois  s
washing 15–  8
postage 11
medecine 6–  0
hhd. repairs 18–  2
hhd. furniture  26–
hhd. expences 113–  5
Traiteur 96–
275–  6
10. Recd. of W. Short 90f—paid for books 26f—for 2000 lre. covers 25f.
11. Pd. Royez for books 12f.
12. Pd. La Fontaine balance for 2. locks 42f.
Pd. for  Code de l’humanité34 for J. Madison 104f.
do. for E. Randolph (in excha. for the vols. of Buffon)35 104f.
do. for myself in sheets 78f.
14. Gave Patsy 6f.
Pd. Marc  from Feb. 7—13. viz.
livre tournois    s
postage 1– 11
charity 10–  4
for Patsy 5– 10
Medecine 21– 12
hhd. furniture  64–  0
hhd. exp. 98–  2
traiteur 126–  0
326– 19
16. Pd. Mazzard for pr. galoches 7f—pd. for pictures 15f.
17. Pd. Royez for books 31f.
18. Pd. for a waistcoat 24f.
19. Pd. Marc for 6. voies of new wood, cartg. cuttg. &c. 159f17.
Pd. for lantherns 30f.
21. Pd. Dumoussay freres, Alexr. Moore’s excha. on me in favor of N. Tracy for £14–7–1 sterl. 360f6 excha. being @ 281116d for the ecu. This was for porter & cheese to my order.36
Pd. for books 6f—a table à trois fins 2 pi. 6 po.37 diam. 84f. (I found marble.)
Pd. Marc.  Feb. 14—20
livre tournois    s
postage 1–  3
dress 7– 10
washing 16–  8
hhd. repairs  4– 18
hhd. exp. 97– 11
traiteur 96 
medecine 8–  8
231– 18
Feb. 22. Pd. do. for the painter 38f pd. for a picture 6f.
Pd. 12th. livraison of Encyclopedie 36f10—for a picture 104f.38
23. Pd. for pictures 33f.—for books 2f2.
25. Pd. for pictures 135f.
26. Pd. for pictures 101f—for do. 141f.
27. Mr. Short puts into my hands to keep for him 2000f.39
28. Pd. Gouyon chariot hire for the month 384f.
Pd. for paper, & pens 19f16.
Pd. Bodouin, chirurgeon 72f.
Mar. 1. Recd. of Monsr. Grand for the U. S. 4000f.
Pd. Marc.  Feb. 21.—27. viz.
livre tournois    s
Medecine 2–  8
washing 10–  2
postage 1–
portage 4–  4
dress 23–  2
servts. dress  5– 10
hhd. rep. 1– 10
hhd. exp. 80–  2
traiteur 107 
234– 18
Pd. do.  servants wages for the month. viz.
livre tournois    
Marc 100
Legrand 50
le Frotteur   50
Vendome 56
a charity 9
265 .
Pd. do. for Barbier & Tetard marchds. de Damas 1500f.
Pd. do. for marble of a Console 36f. for do. of a table à 3. fins 30f.
Pd. for pictures 60f.
Borrowed of Mr. Williamos 6f—pd. for pictures 72f10—for do. 5f11.
Pd. for a threefold table 36f (Note I found marble which cost 30f.).
Pd. for a watch for James 46f.
Mar. 2. Pd. for music 20f14—for pictures 12f—lent Williamos 12f.
Pd. for a lanthern 6f. (reverbere)
3. Pd. for a music stand 36f—pd. 2. months hire of Pianoforte 24f.
4. Pd. for books 2f.
5. Pd. for books 15f.
Bot. a chariot,40 for which with the repairs to be done by owner I am to give 800f. Pd. him 12f arrhès.
Agreed with another for other repairs to give 150f and pd. him 12f earnest money.
6. Pd. Corneillon for a picture 24f—pd. for book 2f8.
7. Pd. for music 7f4.
8. Pd. a serrurier acct. for iron work done 536f7.
Analysis of the serrurier’s acct. livre tournois  
for  Pit coal 6–  0
necessary changes in the house 115– 14
bells, furniture for them, & hangg. them  206–  9
repairs of hhd. furniture 2–  0
a coal skuttle 18–  0
a coffee mill 15–  0
Console (the marble had cost 36) 37–  0
7. pr. lawn curtains41 15– 18
red damask window curtains. 3. pr. 20– 10
blue damask window curtains 3. pr. 24–  3
blue damask bed curtains 9–
red calico window curtains. 2. pr. 13–  4
red calico bed curtains. 2 sets. 51– 13
error in addition some where 1– 16
536–  7
Pd. Marc  Feb. 28.—Mar. 6. viz.
livre tournois  
arrearages of etrennes  15 
medecine 5 
dress 29–  3
trifles 5–  4
postage 4–  9
portage 3 
hhd. repairs 0–  8
hhd. furniture 13– 10
hhd. expences 121–  3
traiteur 139–
335–  342
Pd. for 22 buttons 55f.
Mar. 8. Pd. at Cabinet of medals43 6f.
9. Pd. for medecine 4f.
10. Pd. for a threefold table (table à 3. fins) 33f.
11. Pd. portage of Genl. Washington’s picture44 13f8.
Pd. for a shell & designs 17f10.
Pd. for a waistcoat 42f—book 7f10.
14. Pd. Royez for books 9f—pd. for picture 24f.
Pd. Marc  for March 7—13. to wit
livre tournois  s
trifles 1–  4
medecine 4– 16
portage 12
hhd. furnitre.   4–
hhd. xp. 55–  5
traiteur 105–  0
170– 17
Pd. for books 12f12.
Pd. for green marocco for chariot @ 8f10 pr. ℔ 60f. Note a pound is the weight of a middle sized skin.
16. Pd. Marc for 6. voies of wood 144f. cartg. cuttg. &c. 14f8.
17. Pd. for books 4f4.
Pd. Jonathan Williams for  bottles Madeira &  of rum 180f.
18. Lent Mr. Williamos 48f—pd. at Madelaine45 1f4.
19. Pd. for a picture 72f.
22. Pd. for visiting cards 15f—bookbinder 21f.
Pd. Marc.  from March 14—20. viz.
livre tournois  
dress 8– 14
medecine 6 
washing 14– 14
traiteur 124–
hhd. exp.  143–  2
296– 10
Pd. for my chariot to the person of whom I bought it 788livre tournois.
25. Pd. for books 9f10.—6 china plates 6f—glasses 6f4.
26. Pd. for books 21f10. of which 9f10 was for Jas. Madison.
Sent Patsy 12f.
28. Pd. for model of Hydraulic engine46 18f.
Pd. for books 20f8.
Mar. 29.
Pd. Marc  from 21—27. viz.
Medecine 6–  8
washing 17– 11
postage 1–  3
traiteur 96–
hhd. exp.  63–
184–  2
31. Pd. for books 14f.
Apr. 1. Recd. of Mr. Grand on acct. of United States 5000f.
Pd. Marc months wages to servts. & chariot hire & a quarter’s rent for house, viz.
     livre tournois
Marc 100
Legrand 50
Frotteur 50
Vendome 62
Mr. Gouyon 384
Mr. Gueraut  1500
2. Pd. for a churn 20f—gave in charity 9f.
3. Pd. Vendome on his discharge 12f.
Pd. ticket to Concert Spirituel47 6f.
Pd. Marc.  from Mar. 28.—to Apr. 3.
livre tournois    s   
postage 0– 17
medecine 3– 12
traiteur 91–
hhd. exp.  92–  6
187– 15
Pd. for book 6f12.—pictures 72f. portage 12s.
6. Pd. for books 6f.
8. Pd. for pictures 8f12—medecine 3f4.
9. Pd. Mazzard galoches 7f—11. Pd. 6 fauteuils & 2 bergeres, crimson 198f.
Pd. Marc.  Apr. 4.—10. livre tournois    s
dress 7– 14
postage 1–  3
portage 30–  3
medecine 4– 16
hhd. furniture 54–  3
wine. 14. bott. Bourd.  31– 18
hhd. exp. 89– 10
Traiteur 96–
315–  7
Apr. 13. Pd. for pictures 132.f. 8. aunes of lustring 58f.
Pd. Mazzard for a pr. of pumps 6f.
14. Pd. for a table à trois fins 84f. (I found marble.)
Pd. for books 9f.
15. Pd. Mr. Williamos for 12. ℔ bougies 27f portage 1f4 1. ℔ sealing wax 8f.

