Thomas Jefferson Papers
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Memorandum Books, 1788

1788.

Jan. 1. Paid assistants on breakg. axle tree on road to Versailles 3.

wages etrennes
Paid  Petit 72 + 24 = 96
Espagnol 60 + 12 = 72
l’Ardennois 60 + 12 = 72
Boileau 50 + 12 = 62
Nomeni 50 + 12 = 62
James 24 + 12 = 36
Sally 24 + 12 = 36
Garçon de cuisine 15 + 12 = 27
Mr. Short’s servant + 12 = 12
Mr. Trumbul’s servts.  +    12 = 12
355 + 132 487

2. Pd. Court fees, to servts. of Introductors & secretary 72.
3. Petit’s accts. from Nov. 25. to Dec. 29.

Nov. 25.—Dec. 1. Dec. 2—8. Dec. 9—15 Dec. 16—22 Dec. 23.—29
Cuisine 34)  382–10 16)  208– 3 19)  157– 4 21)  183– 7 39)  310– 9 1241–13
Office 56– 5 33– 6 43– 0 28– 8 90–18 251–17
Pet. dep. 32–10 70– 5 22– 3 25–11 51– 3 201–12
washing 54– 5 54– 5
wood. 55– 8 131–12 58– 8 245– 8
my daurs. 98–10 17–18 9–10 9–12 31– 8 166–18
servants 3– 6 2– 2 14–10 19–18
books. 8    8–  
genl. postage  12– 9 14– 0 57– 1 13–17 97– 7
679– 8 476–19 247–19 362– 7 520– 5 2286–18
Paris postage 9– 0 9– 5 11– 4 9– 0 38– 9
Pd. Petit in full  1942 –18  = 2286–18 – 344 before pd. on acct.
Pd. him also 163 –19  forage of last month.
2106 –17
3. Pd. mending thermometer 18.
6. Pd. do. 6.—gave etrennes to Cabaret’s garçon 12.
7. Pd. portage from Marseilles, viz. of rice &c. 84.
9. Pd. the hermits of Mont Calvaire for 12 pr. silk stockings for Mr. Adams 168. wt. 2 oz.–6dwt. the pr. = 14.

10.
Pd.  5. voies hetre 156–10–9
3. voies bois flottée   77– 1–3
233–12–
Jan. 10. Pd. Cerisier35 subscription for Analyse des papiers Anglois 48.
Pd. for books 9—gave in charity 6.
14. Gave Patsy 3.
15. Gave court fees at Versailles 240.
17. Pd. for books 8.—gave Ct. Langeac order for quarter’s rent 1875.
 
19. Pd. for books 25–12.
21. Gave Patsy 3.
22. Pd. postage 100–19.
23. Pd. Ct. Sarsfeild36 for Mr. Adams for books 79.
24. Accepted Mrs. Barclay’s bill on me for 1200 in favr. of Le fevre, dated Jan. 21. 1788. and desired Mr. Grand to pay it. Charge this to Mr. Barclay’s private account.
26. Gave in charity 6.
27. Gave Patsy 3. pd. for music 13–16.
30. Accepted E. MacCarthy’s bill of excha. for 731–3 his share of the prize money of the Bonhomme Richard. Paiable at 30. days sight.
Analysis of Petit’s accts.

Dec. 30.Jan. 5. Jan. 6—12 Jan. 13—19 Jan. 20.—26
persons. 18. 26. 25. 30. 99
cuisine 272– 8–6 217–11– 181– 4– 208– 4  879– 7–6
Office  36– 6–  44– 2  55– 5–  55–10  191– 3
pet. dep.  64–16–  85–18  58–17–  37–10  247– 1
washing  45– 9–  45– 9
wood.  30–10–  30–10
my daurs.  24–13–  33– 1–  5– 6–  20–18  83–18
servts.  41–10–  41–10–
genl. postage  83–12  17–18  16– 2–  16–15  134– 7
481–15–6 398–10 403–13 369– 7 1653– 5–6
Paris postage  9–  7–  9–10  11–10  37
   Due to Petit as above 1653– 5–6
   Do. for pd. for Mrs. Adams 10. aunes dble. florence  47–10
   Do. for Patsy a mantle 84. & hat 38.  122– 0
   Do. for a whip.  10
1832–15–6
Feb. 1. Drew on Willincks & Van Staphorsts for ƒ3201–1 = 7000 in favr. of Mr. Grand.
 
Mr. Grand has pd. for me  to Ct. Langeac. ante Jan. 17. 1875
to Mrs. Barclay’s ord. ante Jan. 24.  1200
I receive of him now in cash 3925
7000
Paid Mr. Short 509
Credited Colo. Smith for Mr. Short  91
600
Pd. du Tertre, banker, on W. Macarty’s draught for china37 229–12.
Pd. at Panthemont 600.
Pd. forage of the last month 160.
Pd. servants, viz.  Petit 72
Espagnol 60
l’Ardennois 60
Boileau 50
Nomeni 50
James 24
garçon de cuisine   15
331 .
Pd. Petit in part 1040–18. so there is still due to him 791–17–6.
Feb. 2. Pd. at Concert spirituel38 6.
3. Recd. of the Marquis de la fayette in full 1195–9.39
4. Patsy 3.
7. Pd. Noseda for a pedometer 96.
9. Pd. for 4. voies of wood 200–16.
Pd. Petit in part of balance 400.
Pd. seeing houses 21.
11. Gave Patsy 3.
13.
Pd. portage of  248  bottles  of wine of  Meursault.40
123  do. of Volnaye.
371
 
 viz.  portage  99
droits d’entrée    75–3
174–3
Pd. portage of vine cuttings41 6.
15. Pd. Angenend (taylor) in full 400.
16. Discharged l’Ardennois & pd. him 94.
Took Patier (coachman) into service.
Note the articles of Cuisine & Office are
from  Feb. 28. to June 17. 1787 (109 days) 912–10 =   8– 6  pr. day
June 17. to Jan. 26. 1788 (224 days)  9190–13 =  41–  pr. day.
difference between my absence & presence 32–14  pr. day
washing from June 17. 1787. to Jan. 26. 1788.   2. a day
petites depences for same time 4–12 a day
extra articles for my daurs. 4 – 7 a day
17. Pd. Frouillé’s bookbinder 53.
18. Gave Patsy 3.
21. Pd. Petit in full 391–17–6.
Pd. for 2. servants hats 100–15.
25. Gave Patsy 3.
26. Gave in charity 3.
Pd. subscription of Petites affiches42 33.
28. Recd. rectified acct.43 from Colo. Smith. I owe him balance of 30/7 sterl.
29. Pd. for ivory book 21.
Pd. Dr. Gemm44 48.
Analysis of Petit’s accounts.

Date Jan.27.Feb.2. Feb.3.—9 Feb.10.—16 Feb.17.—23  Total.
Persons 27. 32. 31. 20.  110.
  s d
Cuisine 356–15–6 225– 0– 231–18 160– 3  973–16–6
Office  34– 3–  67– 9  65–13  44–13  211–18–
Pet. dep.  51– 0  92–15  96–13  79– 9  319–17
washing  20–17   20–17
daurs.  5–13  12– 1  6–12   24– 6
servts.  25– 4  0–12  26–  27–   78–16
genl. postge.  8– 6  80–18  12–15  12–19  114–18
books  8–   8–
475– 8–6 472– 7 453– 0 351–13  1752– 8–6
Paris postge.  8–  9–  7–  10–10  34–10
Calculn. on a quarter of a year’s (91. days) breakfast @ 16.
persons pr. week = 208 breakfasts.
s     
bread @ 2s. pr. head  20–16 2  pr. head
cream @ 10 pr. month  30 3
tea. 4.℔ @ 10. pr. ℔  40 4
butter @ 20. pr. month.  60 6
sugar. ½ ℔ pr. head & 25s. pr. ℔  130 12 ½
280–16 27 ½
Calculn. on same time for fuel for kitchen, 264 persons having dined.
charcoal & fagots 143–17
wood @ 2. voies pr. month &
24. the voie 
140–16   s
284–13 . =  1–1½  pr. head
bread is
1–4 
March 1. Drew on Willincks & Van Staphorsts in favor of Messrs. Grand & co. for 3201 florins–1 sol banco, & received 7000 on acct. of United states.
Pd. Petit his account ante     1752– 8–6
Pd. do.  for servants viz.  Petit 72
Espagnol     60
Patier 60
Boileau 50
 
Nomeni 50
Scullion 15  307– 0–0
Pd. do. for Panthemont, my daughters  900– 0–0
for Chanterot for 2 watches45 for Mr. Madison  900– 0–0
for Genen, taylor, his bill of last year  806–11–
for Sr. John Lambert for Cathalan, fruits, oil &c.46  272– 5
4938– 4–6
Gave James 24.
Pd. Mr. Short 600.
Pd. tuning harpsichord 3.
2. Recd. of Mrs. Adams by Mr. Parker £7–5–6 sterl. in full except 8. Louis which I am to pay M. de la Blancherie for Mr. Adams.47
Gave Patsy 3f.
Mar. 3. Gave Patsy 60.
Left with Mr. Short 375. to pay Parent’s bill for wine.48
Left with do. 731–3 to pay E. Macarthy’s bill. Note he was one of J. P. Jones’s officers, & this is his portion of prize money, which he as a French subject has a right to receive in France by the arrangement taken with the M. de Castries. Charge it to the U. S.
4. Gave James 24.
Cash on hand 798.
Set out for Amsterdam.49
 