livre tournois  
Pd. Marc. for  4. voies of wood, carting &c.  111– 16
5. bottles of wine 15– 16
a reveille watch 54–
181– 12
Pd. for a frame to Gl. Washington’s picture 51f.
Pd. for frames to my own pictures 336f10.
Pd. for 3. waistcoats, knitting 66f—ticket to Italn. comedy48 6f.
Sent Patsy 6f.
20. Recd. for the State of Virginia amt. of bill of exchange49 of Wm. Alexander & co. on Mess. Laval & Wilfelsheim bankers at Paris for 8957 livres 11 sous.
Pd. Marc.  Apr. 11—17.
Medecine 4– 16
portage 1– 10
postage 1– 10
hhd. furniture  18–
hhd. exp. 58– 15
Traiteur 82–
166– 11
Pd. for a waistcoat 24f—for a Pendule 120f.—medecine 3f.
21. Pd. Dupuis, Marchd. de fer50 in full 1730livre tournois–16s.
Pd. Bohain, tapissier, in part 1264f.
22. Pd. for books 9f10.
24. Pd. for a book 2f.
Pd. Marc.  Apr. 18—24. viz. livre tournois  
12. bottles of Frontignac.  32– 10
Patsy 20– 14
trifles 4– 10
dress 3 
washing 20–  8
medecine 4– 16
postage 1–  2
hhd. furniture 33– 18
hhd. expences 144– 13
traiteur 216– 18
482–  9
Apr. 28. Pd. for china 125livre tournois–8s—a book 1f16—Opera tickets51 15f.
30. Pd. for a picture 48f—2 camp stools 12f.
Pd. Gouyon chariot hire 384f.
Pd. Bohain, tapissier in full 1213livre tournois–2.