Pd. posthorses & postillion at Bourget 17–3 Louvres 9–6 Chapelle 9–6 Senlis 6–4 Pont St. Maxence 9–6. repairs 2–8 Boislehus 12–8. Gournay 6–4 Cuvilley 6–4 Couchy 6–4 Roye 9–6 Fonches 6–4 Peronne 9–6 lodgg. &c. (Grand cerf) 10–8.
5. Fins 12–8 Bonavy 13. Cambray 9–6 breakfast 1–16 Bouchain 12–8 Valenciennes 12–8. passport 3. Quievrain 13–12 Quaregnon 15–12 Mons 10–4 Casteau 9–12 Braine le Comte 16. small exp. this day 5–10.
6. Braine le comte. lodging &c. 11–8 Hal. 21. Bruxelles 15–7 breakft. 4–12 Malines 26–14.
Antwerp. 20. Amount so far 353–14.

         Money of Holland. 
Antwerp.  dinner 5ƒ18. 6 horses & cabriolet to Moerdyk 58ƒ17.
charities & small exp. to-day 1ƒ8.
7. Agtenbroek 5ƒ10 lodging &c. 3ƒ9 Kruystraet 5ƒ10 breakft. 12s.

8.
Moerdyk.  4ƒ4.
lodging &c. 4ƒ.

9.
Rotterdam.  passage 30ƒ small exp. 1ƒ5.
lodging 8ƒ15.

10.
Hague.  horses 33ƒ.
lodging &c. 9ƒ10.
Amsterdam.  coachmen 2ƒ2. amount so far ƒ174 = 398.
cash on hand 54ƒ moiety horse hire due Mr. Adams 34ƒ.
Expences from Paris to Amsterdam 752–3.
12. Pd. for books 3ƒ6 cockade50 1ƒ10 servant 1ƒ.
 
13. Vales 1ƒ.
17. Espagnol his subsistence 2ƒ14 charity 3ƒ concert 2ƒ.
18. Vales 2ƒ recd. of Van Staphorst ƒ366–7–8. currt.
19. Pd. repairs of carrge. 27ƒ music 3ƒ.
20. Exp. to & at Harlaem51 2ƒ12 netting of chariot &c. 3ƒ6.
21. Charities & small exp. 3ƒ13 dinner & seeing things 4ƒ.
Recd. of Van Staphorst 400ƒ courant.
Pd. Mr. Adams’s expences here 83ƒ18 his coach hire to Hague 33ƒ.
22. Dinner &c. at Saerdam52 14ƒ.
23. Espagnol month’s wages 30ƒ washing 1ƒ12.
Charities & small exp. 4ƒ.
24. Do. 3ƒ.
Mar. 25. Pd. for china cups & saucers 24ƒ.
Recd. of W. Willinck 60. Ducats = 324ƒ.
Pd. purses &c. 2ƒ18 transportn. of carriage to Utrecht 7ƒ17.
26. Pd. washing 1ƒ—4. waffle irons53 13ƒ 1. ℔ sealing wax 5ƒ maps 5ƒ6.
27. Drinkel54 1ƒ ½ ℔ hyson tea 2ƒ13.
28. Books 5ƒ10 tooth picks 6s. letter press55 18ƒ.
Balance coach hire for Mr. Adams & myself 25ƒ drinkel 4ƒ.
Recd. from Van Staphorst bill of exchange on Herreis of London for £30. sterl. = ƒ348–10 Agio56 3¼ which I endorsed to J. Trumbul & inclosed. One half was for Stockdale.
Pd. for cabin57 of boat to Utrecht 2ƒ12.
29. Pd. for straps to netting 1ƒ packing box 3ƒ barber 6ƒ paper 6s.
Recd. of Van Staphorst 200ƒ.
 
Recd. of him also bill of excha. on Vanden Iver at Paris for 2400 excha. 54. grots to the ecu & the Agio 3¼ that is to say 100ƒ banco = 103¼ƒ courant = 222.2 livres, or 1ƒ court. = 2–3s then 2400 = 1080.ƒ.b. = 1115.1ƒ court.
Remitted the bill to Mr. Short to take 600 for himself, & pay the rest to Petit with orders to pay 600. at Panthemont, 60 to Patsy, the servts. wages, & the balance for hhd. exp.
Pd.  entt. at the Waping Van Amsterdam58 187ƒ.
do. for servt. 11ƒ10 vales &c. 8ƒ.
My whole receipts here have been
 ƒ
from  Willinck  324 }  1638–17½.
from Van Staphorst  1314–17½ 
do.  2400
My disbursements at Amsterdam have been 484–13 chargeable to U.S. and 424ƒ6 and 2400 on my own acct.59
Cash on hand 750ƒ.
30. Pd. passage to Utrecht 2ƒ14 breakft. & small exp. 1ƒ10.
31.
Utrecht.  (at Aublette’s) pd. dinner lodgg. &c. 7ƒ18 servts. 2ƒ
pd. valet de place from Amstdam. 36ƒ—remisage 1ƒ10.


Apr.


1.
Nimeguen.  horses from Utrecht 35ƒ ferrge., turnpikes, 5ƒ18
seeing60 1ƒ6
dinner lodging &c. 6ƒ.
Cleves. horses from Nimeguen 12ƒ5—to Santen 9ƒ6—breakft. 16s.
Santen. postilln. from Cleves 1ƒ16 horses to Hoogstraat 9ƒ6.

2.
Hoogstraat.  postillion from Santen & tolls 1ƒ18.
dinner lodging &c. 3ƒ6 horses to Duysberg61 3ƒ18 ferrge. Rhine 1ƒ7.
 
Duysberg.  postn. from Hoogstraat 12s. Espagnol’s disbursements 17ƒ8.
breakft. & horses to Dusseldorf 11ƒ11 barrier 1ƒ11.
Dusseldorf. postilln. from Duysberg 1ƒ5 seeing gallery62 2ƒ1.
Note in the palatinate one stiver of Holld. = 2 stivers of this country & the petit ecu of France is 57½ sous, but I keep my acct. in Dutch florins & stivers.
3. Seeing gallery 1ƒ9 dinner lodgg. &c. at Zimmerman’s 8ƒ17 servts. 12s.
Horses to Langveld 4ƒ4.
Langveld. postn. & barriers 1ƒ9 horses to Cologne & barriers 6ƒ ferrge. 15s.

[4.]

63
Cologne.  postn. 1ƒ5 barber 6s.
dinner, lodgg. &c. at Holy ghost. Ingels 7ƒ2 servts. 18s. horses to Bonne 6ƒ5.
Bonne.64 postn. & barriers 1ƒ15 breakft. 1ƒ horses & barriers to Remagen 6ƒ.
Remagen. postn. 1ƒ5 horses & turnpikes to Andernach 7ƒ2.
Andernach. postn. 1ƒ horses to Coblentz 4ƒ.
Coblentz.65 postn. & turnpikes 2ƒ16.
Apr. 5. Coblentz. entt. at the Wild man 6ƒ4 small exp. 4ƒ12 ferrge. 17s.

6.
Nassau  postn. & turnpikes 2ƒ1.
supper lodgg. &c. 2ƒ ferrge. over Lahn 16s.
Nasteden. horses & postn. 5ƒ5 breakft. 1ƒ.
Schwalbach. horses & postn. 5ƒ12 Wisbaden. do. & turnpikes 6ƒ17.
 
Hadersheim. do. from Wisbaden 9ƒ3 horses to Frankft. on the Maine 4ƒ.

7.
Frankfort.66 postn. & turnpikes from Hadersheim 3ƒ17.
barber 8s. reprs. of carrge. 4ƒ comedy 1ƒ.
8. Barber 8s. 2 pr. straps 4ƒ—surtout coat 23ƒ comedy 1ƒ.
9. Books 2ƒ quills 2ƒ5 small exp. 2ƒ15 makg. surtout coat 5ƒ10 reprs. carrge. 17ƒ17.
10. Barber 8s. entt. & vales (Rothen house)67 38ƒ10 horses to Hadersheim 5ƒ4.
Hadersheim. postn. 1ƒ horses to Mayence 5ƒ. Hocheim 100 vines 2ƒ15.
Mayence. postilln. 1ƒ4 turnpikes &c. 3ƒ.
11. Rudesheim. passage down the river68 4ƒ 50 vines 2ƒ15.

12.
Mayence.  horses from Rudesheim 8ƒ postn. turnpikes 4ƒ10 barber 8s bottles 4s.
Espagnol disbmts. 2ƒ Arnaud, valet de place 13ƒ15.
entt. (hot. de Mayence) 11ƒ10 vales 2ƒ horses to Oppenheim 4ƒ8.
Oppenheim postn. & chaussée geld69 1ƒ10 horses to Worms 5ƒ.
Worms. postn. & chaussée geld 2ƒ5. dinner & vales 2ƒ.