livre tournois
Pd. servts. wages. viz.  Marc 100
Frotteur 50
Cocher 54
charity 9
Le Grand 50
gave Le Grand  22
2. Pd. 2 months hire of Pianoforte 24f.
Pd. at Panthemont for Patsy 1000f.
Inclosed to Mr. Short by his servt. 200f.
Gave Patsy 6f.
Pd. Marc  Apr. 25—1 May
livre tournois  
hhd. repairs 6– 16
postage 8–  9
portage 1–  4
servts. clothes  17– 10
medecine 3– 12
washing 23– 11
hhd. exp. 86– 11–6
traiteur 87–  0–0
234– 13–6
Pd. Upton mendg. a table 50f10.
5. Pd. ticket to Concert spirituel 6f.52
6. Gave the porter at Houdon’s53 3f—pd. for waistcoat 24f.
7. Pd. for a cane 9f—8. Pd. for a hat 24f.
13. Pd. Mr. Short 1000f.
Pd. Marc.  May 2—8.
livre tournois  
dress 8–  2
servts. clothes 6 
postage 1– 19
medecine 3– 12
hhd. furniture 1– 10
hhd. expences 195– 16
traiteur 212–
428– 19
portage & duties on wine Bourdeaux54 90–  1 –3
519–  0 –3
Recd. Mr. Grand for U. S. 4000f.
May 13. Pd. for pr. gloves 1f4.
14. Gave in charity 6f.
15. Pd. Mme. le Loir lingere for 6. shirts 230f6 (linen @ 10f).
Pd. the graveur 24f.55
17. Pd. chair hire at Versailles 3f.56
18. Pd. Royez books in full 66f—Mr. Adams for wine 60f.
19. Pd. Hamerville57 bookbinding 96f8.
Pd. Marc  for Tetard marchand de Damas 1593livre tournois–7–6
for servant 40f8
for painter of my chariot 201f12
for portage & duty of wine bot. of Mr. Adams 57livre tournois–16–9.
Pd. do.  from May 9—16
livre tournois  
hhd. utensils  8– 17
servts. 1–  4
for Patsy 3–  2
packages 5–  8
dress 1– 10
medecine 3– 12
traiteur 160–
hhd. exp. 108–  9
292–  2
Repd. Monsr. La Motte for Dr. Franklin portage of letter press58 18f.
22. Petit comes into my service.59
23. Paid Derosme60 bookbinding 156f13.
Pd. Royez for the 13. first livraisons of the Encyclopedie for James Madison of Orange 348f.
Gave Alexr. Learmonth a poor American 36f.
25. Pd. engraver of my cyphers61 48f.
27. Inclosd. W. Short to pay for 88 bottles Madeira @  300f.
28. Pd. Marc for the marble of a threefold table 36f.
Pd. do.  May 16—22.
livre tournois  
furniture 16–  0
Patsy 12– 12
portage 9–
postage 3– 15
dress 8– 14
medicine 3– 12
hhd. repairs 29– 10
hhd. expences  98– 15
Traiteur 83 
2 64– 18
May 28. Pd. Marc for Le Rasle for servts. clothes 196f13.
Pd. for Hammercloth of chariot 72f.
29. Ticket to French comedy62 6f.
30. Gave in charity 24f.
31. Pd. Gouyon chariot hire 333f16.
June 1. Gave Ledyard63 of Connecticut 120f.
Recd. of Mr. Grand for the U. S. 4000f.
Pd. servants wages. viz.  Marc 100 f
Cocher 60
Frotteur  50
Petit 16
Pd. Marc.  May 23—29. livre tournois  
stationary 1– 16
portage & duties Madeira wine  31– 14–6
portage 3–  0
postage 3– 12
Patsy 3–  6
furniture 1– 16
servants 4–  4
washing 19– 15
hhd. expences 148– 12–6
traiteur 218– 16
436– 12
Pd. Sellier for work & furniture to chariot in full 369f.
2. Repd. Petit for portage &c. of Mr. Adams’s things 173f8.
3. Pd. a month’s hire of Piano forte 12f.
Pd. for table to copying press64 54f.
Pd. for little repairs of furniture 18f—books 5f8.
Pd. 4. pr. thread stockings 24f 3 pr. cotton do. 24f.
6. Gave in charity 9f—Patsy 6f.
7. Pd. Frouillé 1369livre tournois–7s.65
Marc.  May 30.—June 5.
livre tournois  
postage 20–  6
repairs of carriage   8–  6
charity 9–
Patsy 2– 11
medecine 7–  4
traiteur 140–
hhd. exp. 117–  5–6
servants clothes 15–
319– 12–6
June 10. Pd. Mazzard 1. pr. pumps 6f.
13. Pd. subscription for seats66 at the Thuileries 3f12.
14. Gave Patsy 6f.
15. Pd. a Menuisier 3f.
Pd. Marc  June 6—12
livre tournois  
postage 13–  3
dress 7–  4
washing 29–  2
medecine  3– 12
trifles 5–
Patsy 7–  6
hhd. exp. 119–  5–6
traiteur 124–
308– 12–6
Pd. do. for servants’ clothes 44–1–6.
Pd. for picture frames 102livre tournois.
16. Pd. for a map 3f.
19. Pd. bookbinder 37f16—pd. Lonpry (taylor) for clothes 282f.
20. Pd. breakfast at St. Denis67 3f18—gave for seeing church 6f.
21. Pd. Corneillon for a picture 54f.
Pd. Marc  June 13—19. viz.
livre tournois  
dress 4– 10
medecine 3–
postage 2–  1
houshd. expences  58–  3
traiteur 81–
148– 14
23. Gave Patsy 6f.
25. Pd. for pocket book 6f—2 pr. gloves 3f12—2 tooth brushes 1f4.
Pd. for a gilet of cotton 24f—washg. a do. 1f10—Lonpry for silk do. 16f.
Pd. De Bras for books 29f.
27. Pd. ferrge., breakfast, & coach hire king’s garden68 3f16—maps 6f10.
July 1. Received of Mr. Grand for the United States 4000f.
Pd. a month’s hire of Piano forte 12f.
Pd. Gouyon chariot69 hire 300f.
Pd. Marc  weekly bill June 20—26 viz.
livre tournois  
postage 11–  3
paper 16– 19–6
medecine 3– 12
repairs of chariot  10–
servants clothes 1– 16
Patsy 15
washing 3–
dress 6– 16
Traiteur 130–
hhd. exp. 88– 11
272– 12–6
Pd. Marc  servts. wages
livre tournois
Marc 100
Petit 60
Cocher 60
Frotteur  50
Pd. do. for Gueraud for a quarter’s rent 1500f.
3. Pd. for maps 18f.
4. Pd. for prints 1f4.
5. Pd. Jno. Bondfeild’s bill in favr. Monsr. Parmentier for 24 doz. wine70 590f8.
Pd. Marc  June 27.—July 3. viz.
livre tournois  
books 3 
medecine  3– 12
traiteur 75–
hhd. exp. 64– 18
146– 10
7. Pd. a guide at Vincennes71 1f4.
8. Pd. Royez for books 50f12.
Gave Patsy 6f. livre tournois  
Pd. Marc.  July 4—10. viz. Medecine  5–  6
stationary 2– 10
postage 7–  3
washing 1–  0
hhd. utensils 7– 10
hhd. exp. 227–  1
traiteur 230– 72
480– 10
July 14. Pd. Lonpry the tailor for a coat 72f.
Gave porter for seeing Houdon’s Diana in bronze73 3f.
15. Pd. Mr. Short in full 786f5. Note the cost of the wine ante May 27. was 286f5.
Pd. subscription for seats in the Champs elysees 3f12 apricots 4s.
17. Pd. apricots 6s. postage 1f.
Recd. of Mr. Grand for United states 10,000f as lent to Virginia so to be charged in the acct. of Virginia with the U. States.74
18. Advanced to Houdon for the state of Virginia 10,000f.75
19. Pd. chair hire at Versailles 1f4.
Charities at different times have been about 24f.
Pd. Marc  for July 11—17 livre tournois  
houshd. utensils 13– 10
washing 56–  3
dress 4– 12
medecine 3–  2
estampe 2– 10
portage of books76 frm. Passy  4–  4
postage 4– 17
Traiteur 85 
hhd. exp. 88–  9
262–  7
24. Pd. the Imprimeur en taille douce for stamping77 50f.
25. Gave Patsy 4f16.
Pd. Marc  from July 18—24. viz.
livre tournois  
hhd. repairs 15–  0
hhd. utensils  12
medecine 3–  2
postage 4– 19
hhd. exp. 140–  5
traiteur 153–
316– 18
Aug. 1. Recd. of Mr. Grand for the United states 4000f.
Pd. for books 18f.
Pd. Marc  month’s wages of servants viz.
livre tournois       
Marc 100
Petit  60
Cocher  60
Frotteur    50
charity  9
Pd. do. for Gouyon 300livre tournois.
Pd.  do. for Monsr. Pierre for printing for myself78 1130livre tournois–4.
do. for do. printing for Unitd. States, viz. 200 passports79 18livre tournois.
Pd. Marc  exp. from July 25—31. viz.
livre tournois  s   
postage 3–  9
medecine   10–
dress 7– 14
repairs 1–  4
hhd. exp. 100–  9
traiteur 90–
212– 16
Gave Patsy 12f.
3. Pd. for books 30f.
Pd. Lonpry the taylor for breeches 26f.
Pd. month’s hire of Piano forte 12f.
8. Pd. seeing the windlass plough80 3f.
Pd. Mark  exp. from Aug. 1.—7. viz.
livre tournois     
Medecine 5– 12
dress 4– 18
postage 5–  8
hhd. utensils  2– 12
hhd. exp. 66–  4
traiteur 80–
164– 14
10. Pd. for another year of Leyden gazette 36f.
Do. Courier de l’Europe 48f.
11. Lent P. Mazzei 600f.
12. Pd. for Music 9f.
15. Acceptd. Houdon’s bill on me for 2724livre tournois–6s–6d to be charged to Virginia.
Desired Mr. Grand to pay it. Credit the U. S. with it.
Pd. Marc  Aug. 8.—14. viz.
livre tournois  
postage 24– 15
servants’ clothes  6–
medecine 3– 12
portage 1– 16
washing 42–
hhd. exp. 96– 16
traiteur 128–
302– 19
Pd. at Concert spirituel81 12f.
Aug. 16. Pd. for 2. pr. gloves 3f12.
17. Pd. Mr. Garvey’s bill in favr. of Perigaux for Mr. Adams 96livre tournois–16–6.82
19. Pd. Royez for books for myself 32f[8].
Pd. do. for Jas. Madison 14th. livraison of Encyclopedie 24f Peyssonel83 2f0.
Gave James 12f.
22. Pd. for books 6f.
Pd. Marc  Aug. 15.—21. viz.
livre tournois  
postage 99– 1284
dress 14–  4
medecine  3–  4
hhd. exp. 79–  8
traiteur 75–
271–  8
25. Pd. chair hire at Versailles 1f4 postage 12f.
28. Pd. bookbinding to Hammerville 174f. Note 60f15 of that was for J. Madison.
29. Pd. at a coffee house for 2. ices 1f4.
Pd. Marc  Aug. 22—28. viz.
livre tournois  
postage 6–  6
Patsy 18–
books 0– 18
medecine  3– 12
hhd. exp. 50– 15
traiteur 70–
149– 11
Sep. 1. Recd. of Mr. Grand for the United states 4000f.
livre tournois
Pd. Marc servants wages. viz.  himself 100
Petit 60
Cocher 60
Frotteur 50
in Charity   9 279
Pd. do. for Gouyon for horse hire 300
     for Panthemont 1000
     for the Mr. Fitzhughs,85 in loan 600
     for seeds 27 – 8
     2. trunks & paper for J. Madison 43 –16
2250 – 4
Pd. subscription for Journal de Paris, the ensuing year 30f.
Sep. 2. Lent Colo. Franks 200f86—gave Patsy 6f.
5. Pd. Colo. Franks to buy shoes for me 48f.
Pd. Marc.  Aug. 29.—Sep. 4.
livre tournois  
postage 7– 14
servts. clothes  6–  0
dress 8–  3
hhd. exp. 129– 16
traiteur 153–
304– 13
Pd. Goldsmith for books 4f.
Month’s hire of Piano forte 12f.
8. Signed the lease87 for the Count de Langeac’s house.
9. Pd. Noseda88 for a thermometer 12f.
10. Notified Gueraud of my terminating the lease of his house.
Pd. Goldsmith for books 11f10—pd. for books 12s.
12. Pd. for map 1f16—for lemonade 6s.
Pd. Marc  Sep. 5—11. viz.
hhd. utensils  24–  5
trifles 20–  6
postage 4–  7
medecine 3– 12
chariot 21–  5
hhd. exp. 76– 16
traiteur 80–
230– 11
15. Pd. Goldsmith for books 9f.
Pd. for 2. gouffres89 4s.
16. Ferrge. backwards & forwards 1f4 breakfast 14s.
Pd. Sabatier90 48f gave at the school of the blind91 24f.
17. Gave Patsy 6f.
18. Pd. postage 246f5.
19. Pd. Royez for books 4f.
Pd. Marc.  Sep. 12—19. viz.
livre tournois  
postage 9– 19
medecine 2–  8
dress 8–  4
carriage 9–
washing 50–  4
contingencs.  12–  8
hhd. exp. 90–  1
traiteur 74–
256–  4
Sep. 22. Pd. Goldsmith for books 46f10.
23. Gave Hicks92 an American 12f.
24. Pd. Goldsmith for books 18f—pd. at Coffee H. 18s.
26. Borrowed of Col. Humphries 6f—pd. at Italn. comedy93 6f.
28. Pd. for music 1f4—a bell 1f4—repd. Colo. Humphries 6f.
Pd. Marc  Sep. 19—26. viz.
livre tournois  
washing 2 
furniture 3– 18
medecine  10–  2
postage 46–  9
hhd. exp. 80–  9
traiteur 85–
227– 18
30. Gave Patsy 3f.
Oct. 2. Pd. Goldsmith for books 4f18.
3. Recd. from Mr. Grand for U. S. 6000f.
livre tournois
Pd.  Marc 100 
Petit 60 
Cocher 60 
Frotteur 50 
in charity  9 
Pd. Gouyon horse hire 300f.
Pd. le Comte de Langeac the last 6. months house rent 3750livre tournois.
4. Pd. Goldsmith for books 18f.
Pd. Marc  Sep. 26.—Oct. 2.
livre tournois  
postage 10–  0
gazette Mercure94 30–
medecine 13– 12
clothes 13–  0
Patsy 21– 10
contingencies 8–  0
hhd. exp. 104–  8
traiteur 155–  0
355– 10
Pd. Goldsmith books 11f10.
Pd. Genen for clothes 39f8.
6. Gave Patsy 3f.
7. Pd. Goldsmith for 87. vols. of Bell’s poets95 for Patsy 156f.
Pd. for 1 ℔ sealing wax 8f.
9. Pd. at Opera96 5f.
Octob. 10. Pd. month’s hire of Pianoforte 12f.
Pd. for 13th. & 14th. livraisons of Encyclopedie 47f.
Pd. Marc  Oct. 3—9. viz.
livre tournois  
postage 9–  2
portage 4– 17
medecine 12–  8
dress 13– 10
contingencies  16–  0
hhd. exp. 87– 18
traiteur 105–
248– 15
13. Pd. Goldsmith for residue of Bell’s poets 22 vols. 39f12.
Pd. do. other books 40f16.
Pd. Hamerville bookbinder 31f5.
14. Gave Patsy 6f.
15. Pd. Goldsmith for books 24f.
16. Pd. Noseda for thermometers 9f12.
17. Moved to the house of the Count de Langeac.
20. Pd. Marc on account 300f.
Pd. Marc  198f9 being balance frm. Oct. 10—16. viz.
livre tournois       
Gazette de France97  15– 0
postage  41– 2
hhd. repairs  3– 4
portage  76–16
drink money  16–16
4. voies of new wood  117– 0
repairs of chariot  24– 0
medecine  16– 8
traiteur  90– 0
hhd. exp.  86– 5
contingencies  11–18
498– 9
Pd. Goldsmith 15th. livraison of the Encyclopedie 23f10.
Recd. from Mr. Grand for U. S. 4000f.
Lent Mazzei 600f.
23. Lost at lotto at Sanois 18s.
24. Pd. Goldsmith for books 10f.
Oct. 25.
Pd. Marc  for Oct. 18.—23.
livre tournois  
postage 118–  5
stationary 1–  4
hhd. furniture 37–  4
portage of gazette   3–  0
servts. clothes 6–  0
dress 7– 14
portage 2–  0
medecine 3– 12
contingencies 1–  0
hhd. exp. 129– 19
traiteur 100–
409– 18
26. Given in charity at different times 12f.
Expences to Fontainebleau98 as follows.


livre tournois
   Petit for post hire &c. 63
Pd. for pr. black silk stockings 12f12.
   Petit for current expences 24
   charity 1f499—chair hire 1f4.
Petit for post hire to & from Malesherebe1 60
Do.   do. 30
Do. for mending axletree 30
Do. for post hire & other expences 60

Postillion 3f.
Nov. 1. Pd. chair hire 3f.
Pd.  DelCro entertt. viz. livre tournois  
4. dinners 12f8 + 16f13 + 13f8 +  19f18  =  62–  7
7. days lodging 42–
firewood, candles &c. 10– 16
115–  3
servants at Delcro’s 18f
Petit for balance of post hire &c. 18
2. Pd. Gouyon horse hire 300f.
3. Pd. Royez for books 9f10—do. for 15me. Encyclopedie for Jas. Madison 23f10.

livre tournois
Pd. Marc. for  3. doz. knives ivory handled  90
1½ doz. forks 54
carving knife 3 –10
147 –10
Nov. 4.
Pd. Marc  servants wages viz. livre tournois
Marc. 100
Petit 60
Cocher 60
Frotteur 50
Jardinier 17 days @ 45f  25 –10
poor woman at Tetebout 9
304 –10
Pd. do.  for Oct. 24—30 viz.
livre tournois
dress 6
carriage 13 –12
hhd. furniture  15 –13
washing 65 –12
hhd. exp. 81 –10
traiteur 40
222 – 7
Pd. Mr. Short for a telescope for Jas. Madison 50f.
Pd. Petit balance post hire &c. to Fontainebleau 48f.
Whole amount of expences to & from Fontainebleau 487f3.
Pd. Goldsmith books 9f14—do. 12f—gave Patsy 6f.
8. Pd. month’s hire of pianoforte 12f.
Pd. Guireaud in full houserent to Mar. 9. 1786. 1138livre tournois–8.
Gave Mayer for support of Williamos 120f.
Recd. of Mr. Grand for the United states 4000f.
Pd. Marc  from Oct. 31. to Nov. 6. viz.
livre tournois
Traiteur 175 
hhd. exp. 102– 12
hhd. furn. 89– 15
hhd. repairs 1– 12
wine (Bourdeaux)  50– 16
postage 4– 13
carriage 9– 15
washing 4– 10
dress 6– 10
gazettes 1– 16
446– 19
Nov. 10. Pd. Cabaret for 1 ℔ sealing wax 9f.
Pd. Goldsmith for books 34f6—gloves 4f4.
12. Pd. Goldsmith for books 16f10.
13. Gave James 12f—pd. at Masquerade2 6f12.
14. Pd. at Nicolet’s3 3f12.
15. Pd. for steps 8f.
Recd. of P. Mazzei what I had lent him 1200f.
16. Pd. Goldsmith for books 32f10—gave Patsy 6f.
Pd. Marc.  Nov. 7—13. viz.
livre tournois  
Traiteur 120 
hhd. exp. 110–  6–6
hhd. utensils  19–  4
wine 36–
postage 7– 10
293–  0–6
Pd.  Marc for Gerante for 1. peice red wine, ordinaire containing 240 bottles 180f & 1. do. white wine ordinaire containing 240. bottles 180f.
Pd. Colo. Smith for Mr. Adams 480f.4
18. Pd. Cabaret for binding books 12f14.
21. Pd. Goldsmith books 44f2—do. do. 21f12.
22. Pd. Colo. Smith for Mr. Adams 288livre tournois.
Pd. Marc Nov. 14—20. viz. livre tournois
traiteur 190 
hhd. exp. 118– 11
postage 1– 10
medecine 3–  0
chariot 1–  4
500 bottles 150 
600 corks 7–  4
471–  9
Pd. do. for  6. voies bois neuf 182–  2
 6. do. bois flotté 144–
Pd. do. for  Aury. acct. for hats  139–  4
936– 15
Pd. Petit in full 96f.
Sans-sens comes into my service.5
Nov. 26. Gave Patsy 3f.
28. Accepted Houdon’s bill6 in favr. of Doctr. Franklin for the state of Virginia for 2724livre tournois–6–6.
Desired Mr. Grand to pay it. Credit him therefore & debit the state of Virginia.
Pd. Marc.  Nov. 21.—27. viz.    livre tournois
traiteur 126
hhd. exp. 139 – 1
hhd. utensils  9
wine 6 – 0
postage 9 –18
dress 8 –14
290 – 2
livre tournois
Pd. do. for 20. voies de bois neuf  540
    carting, cutting &c. 67
Dec. 1.
Pd. Dupavillon  for paper for writing 34f
for hangings 35f12.
2. Pd. 16th. livraison of Encyclopedie 24f books 1f4.
Recd. of Mr. Grand for U. S. 4000f.
Pd. Gouyon month’s hire of horses 300f.
Pd. Marc  servants wages viz.
Marc 100
Anselen (cocher)  60
Frotteur 50
Sans Sens 16
charity 9
le Jardinier  45
4. Pd. Goldsmith for books 10f16—gave Patsy 3f.
Pd. for tools 1f7. livre tournois  
Pd. Marc. Nov. 28.—Dec. 4.  traiteur 79–  7
hhd. exp.  68– 16
wine 4– 16
postage 4– 10
trifles 5– 10
washing 50–  6
213–  5