13.
Manheim.  horses from Worms 4ƒ postn. 1ƒ4 chaussée geld & pontage 2ƒ4.
barber 8s. seeing things70 7ƒ theatre 12s.
small exp. to Heidelberg71 &c. 6ƒ10 do. to Kaeferthall72 2ƒ2.
mendg. saddle 2ƒ10 val. de place 6ƒ coachman 2ƒ.
ent. (cour du Palatin) 24ƒ5 servts. 2ƒ15 book 16s. barber 8s.
14.

15.
Spire. horses from Manheim 4ƒ postn. & turnpikes 2ƒ ferrge. 1ƒ2.
Craben. dinner 1ƒ2. horses & postn. from Spire 8ƒ5.
16.
Carlsruh.  horses & postn. 6ƒ5 plans 2ƒ10 seeing things73 5ƒ.
entt. & servts. (au Prince hereditaire) 4ƒ.
Rastadt. horses & postn. from Carlsruh 7ƒ10 Scholhofen 5ƒ4 Bischofheim 5ƒ.
Kehl do. from Bischofheim 5ƒ do. to Strasburg 2ƒ.
Strasbourg.  Postn. 11s. douane 1ƒ16.
cash on hand 25. ducats @ 5ƒ5 + 4ƒ2½ = 135ƒ7½s besides 6ƒ12 of Holld. & 3. Louis in silver & copper of France which were not counted in the estimate of Mar. 29. Adding them now the whole cash on hand is 377–6s reckoning ducats at 11–6 & florins 2–3.
 ƒ  
on hand Mar. 29. 750
do.    Apr. 16. 135– 7½
real expences 614–12½
the details added make only    604– 9
 the difference is  10– 3½
which has probably been lost in the exchange of ducats or perhaps some little articles may have been omitted.
Note of the 614ƒ–12½ here noted 39ƒ6 has beenfor things purchased. The balance 575ƒ–6½ is chargeable to U.S.
 ƒ  ƒ   
    103.25 :  222.2 : :  614.6 :  1322–12
deduct for 39ƒ6 84–10
expences remain livres 1238– 2  chargeable to U.S.74


         Money of France. 
17. Pd. for books 7. Exchanged 25. Ducats with Jean de Turcheim75 at 11–8.
Repd. Espagnol his disbmts. 29–4 repairs of carriage 3.
18. Pd. Mr. Gerard Walter76 for 14. compotiers 51.
Recd. of M. de Turcheim 900. & drew on Messrs. Van Staphorsts in his favor for 426ƒ courant.
Pd. Koenig77 for books 244–13—pd. for books 29–14.
Pd. entertt. (à l’Esprit)78 47–10 servts. 4–2 valet de place 9–10. seeing things79 7–16.
Pd. for 2. medals 2–8 postage 1–2.
Stuzheim. horses & postn. 9. Wiltenheim 6. Saverne 12. Phalsbourg 9.
19. Phalsbourg. supper, breakft. &c. 3. servts. 2–8 Fenestrange horses & postn. 15.
Dieuse 16–10 Moyenvic 9. dinnr. &c. 6. barber 8s. Champenous 12.

20.
Nancy.  horses 9. valet de place 2–8 chocolate 1–4.
entertt. 6. servts. 2–8 Velaine 9. Toul 9 Laye 9. Voie 9. St. Aubin 9.
Ligny en Barrois 6. Bar le Duc 12.80 St. Dizier 9.
 
21. St. Dizier entt. 7–10. servts. 2–8 Longchamp 9. Vitry 12 La Chaussée 12.
Chalons sur Marne 12. barber 1–4 dinner 9. servts. 1–16. Jealons 12. charities 1.

22.
Epernay  12.
barber 1–4. pd. Coussin81 for M. Dorsay for 60. bottles of Champagne of the year 1783. 210.—do. for entt. 30.
servts. 3–12. Port à Bainson 12. Dormans 6. Parois 9.
23.
Chateau Thiery 6. breakft. 1–4 la Ferme de Paris 9. la Ferté 10–10.82
Meaux 9. dinner 6. (at Hotel royal) Claye 12. Bondy 12.
Paris  12–10. charities 12s.
Cash on hand 165–16.
Espagnol’s expences 44. by a note83 he now gives in.
Expences from Strasbg. Apr. 17. to be apportioned on U.S. 564–4.
24. Pd. tuning harpsichord 3.
26. Recd. of J. Rutledge 600. lent him ante Dec. 31.
28. Gave Patsy 192. pd. M. de la Blancherie for Mr. Adams 192.
Pd. Cabanis, banker, for Lambert of Frontignan for 100. bottles of wine sent to the Count de Moustier 129.
Pd. Petit on acct. 87.
Analysis of Petit’s accounts.