livre tournois
Pd. Marc for  6. voies de bois neuf 162
6. voies bois de gravier7 135
cutting &c. 34
Gave do. to pay at Panthemont 1000f.
8. Pd. Mason’s work on the hotel 72f.
Pd. for stationary 29f + bookbindg. 13f15 = 42–15.
Pd. at Concert spirituel8 12f gave Patsy 3f.
10. Pd. hire of forte piano 12f.
Pd. Goldsmith for books 226f18.
12. Pd. mending ring 18f.
Pd. Notary for lease of the hotel de Langeac 96f.
13. Pd. Goldsmith for books 2f10.
Pd. do. for Royez for 16th. livraison of the Encyclopedie 24f. Note this is J. Madison’s copy.
Pd. Marc.  Dec. 5—11. viz.
livre tournois  
traiteur 93– 18
hhd. expences  78–  8
hhd. utensils 5– 14
hhd. repairs 3–
Patsy 2 
postage 13 
196–  0
Pd. do. for the house joiner for work done on the hotel9 158f15.
Gave Ledyard 200f.
15. Pd. Cabaret for stationary 43f for bookbinding 20f.
Pd. Goldsmith for books 18f.
Pd. do. for do. 24f. livre tournois
Agreed with a Cuisiniere10 to give her per annum  wages 300
 to feed her besides wine 100
supper  180
17. Pd. Renaudin for a Chronometer11 60f.
18. Gave Patsy 3f.
21. Lent Wm. Robeson 120f.
Repd. Abbé Arnoud portage of vines12 5f6.
Gave Patsy 3f.
Dec. 21.
Pd. Marc.  Dec. 12—18. livre tournois  
traiteur 175– 13
hhd. expences  134–  4
hhd. furniture 18–  0
postage 1–  6
servts. dress 6–  0
dress 6– 11
341– 14
Pd. Messrs. Payen freres Theodorick & Daniel Fitzhugh’s bill of exchange for 480livre tournois in favor of Monsr. A. Limozin.13
Pd. Mr. Andrier for le sieur Gazaigner14 74livre tournois–8–9 for a barrique of wine de Gaillac dit du Cocq which contains 215. bottles. It took  bottles of Bourdeaux to fill it up. Note this is the wine which Mr. Adams had bought, & which he desired me to take. I am still to pay him 40f paid by Horatener & co. of Rouen for expences of transportation, duties &c.
25. Paid at Concert spirituel15 6f.
26. Gave Patsy 3f—pd. at Concert at Musée16 6f.
Given in Charity at different times 6f.
Pd. Marc.  19—25th. Dec. viz.   livre tournois
Traiteur 121–  5
Wine, Frontign. & Cyprus  42–
hhd. exp. 81–  4
hhd. repairs 11–  5
hhd. furniture 15– 12
portage 3– 16
postage 10–  1
stationary 1– 12
286– 15
Pd. Goldsmith for books 12f12.
Pd. Cabaret  for stationary 23f4
for pasteboard 1f19
for bookbinding 3f6.
Received of Mr. Grand for the U. S. 4000f.

28TJ rented a piano until his departure for the south of France in the spring of 1787.

29Correctly 186livre tournois–12–6.

30Au Petit Dunquerque on the Quai de Conti at the end of the Pont Neuf was perhaps the most celebrated shop in Paris and was one of the first to sell its “pretty toys, and handsome nothings” at a fixed price (Memoirs of the Baroness d’Oberkirch, ed. the Count de Montbrison [London, 1852], i, 277, ii, 228).

31Correctly 287livre tournois–16.

32The financier Nicolas Beaujon (1718-1786) had recently built an elegant country residence inside the city, complete with English garden, dairy, chicken house, menagerie, windmill, chapel, and a magnificently furnished dwelling, La Chartreuse, designed by Nicolas Claude Girardin. Today all that remains are some columns from Girardin’s chapel which have been relocated near the original site on the grounds of the Fondation Salomon de Rothschild on the Rue Balzac (Thiéry, Guide, i, 56-60; Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 55 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends ).

33A bird organ, also called a serinette, was a small barrel organ used to teach songs to birds.

34TJ called Fortunatio Bartolomeo de Felice’s Code de l’humanité (Yverdon, 1778) “a very good dictionary of universal law” (TJ to James Madison, 18 Mch. 1785; Sowerby, No. 1416 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

35TJ had acquired from Edmund Randolph “ten volumes of Buffon,” probably the quarto edition of Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux (TJ to Randolph, 20 Sep. 1785; Sowerby, No. 1021 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

36The porter and Stilton cheese were sent to Francis Eppes and Henry Skipwith (TJ to Alexander Moore, 24 July 1784; Moore to TJ, 28 Sep. 1784).

37“2 pi[eds] 6 po[uces].” TJ had marble tops made for many of his pieces of furniture; the Packing List 1790 description begins Itemized invoice of Grevin, maitre layetier, 17 July 1790. DLC: William Short Papers description ends includes four mahogany tables, three gaming tables, and three chests of drawers, all with marble tops.

38This sudden outburst of picture buying reflects TJ’s attendance at the auction of the art collection of Dupille de Saint-Séverin, held 21 through 26 Feb. in the present Rue de Turenne. TJ’s known purchases at the sale were a Prodigal Son, a Democritus and Heraclitus, a Saint Peter Weeping after Johann Carl Loth, a Magdalen Penitent after José de Ribera, and a Salome Bearing the Head of Saint John. The last painting, which the Saint-Séverin catalogue described as being after Simon Vouet, but which appears to be after Guido Reni, now hangs at Monticello (Frits Lugt, Répertoire des catalogues de ventes publiques [The Hague, 1938-1964], i, 2, 57; Catalogue of Paintings, Nos. 4, 22, 23, 34, 35 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s “Catalogue of Paintings &c. at Monticello,” c. 1815. ViU description ends ; Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 40-1 description begins Howard C. Rice, Jr., Thomas Jefferson’s Paris, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends ).

39About this time William Short left TJ’s household to live for a few months with a French family named Royer in Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Short had been surprised on his arrival in Paris to find that TJ was not yet fluent in spoken French and so determined to seclude himself from English-speaking society in order to master the French language (Short to Savary de Valcoulan, 20 July 1786, DLC: Short Papers). For an account of Short’s connection with Saint-Germain, which he visited frequently during the next several years, see Yvon Bizardel and Howard C. Rice, Jr., “Poor in Love Mr. Short,” WMQ, 3d series, xxi [1964], 516-33).

40This vehicle, after repairs and fitting up, cost 1,500 livres; it and a cabriolet bought in 1786 were sold together in 1790 for only 300 livres. Two further chariots and a second cabriolet TJ bought while in France were shipped, along with his American phaeton, to the United States in 1789 and 1790 (William Short to TJ, 7 July 1790; MB 4 Oct., 2 Nov. 1786, 26 Nov., 31 Dec. 1788).

41These references to curtains, probably transcribed literally from the serrurier’s account, represent the hardware used in hanging them, not their purchase.

42Correctly 335livre tournois–17.

43The rich collection of the Cabinet des Médailles et Antiques is still one of the principal attractions of the Bibliothèque Nationale, then called the Bibliothèque du Roi.

44TJ refers to the Charles Willson Peale portrait commissioned by the state of Virginia in 1784 to serve as a guide to the sculptor engaged to produce a marble statue of George Washington; it is now in the Fogg Museum of Art, Cambridge, Mass. Well before the arrival of the portrait, which he considered “a tolerable painting, but a bad likeness,” TJ had decided that a statue derived from a painting would not be a true likeness and so Jean Antoine Houdon was sent to America to make his own portrait bust of the General (TJ to Thevenard, 5 May 1786; St. John de Crèvecoeur to TJ, 1 Sep. 1784; TJ to Benjamin Harrison, 12 Jan. 1785).

45The original plans of Pierre Contant d’Ivry had been abandoned and the Church of the Madeleine was at this time being rebuilt according to designs of G. M. Couture based on the Parthenon. Models of both plans were on view at the construction site (Thiéry, Guide, i, 93-4 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends ). The Madeleine was completed according to yet another design only in the early nineteenth century.

46This may be a model of a simple wind-operated pump of which TJ made a sketch, indicating its scale in French (MoSHi).

47The program of this concert included works by François Devienne and the Abbé Lepreux, several Italian vocal works, and a Haydn symphony (Journal de Paris, 3 Apr. 1785).

48TJ at last saw Grétry and Sedaine’s immensely popular comic opera Richard Coeur de Lion, which had opened 21 Oct. 1784. The secondary piece was E. R. Duni and Louis Anseaume’s Les Deux Chasseurs et la laitière (Journal de Paris, 16 Apr. 1785).

49This bill, reproduced in Papers, viii description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends , facing p. 87, was intended for the expenses of the statue of George Washington. TJ had planned to lodge the money with Ferdinand Grand, but instead kept it in his own hands and was thus able, over the next four years, to pay a number of miscellaneous demands for the state of Virginia without involving the banker. In 1789 1,934livre tournois–4 of the original 8,957livre tournois–11 still remained in TJ’s hands; his account with the state was finally settled in 1796 (TJ to Governor of Virginia, 15 Apr., 12 May 1785; TJ account with Virginia, 9 Dec. 1789, DLC; TJ to John Pendleton, 20 Mch. 1796; Pendleton memorandum, 28 Mch. 1796, Vi).

50 Dupuis was an upholsterer in the Rue Saint-Honoré (Dupuis invoice, 21 June 1790, DLC: Short Papers). This was no doubt the final payment for the “blankets, hair, feathers &c.” of 29 Nov. 1784.

51The Académie Royale de Musique occupied at this time a building on the site of the present Théâtre de la Porte Saint-Martin. A contemporary described the Opera as “extremely magnificent, mainly in its glittering decor and excellent ballet,” and it was these characteristics which accounted for the tremendous popularity of the production TJ saw, La Caravane du Caire by André Grétry. The librettists were Étienne Morel de Chefdeville and the Comte de Provence, later Louis XVIII (Karamzin, Letters, p. 197; Journal de Paris, 28 Apr. 1785 description begins N. M. Karamzin, Letters of a Russian Traveler, 1789-1790, New York, 1957 description ends ; Sowerby, No. 4567 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ). The extent of TJ’s attendance at the Opera and other spectacles cannot be gauged from MB entries alone; many of his friends, among them Madame de Corny, the Comtesse d’Houdetot, Chastellux, and Chalut de Verin, had permanent boxes at the Opera and customarily treated their dinner guests to a night at the theater (see [Ernest Boysse], Les Abonnés de l’Opéra 1783-1786 [Paris, 1881]).

52This Ascension Day concert featured the works and performance of Italian violinist Maddalena Sirmen. Also on the program were works by Étienne Solère, Joseph Schuster, and the Abbé Lepreux, and symphonies by K. F. Abel and J.F.X. Sterkel (Journal de Paris, 5 May 1785; Mercure de France, 14 May 1785).

53 Jean Antoine Houdon’s atelier and lodgings at this time were at the Paris Foundry near present Nos. 197-199 Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré (Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 55 description begins Howard C. Rice, Jr., Thomas Jefferson’s Paris, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends ).

54This is the wine paid for in July (MB 5 July 1785). Documents relating to TJ’s first encounter with internal duties are in MHi and DLC: TJ Papers, 2023-7 (Papers, viii, 94-5 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

55This payment may have been for the visiting cards engraved with TJ’s new title: “Ministre Plenipotentiaire des Etats Unis d’Amerique” (Papers, viii, xxvii, and illustration facing p. 214 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

56On 2 May 1785 TJ had received his commission to succeed Benjamin Franklin as minister plenipotentiary. On this date (17 May), according to the Mercure de France of 28 May, he had “une audience particuliere du Roi, pendant laquelle il présenta sa lettre de créance à S. M. Il fut conduit à cette audience, ainsi qu’à celles de la Reine et de la Famille Royale, par le sieur lalive de la Briche, Introducteur des Ambassadeurs; le sieur de Séqueville, Sécretaire ordinaire du Roi pour la conduite des Ambassadeurs, précédoit.”

57 Jacques Guillaume Hammerville was a bookbinder in the Rue Chartière (Ernest Thoinan [pseud.], Les Relieurs Français 1500-1800 [Paris, 1893], p. 312).

58TJ at last received his Watt letter copying press (TJ to Jean Holker, 20 May 1785; MB 16 Aug. 1784). Lair de Lamotte was Benjamin Franklin’s clerk.

59TJ was fortunate in inheriting Adrien Petit from the Adams family, who had left Paris for London on 20 May 1785. Although Petit had been maître d’hôtel in the Adams household, he served TJ first as valet de chambre and was raised to the higher position on the departure of Marc in 1786 (William S. Smith to William Short, 18 July 1786, DLC: Short Papers; Abigail Adams to TJ, 6 July 1787; MB 26 June 1786). Petit, who was a native of the Champagne district, was so valued a servant that TJ later pressed him to join his household in Philadelphia (TJ to MJR, 8 May 1791).

60This was perhaps Nicolas Derome le Jeune on the Rue Saint-Jacques, the most celebrated of the Derome family of bookbinders (Ernest Thoinan [pseud.], Les Relieurs Français 1500-1800 [Paris, 1893], p. 252-6).

61TJ sent this new cipher, “prepared on a large and commodious plan,” to John Jay, James Madison, and James Monroe; it is Code No. 9 (TJ to W. S. Smith, 31 Aug. 1787; TJ to Monroe, 18 Mch. and 11 May 1785; TJ to Jay and Madison, 11 May 1785).

62TJ saw Jean François de La Harpe’s tragedy Philoctète and Moliére’s comedy Amphitryon (Journal de Paris, 29 May 1785).

63American explorer John Ledyard (1751-1789), who had just arrived in Paris, had been in Lorient seeking financial support for various schemes involving the northwest coast of North America. TJ took an active advisory role in Ledyard’s projects and contributed to his living expenses while he remained in Paris. Subsisting, as he put it, by the aid of “vice consuls, consuls, plenipotentiaries, ministers and whores of fortune,” Ledyard took up residence in Saint-Germain-en-Laye and often walked into the city to dine with Lafayette or “our minister who is a Brother to me” (Ledyard to Isaac Ledyard, 8 Aug. 1786, printed in Stephen D. Watrous, John Ledyard’s Journey through Russia and Siberia 1787-1788 [Madison, Wis., 1966], p. 102-7). See Watrous, especially p. 37-40 and 96, for an account of TJ’s role in Ledyard’s abortive attempt to reach the American west coast through Russia; TJ’s own account is in his autobiography (L & B, i, 101-2 description begins Andrew A. Lipscomb and Albert E. Bergh, eds., The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, “Memorial Edition,” Washington, D.C., 1903-1904, 20 vols. description ends ).

64This is the date of TJ’s first extant press copy, TJ to Barré, 3 June 1785.

65A part of the books purchased from Froullé was for James Madison, to whom in September TJ sent books worth 1,154 livres (TJ to Madison, 1 Sep. 1785).

66Then, as now, one had to pay to sit in the chairs in Parisian public gardens. The Tuileries gardens were the most exclusive at this time and entry was denied to soldiers, servants, workers, and the poorly dressed (Karamzin, Letters, p. 183-4 description begins N. M. Karamzin, Letters of a Russian Traveler, 1789-1790, New York, 1957 description ends ; Thiéry, Guide, i, 395-402 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends ). One of its main attractions for TJ was the view it provided of the Hôtel de Salm (now the Palais de la Légion d’Honneur), which was designed by Pierre Rousseau and under construction in this period (TJ to Madame de Tessé, 20 Mch. 1787; Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 62 description begins Howard C. Rice, Jr., Thomas Jefferson’s Paris, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends ).

67TJ was on his way to Sannois, ten miles northwest of Paris, for his first visit to Élisabeth Françoise Sophie de Lalive de Bellegarde, Comtesse d’Houdetot (c. 1730-1813), at her country seat. As he hoped, this acquaintance opened the “door of admission for me to the circle of literati with which she is environed,” and, although he never became the fixture in her salon that Franklin had been, he found her society one of the “most agreeable” in Paris (TJ to Abigail Adams, 21 June 1785; Webster, Papers, i, 377 description begins Charles M. Wiltse and Harold D. Moser, eds., The Papers of Daniel Webster: Correspondence, Hanover, N.H., 1974-1976, 4 vols. description ends ; TJ to J. G. Hyde de Neuville, 31 Dec. 1811; Malone, Jefferson, ii, 16 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends ). TJ left no comment on the Gothic basilica of Saint-Denis, nor the royal tombs and rich treasure within.

68The Jardin du Roi, now the Jardin des Plantes, was at this time under the direction of Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788), whom TJ first met in Jan. 1786 (TJ to Van Hogendorp, 13 Oct. 1785; Buffon to TJ, 31 Dec. 1785; TJ to Francis Hopkinson, 3 Jan. 1786; Webster, Papers, i, 376 description begins Charles M. Wiltse and Harold D. Moser, eds., The Papers of Daniel Webster: Correspondence, Hanover, N.H., 1974-1976, 4 vols. description ends ). For a contemporary description of the garden and its museum, the Cabinet du Roi, see Thiéry, Guide, ii, 172-84 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends .

69Probably horse hire only (see MB 1 Sep. 1785 and succeeding payments to Gouyon).

70This was probably Château Haut-Brion, which John Bondfield, American commercial agent at Bordeaux, customarily purchased for TJ until 1787, when TJ began dealing directly with vignerons. Half the wine was for Francis Eppes (TJ to Bondfield, 19 Dec. 1784, 20 May 1785; Bondfield to TJ, 19 Apr. 1785).

71TJ may have been on his way to the Vincennes country seat of Anne César, Chevalier de La Luzerne (1741-1791), former French minister to the United States. Edward Bancroft later recalled discussing slavery with TJ and Luzerne’s uncle Malesherbes at dinner there (Bancroft to TJ, 16 Sep. 1788).