Feb. 24. Mar. 2. 9—15 16—22 23—29 Mar. 30 6—12 13—19 20—26
Mar. 1. Mar. 8. Apr. 5
Cuisine 291–18  38– 0 44–14  51– 2  46–13 50–12 22–17  37–19 140–10
Office  45–12  5– 3 10– 7  14–13  18–10  3– 8 11–10  8–16  16– 2
Pet. depences 156–14  64–15 24–16  21– 5  6–16  4– 8 18–14  39–17  58– 8
Washing  52– 5  8–  14– 5  24– 5
Wood  66–10  32– 7  31–15  31–15
genl. Postage  19– 8  12–14  7–12  19– 1  50– 7  3– 1  1–13  11– 9  125– 5
632– 7 152–19 95– 9 120– 6 178– 6 61– 9 54–14 118– 7 226– 9 1640– 6
Paris Postage  9–  4–  2–  2–  1–10  3–  4  25–10
  
Amount of the Analysis  1640– 6
Extra articles paid by him as by weekly acct. viz.
Feb.  28. Forage for March 157–11
Feb. 28. portage Schweighauser’s papers84 from Nantes    6–13
Mar. 27. portage of Consular papers85 from Lorient 79–10
Apr. 4. portage of Sauterne wine86 from Bordeaux 82–15
Apr. 26. Damask for mending chairs 54–10  380–19
Extra articles not entered in the weekly accts. viz.
   
 Servants wages for March. viz.   Petit  72.
Patier  60
Boileau  50
Nomeni  50
James  24
Garçon    15 271
Forage for February 156
Panthemont see Mar. 29. 600
Patsy see Mar. 29. 60
Mr. Short. 430–0–6 my balance to him87 + 169–19–6 for U.S. 600
money to James 45 1732–
3753– 5
Cr. by  Van Staphorst’s bill. See Mar. 29. 2400
droits d’entree (see Feb. 13.) reimbursed     75–3
cash paid on acct. See Mar.88 28.  87–
  Balance now due him
2562– 3
1191– 2
May 2. Recd. of Mr. Grand 5000. and gave him bill on Willincks and Van Staphorsts for ƒ2270–17.
Pd. Mr. Grand the quarter’s rent he has pd. Langeac 1875.
Pd. Petit. balance ante 1191– 2
 Servants wages. viz.  Petit 72    
Espagnol  60
Patier 60
Boileau 50
Nomeni 50
James 24
Garcon 15  331
 Espagnol’s expences. See Apr. 23.  44
 Bohain’s account for upholstery  360
1926– 2
3. Pd. Mr. Short for Salary to be charged to U. S. 600.
Pd. for gloves 2–10.
4. Gave Patsy 60.
5. Pd. for forage for April 156.—books 7–10.
10. Pd. for books 24.
14. Gave Mr. Grand bill on Willincks & Van Staphorsts for ƒ36,000 banco. This is to replace monies he had advanced for U.S. from the fund of Virginia, & from his own funds,89 so it need not be entered in my account with the U.S. These bills were dated the 16th. inst.
Gave Mr. Short a bill on Willincks & Van Staphorsts for 13.90  for salary due him from U.S. which need not enter into my acct. Bill dated 16th. inst.
15. Pd. Noseda for Phosphoric matches 5–12  case for instrumts. 5–4.
19. Pd. for books 6. for teapot 3–10.
20. For glass 1f16.
21. A teapot 4f.
24. Books 7.
June 1. Tuning harpsichord 3. pd. Petit 3.
 
2. Gave Patsy 60.—recd. of Grand 4000. & drew on Willinks & V. Staphorsts for 1816 florins 13 sous banco.
Apr. 23.
May 3 4—10 11—17 18—24 25—31. Total
Persons 18. 28 35 28 25 134 
Cuisine 176–18 126– 2 253– 8 241– 6 225–14 1023– 8
Office  32–10  36– 9  89– 0–6  75–15  50– 9–6  284– 4
Pet. dep.  65–14  30–14  30– 6  52–12  53–13–6  232–19–6 
washing  10–16  54– 2–  64–18
servts.  6–  27– 255– 5  288– 5
genl. post.  14– 7  4–14  1–12  43–17  13– 3  77–13
306– 5 197–19 401– 6–6 413–10 652– 7 1971– 7–6 
Paris postage  5–  8  10–12–  6  9–10  3991

Amount of the Analysis of Petit’s accts.
 Apr. 23. to May 31. 1971– 7–6
Extra articles included in the accts. viz.
  
Apr.  23.—May 3.  Champagne wine & portage  47–14
James’s apprenticeship  72–
books  8
May  4.—10. Vinegar  87
11—17 furniture  83– 7
18—24. do.  25– 4
25—31. do.  19–10
clothes 205– 8–6
books     20–14  568–17–6
2540– 5
Credit. by paid yesterday 3–0
June 2. by paid this day  1537–5 1540– 5
 Balance remaining due to Petit  1000–92
 pd. Servants wages viz.
  
Petit 72
Espagnol    60
Patier 60
Boileau 50
Nomeni 50
James 24
Garçon 15
331 .
Sent by Petit to Panthemont 600. to Molini 30.
3. Pd. forage of last month 156.
Pd. mending crank of harpsichord 3.
Pd. Frouillé on account for books 1000.
Drew on Willinks & V. Staphorsts in favr. Mr. Short ƒ272–10s = 600 for his salary, & so need not enter into my acct. with U.S.
Pd. passing river 12s.
6. Gave Patsy for clothes 215.
7. Pd. for tools 2.
11. Pd. Charpentier for M. de Corny93 72.
12. Pd. for books 3.
14. Pd. Charpentier balance for De Corny’s press 44–8.
Pd. do. for myself 21–12 pd. for buckles 3.
15. Pd. Charpentier for addg. spring to press 6.
16. Bonair comes into my service as Coachman.
19. Pd. for books 8.
Gave Walter Henry a shipwreckt sailor from N. York 24.
Recd. of M. De Corny 116f8.
25. Pd. for a hat 21.
Charge U.S. a ream copying paper sent me by J. Trumbull 18/6 sterl.
28. Pd. for books 6.
Analysis of Petit’s accts.

June 1.—7. 8—14 15—21 22—28 Total
146–4 = 145 = 190 = 132 = 613–11 =
21 × 6–19 18 × 8–1 23 × 8–5 16 × 8–5 78 × 7–17
Cuisine 114–12 108–14 142– 1 107–18 473– 5
Office  31–12  36– 6  48– 4  24– 4 140– 6
Pet. dep.  10–14  21–17  46– 5  32–15 111–11
Washing  17–11  17–11
Clothes.  50– 2  50– 2
servts.  11–14  11–14
Generl. postge.  12– 9  9– 6  6–14  18– 1  46–10
Total 237– 0 176– 3 254–18 182–18 850–19
Paris postge.  7–10  7–10  6–0  21– 0
Extras books 8 servts. wages 34  42–


July


2.
Balance due to Petit ante June 2. 1000.
Amount for June 1—28. as above     850–19  
Extras do.    42  892–19
1892–19
Received of Mr. Grand 5000. for my draught on Willincks & Van Staphorsts for ƒ2291–13–8.
Drew also on Willincks & Van Staphorsts for ƒ275 = 600. paiable to Mr. Grand for Mr. Short for his salary; therefore it need not enter into my acct. with U.S.
Pd. Mr. Grand for John Paradise 2400.94
Pd. Petit  for  servts. vz.  Petit 72
Espagnol  60
Bonaire 30
Boileau 50
Nomeni 50
James 24   s
Garçon  15   301–0
for Menuisier  225–19–6
Serrurier  141–15
Patsy for clothes  66–
for himself in part of balance due him 1565– 5–6
2300–
Balance due him ante 1892–19
deduct 1565–5–6 leaves balce. now due  327–13–6
Pd. Prevost95 for books from Koenig 30–3.
Pd. for books 3f12—recd. of Mr. Short wt. Trumbul hd. pd. of my money 21f12.
5. Gave Patsy 60.
6. Pd. Charpentier for a pr. of clamps 12.
 
July 10. Pd. postage from New York 98–16.96
protested97 Recd. from J. Bannister junr. his bill of exchange endorsed by John Dunbar on Alexr. Willock mercht. London in my favor for 50£ for 69£ currency of Virga. This is in part of my advances for J. Bannister.
12. Recd. from M. Petrie 726. on a bill of Brailsford and Morris sent to me on account of the Agricultural society of S. Carolina to be employed in sending them olive trees.98
Pd. at Panthemont for my daurs. 750.
Credit the U.S. my bills on Van Staphorsts paid by them, viz.
to Turkheim 426 florins courant. See ante Apr. 18.
to Peuchen ƒ143–14.99
which the Van Staphorsts now inform me they have paid.
16. Repd. Mr. Paradise wt. he had paid for umbrella for me 36f.
18. Pd. Charpentier 10. + 2. which was an overpaimt.
21. Patsy 48.—Polly 2f8.
25. Inclosed to Van Damme order on Van Staphorsts for 148 florins–11 sols courant for books.1
27. Pd. Upton on account 12.
Aug. 1. Analysis of Petit’s accounts