72The large sum reflects the traditional Independence Day dinner given by the resident minister for all the Americans and some French “Americans,” like the Lafayettes, in Paris (Papers, viii, 257 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; Adams, Diary, iv, 143-4 description begins Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, ed. L. H. Butterfield, Cambridge, Mass., 1961, 4 vols. description ends ; MB 1 Aug. 1788).

73 Jean Antoine Houdon’s bronze Diana Huntress, now in CSmH, belonged in 1785 to Girardot de Marigny, who lived in the Rue Vivienne (Trumbull, Autobiography, p. 99 description begins The Autobiography of Colonel John Trumbull, ed. Theodore Sizer, New Haven, 1953 description ends ). While in Paris TJ bought a small plaster copy of this work, an “exquisite peice of workmanship,” which he gave in 1792 to Joseph Hopkinson (TJ to Hopkinson, 23 June, 11 July 1792; Hopkinson to TJ, 29 June 1792). At some point TJ also considered purchasing large plaster replicas of Houdon’s Diana, Frileuse, and Écorché (see TJ memorandum, undated, DLC: 41899).

74There were insufficient Virginia funds for the advance to Houdon, so TJ had Ferdinand Grand provide this sum from the United States account. By Jan. 1786, when American funds were depleted and Thomas Barclay had lodged a large sum with Grand for Virginia, TJ was compelled to authorize the use of Virginia funds for United States expenses. For TJ’s explanations of these “accomodations,” as he called them, see TJ to Commissioners of Treasury, 5 Aug. 1787, and “A diary of the accomodations of money between the US. and the state of Virginia at Paris as nearly as I can make it out,” undated, DLC: TJ Papers.

75This is the first installment of a total payment of 25,000 livres, settled on 8 July 1785 as Houdon’s fee for making the pedestrian statue of George Washington for the state of Virginia. Including expenses of packing, shipment, and Houdon’s voyage to Mount Vernon, the total cost of the statue was well over 40,000 livres (TJ to Governor of Virginia, 11 July 1785; TJ account with Virginia, DLC: 8947-8; copy of Grand account with Virginia, 25 May 1793, Vi; “Houdon’s acct. of expences of his voyage to & from America,” Vi).

76TJ called these books, received from retiring minister Benjamin Franklin, the “Corps diplomatique” (TJ to John Adams, 28 July 1785).

77This may have been the engraving of Madison’s Cave for TJ’s Notes on Virginia (see next note).

78 Philippe Denis Pierres (1741-1808) had completed the printing of two hundred copies of TJ’s Notes on Virginia on 10 May 1785. This payment may also cover the printing of TJ’s “Notes on Coinage” (TJ to James Madison, 11 May 1785; TJ to Charles Thomson, 14 July 1785; Malone, Jefferson, ii, 93-106 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends ; Coolie Verner, A Further Checklist of the Separate Editions of Jefferson’s Notes on the State of Virginia [Charlottesville, Va., 1950]).

79A passport is reproduced in Papers, viii, facing p. 567 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends .

80The demonstration of the “charrue cabestanière,” or, as Arthur Young called it, the “nonsensical plough to go without horses,” took place in the Enclos des Capucins on the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Jacques (Journal de Paris, 30 Apr. and 8 Aug. 1785; Young, Travels, p. 131 description begins Arthur Young, Travels in France and Italy during the Years 1787, 1788, and 1789, 1792, 1793, repr. London, 1942 description ends ). Although he took detailed notes on its operation, TJ also thought it “a poor affair.” Two men worked the windlass and guided the plow, but they had to be relieved at the end of each 224-foot furrow, and the method was suitable only for level ground (TJ to Ralph Izard, 26 Sep. 1785; Nichols, No. 147a, p. 3 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Architectural Drawings, ed. Frederick D. Nichols, 4th ed., Charlottesville, Va., 1978 description ends ; Bibliothèque Physico-Économique, instructive et amusante, Année 1786 [Paris, 1786], ii, 1-4).

81The program of this concert included symphonies by Haydn and J. F. Reichardt and works by Cimarosa, Sarti, Sacchini, J. B. Krumpholz, and F. J. Gossec (Journal de Paris, 15 Aug. 1785).

82This payment was for forwarding wine to John Adams in London (Plowden Garvey to TJ, 13 Aug. 1785). Jean Frédéric Perregaux (1744-1808) was a prominent banker on the Rue du Sentier (Thiéry, Guide, ii, 696 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends ).

83Perhaps Charles de Peyssonnel’s observations on the memoirs of the Baron de Tott (Sowerby, No. 301 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

84This and subsequent large postage payments indicate the arrival of American newspapers. To avoid further such costs to the public, TJ immediately advised his correspondents to forward his newspapers through the office of the Secretary for Foreign Affairs, John Jay (TJ to James Buchanan, 22 Sep. 1785; TJ to Francis Hopkinson, 25 Sep. 1785; Account with U.S. 1792).

85 Daniel and Theodorick Fitzhugh, sons of William Fitzhugh of Marmion, Stafford County, Va., repaid this and a further loan in 1787 (MB 21 Dec. 1785; James Madison to TJ, 15 Feb. 1787).

86TJ, who had resisted an earlier appeal for a loan, responded when David Franks was threatened with imprisonment; no record of repayment has been found. Franks was about to carry to London documents relating to the American mission to the Barbary powers (Franks to TJ, 17 June, c. 2 Sep. 1785, 8 Feb. 1790; TJ to Franks, 17 June 1785; TJ to John Adams, 4 Sep. 1785).

87The lease, printed in Papers, viii, 485-92 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends , was for the Hôtel de Langeac, designed by Jean François Chalgrin and situated at the corner of the Champs-Elysées and the Rue de Berri. It had “a clever garden” and was close enough to the Bois de Boulogne for TJ to walk or ride there almost daily (TJ to Abigail Adams, 4 Sep. 1785; TJ to Madame de Corny, 30 June 1787). The rent was 7,500 livres per annum, which TJ succeeded in reducing to 6,000 livres in 1789. For descriptions of the hôtel, see Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 51-4 description begins Howard C. Rice, Jr., Thomas Jefferson’s Paris, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends , and L’Hôtel de Langeac [Paris and Monticello, 1947]).

88The optician Noseda had a shop at No. 93 in the arcades of the Palais-Royal (Journal de Paris, 26 Aug. 1788).

89Probably gaufres, waffles.

90If this is not an individual named Sabatier, TJ may have intended savetier, a cobbler, sabotier, a maker of wooden shoes, or sorbetière, ice cream freezer. In a memorandum on the French method of making ice cream, TJ spelled this last word “sabattiere,” “sabotiere,” and “sabottiere” (DLC: TJ Papers, 41868).

91 Valentin Haüy (1745-1822), whose school for the blind was at this time in the Rue Coquillière, gave public demonstrations of his revolutionary methods of instruction. Philip Mazzei described his own visit to the school in his Life, p. 244-5; see also Thiéry, Guide, i, 434-5 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends , and Mercure de France, 7 May 1785. At some point TJ may also have visited the similar establishment for deaf-mutes of Charles Michel de L’Épée, whose book he owned (Sowerby, No. 1122 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

92This is probably Charles Hicks, who had been a servant of Benjamin Franklin (William T. Franklin to André Limozin, 27 July 1785; Limozin to Benjamin Franklin, 9 Nov. 1785, PPAP: Franklin Papers).

93TJ saw Blaise et Babet by Nicolas Alexandre Dezède and librettist Jacques Marie Boutet de Monvel and Lucile, a 1769 work of Grétry and Marmontel (Journal de Paris, 26 Sep. 1785; Sowerby, No. 4599 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

94The venerable Parisian weekly Mercure de France was at this time under the direction of Charles Joseph Panckoucke. Its political editor was the anti-democratic Jacques Mallet Du Pan, whose treatment of American news TJ at least once attempted to counteract (TJ to Abigail Adams, 20 Nov. 1785; Hatin, Bibliographie, p. 24-6 description begins Eugene Hatin, Bibliographie historique et critique de la presse periodique française, 1866, repr. Turin, 1960 description ends ).

95 John Bell’s “Travelling Poetic Library,” or The Poets of Great Britain complete from Chaucer to Churchill (Edinburgh, 1777-1784). All but one of the diminutive volumes from Martha’s set are now in ViU.

96TJ saw Niccolo Piccinni’s best known opera, Didon (Journal de Paris, 9 Oct. 1785). TJ apparently never recorded his opinion of the still smoldering controversy between the partisans of Gluck and Piccinni, but he clearly favored the Italian style of the latter. Two of his three recorded visits to the Paris Opera were to hear Piccinni works. Jean François Marmontel, the leading Piccinnist and librettist of Didon, was a regular guest at TJ’s table, and TJ consulted Piccinni on the merits of the piano (Webster, Papers, i, 377 description begins Charles M. Wiltse and Harold D. Moser, eds., The Papers of Daniel Webster: Correspondence, Hanover, N.H., 1974-1976, 4 vols. description ends ; TJ to Francis Hopkinson, 25 Sep. 1785).

97The semiweekly Gazette de France, the official organ of the French ministry of foreign affairs, was edited at this time by Jean Gaspard Dubois Fontanelle (1737-1812) (Hatin, Bibliographie, p. 8-10 description begins Eugene Hatin, Bibliographie historique et critique de la presse periodique française, 1866, repr. Turin, 1960 description ends ). TJ forwarded this newspaper, as “the best in this country,” to John Jay (TJ to Jay, 17 June 1785; Account with U.S. 1792 description begins “Account with U.S. of America as their Minister Plenipotentiary in Europe. Exact copy as given in to the Auditor July. 1792” DLC: TJ Papers, 13286-94. See Papers, XXIV, 175-89. description ends ).

98The Court followed the King to Fontainebleau every fall for a month. So that his talks with Vergennes on the tobacco farm would not languish, TJ also made the journey, but economic considerations dictated an abbreviated visit (TJ to John Adams, 10 Aug. 1785; TJ to James Madison, 28 Oct. 1785; TJ to John Jay, 2 Jan. 1786).

99TJ had set out to walk to the highest point near Fontainebleau and gave this piece of silver, four times her daily wage, to a poor woman who accompanied him part of the way (TJ to James Madison, 28 Oct. 1785).

1Malesherbes, sixteen miles southwest of Fontainebleau, was the country estate of “the most curious man in France as to his trees,” Chrétien Guillaume de Lamoignon de Malesherbes (1721-1794). While Malesherbes was collecting for TJ the vines of the great French wine grapes, TJ imported American nuts and berries for his friend’s immense tree plantations (TJ to James Madison, 28 Oct. 1785, 20 June 1787; Malesherbes to TJ, 5 May 1786, 15 Sep. 1787; TJ to William Short, 29 Mch. 1787).

2Masquerade balls were held at the Opera on Sunday nights throughout the winter. They began with a concert at eleven and dancing continued from midnight to six a.m. Dominoes and masks, rather than fancy dress, were customarily worn ([L. V. Thiéry], Almanach du Voyageur à Paris [Paris, 1783], p. 86; Journal of Miss Adams, i, 46-7 description begins Journal and Correspondence of Miss Adams, ed. [Caroline Amelia de Windt], New York, 1841-1849, 3 vols. description ends ). TJ’s two recorded evenings at the opera ball both occurred when the fun-loving William Stephens Smith was in Paris (MB 27 Feb. 1786; TJ to John Adams, 27 Nov. 1785).

3 Jean Baptiste Nicolet’s petit spectacle on the Boulevard du Temple, known officially as Les Grands Danseurs et Sauteurs de Corde, combined broad farce and pantomime with rope dancing, tumbling, and ballet. For the evening’s program see Journal de Paris, 14 Nov. 1785 (Max Aghion, Le Théâtre à Paris au xviiie siècle [Paris, 1926], p. 259-65).

4The thirty-two louis of 17 and 22 Nov. replaced £32–11 spent by John Adams to insure the life of Jean Antoine Houdon during his voyage to America (Adams to TJ, 24 Oct. 1785; TJ account with Virginia, DLC: 8947-8).

5 Sanson came as valet de chambre, replacing Petit, who temporarily left TJ’s service to become maître d’hôtel in the household of a prominent Paris banker (Abigail Adams to John Quincy Adams, 5 Dec. 1785, MHi: Adams Family Papers).

6This bill, drawn by Houdon at Southampton on 27 July 1785, was a duplicate of that of 15 Aug. 1785. Ferdinand Grand paid it once only, on this date (Grand account with TJ, DLC: 14962).

7 Bois de gravier was a superior grade of raftwood, or bois flotté.

8The program of this concert included symphonies by Haydn, Abbé Sterkel, and Henri Riegel, and works of Anfossi, Sacchini, Viotti, Jean Lebrun, L. B. Desormery, and Florido Tomeoni. TJ had particular praise for the singing of Rose Renaud of the Comédie Italienne, a soloist in this and the Christmas concerts (Journal de Paris, 8 Dec. 1785; TJ to Abigail Adams, 27 Dec. 1785).

9Although two TJ drawings of proposed alterations to the Hôtel de Langeac survive, it is unlikely that there were any major structural changes during his residence. The only items for which TJ was given credit on his réparations locatives were the coach house doors installed in 1787 and the bars and bells attached to the windows when robbery became a problem after the removal of the city gates from the adjacent Grille de Chaillot to the new wall. The numerous remaining payments to masons, carpenters, locksmiths, and the like, seem to indicate only minor work, such as the building of bookshelves and Venetian blinds and the installation of stoves, lighting fixtures, curtains, and bed hangings (Nichols, Nos. 247-8 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Architectural Drawings, ed. Frederick D. Nichols, 4th ed., Charlottesville, Va., 1978 description ends ; MB 17 Feb. 1787; TJ to Montmorin, 8 July 1789; William Short to TJ, 23 Dec. 1790).

10TJ’s decision to hire a cook is interesting in light of the budget for reductions in expenses he prepared in the fall of this year (printed in Papers, viii, 591 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ). How much of the added expense was the result of a larger scale of entertaining is not known, but it cost TJ almost twice as much to maintain his own kitchen—including the salaries of the cook and scullion, an average of 900 livres per month, compared to 500 livres per month for the traiteur.

11TJ first wrote “plexichronometer.” For his description of this early metronome, purchased from its inventor, see TJ to Francis Hopkinson, 3 Jan. 1786 (Mercure de France, 17 June 1786).

12The Abbé Arnoux, a Provençal by birth, was probably the “gentleman” who was collecting for TJ the vines of the best French table grapes (TJ to James Madison, 28 Oct. 1785). Like Franklin and the Adamses before him, TJ became intimate with the inseparable Abbés Arnoux and Chalut, who had a house at Passy and lived, when in Paris, with Chalut’s brother, fermier-général Geoffroy de Chalut de Verin (d. 1787), at No. 17 Place Vendome (Adams, Diary, iv, 59-60, 104 description begins Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, ed. L. H. Butterfield, Cambridge, Mass., 1961, 4 vols. description ends ; Letters of Mrs. Adams, p. 190 description begins Letters of Mrs. Adams, ed. Charles Francis Adams, 4th ed., Boston, 1848 description ends ; Mazzei, Life, p. 292 description begins Philip Mazzei: My Life and Wanderings, trans. S. Eugene Scalia, ed. Margherita Marchione, Morristown, N.J., 1980 description ends ; Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 22, 92; Yves Durand, Les Fermiers-généraux au xviiie siècle [Paris, 1971], p. 147, 458, 612).

13Le Havre merchant André Limozin (d. 1789) was the American commercial agent at that port (TJ to John Jay, 20 Sep. 1787; Veuve Limozin to TJ, 2 July 1789).

14 Gazaigner de Boyer, hoping to develop an American market for his wines, had sent this cask of red Gaillac to John Adams (Adams to TJ, 7 Aug. 1785; Gazaigner to Adams, 7 and 21 Apr. 1785, MHi: Adams Family Papers).

15The Christmas concert began with a Haydn symphony and included works by Piccinni, Salieri, Tomeoni, Henri Riegel, and Rodolphe Kreutzer (Journal de Paris, 25 Dec. 1785).

16The Musée de Paris on the Rue Dauphine was the site of a benefit concert for violinist Louise Gautherot, who performed works by Viotti, J. B. Davaux, and Josef Mysliveček. Also on the program were a Haydn symphony, a Mozart piano concerto, a Piccinni scène, and an air from Grétry’s recent Panurge dans l’île des lanternes (Journal de Paris, 17 May and 26 Dec. 1785; Sowerby, No. 4563 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

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