June 29. July 5 July 6—12 13—19 20—26 Total
553.–6 = 160–18 = 167–5 = 209–7 = 1090–16 =
13–3 × 422 7–13 × 21 6–9 × 26 11–13 × 18 10–4 × 107
Cuisine 369– 8 110–11 130–13 156–12  767– 4
Office 183–18  50– 7  36–12  52–15  323–12
Pet. depences  48–15  38–18  36–19  52– 1  176–13
washing  69– 7  69– 7
servants  48– 6  44– 8  92–14
clothes  8– 7  7–10  25–13  41–10
furniture  45– 5  15–  60– 5
portage  30–12  26–13  31–14  88–19
Genl. postage   10– 1  13–11  16– 8  5–12  45–12
Total 813–19 291–18 261– 5 298–14 1665–16
Paris postge.  11–10  8–  5–  6–  30–10
Extras  8   8
Balance due to Petit ante July 2.           327–13–6
 Amount for June 29—July 26 1665–16
 Extras   8
2001– 9–6
Aug. 1. Drew on Willinks & Van Staphorst for 275ƒ &c. for Mr. Short which being for his salary need not be entered in my acct.
Drew on do. for myself for ƒ2296–17–8 for my salary in favor Messrs. Grand & co.
Recd. of Mr. Grand  5000.
Viz.  pd. him for lre. of credit on London sent to Trumbul  2057– 33
pd. him protest of Bannister’s bill on Willock   9–12
pd. him for lre. of credit to Dijon for Clerici4  192–
received of him cash 2741– 5  5000
 
Aug. 2. Pd. Petit for servts.
 viz.  Petit 72
Espagnol   60
Bonair 60
Boileau 50
Nomeni 50
James 24
Garcon 15

 331

Pd. do.  for  Cabaret for bookbinding 597–2 }  783–8
for stationary to be charged to U.S.  186–6
viz. from 1787. May 24. to 1788 June 29.
for Sr. John Lamb5 for Cathalan  60–
for forage for June  136
1310–8
Amount of what is due to Petit as on other side  2001–9–6
Pd. him this day 1201–9–6
   Balance remaining due to him 800–0–0
Pd. also acct. forage for July 148–10.
4. Gave Patsy 60.—gave in charity for injury by hail 72.6
7. Pd. for map of Paris 2–10.
11. Lent Patsy 12.—gave do. to pay for clothes 92.
Pd. for pamphlets7 2.
15. Pd. for a small violin8 36.
24. Pd. seeing Bagatelle9 4–4.
 
27. Pd. Gerna10 for books from Dublin 45.
28. Pd. Charpentier in part 48.
31. Lent Gaudenzio Clerici 78.
Analysis of Petit’s accounts.

July 27—Aug. 2 Aug. 3—9 Aug. 10—16 Aug. 17—23 Aug. 24—30 Total
231–6 = 135–1 = 159–7 = 210–7 = 236–3 = 972–4 =
8–11 × 27 9 × 15 11–8 × 14 10 × 21 10–5 × 23 9–15 × 100
Cuisine 143–12 104– 7 118–14 160– 2 169– 9  696– 4
Office  87–14  30–14  40–13  50– 5  66–14  276–
Breakft.  35–12  36– 2
Pet. dep.  25–15  36–13  44– 1  31– 6  85–18
washing  48–15  45–12
Servants  50– 6  15  52– 6
furniture  15  25– 0
portage  7–10  95– 8–9
Genl. postage  13–10  8– 7  29– 6  34– 2–  22–18  108– 3
Total 405– 4 187–11 247–14 386– 3–9 503–19 1730–11–9
Paris postage  9–  5–  4–10  9–  5–10  33
Extras books 8 books 3–12 books 8
Preserves 203–10
Balance due to Petit Aug. 2.  800
Amount of Analysis of July 27—Aug. 30.    1730–11–9
Extras  223– 2
  Balance now due 2753–13–9
Sep. 1. Drew bill on Willincks & Van Staphorsts in favor of Mr. Short for ƒ277–10 banco = 600. which being for his salary need not be entered in my acct.
Drew on do. for ƒ2312–10 on account of my allowance & recd. of Mr. Grand for it 5000.
Pd. Mr. Grand for de Saussure’s hygrometer11 61–16.
 
Pd. Petit  for Genen the taylor on acct.  800
for Prevost for books from Koenig  103–10
for picture framer  60–
for Panthemont  600
for Patsy for manteaumaker  331
for forage for August  156
for servts.  Petit 72    
Espagnol   60
Bonair 60
Boileau 50
Nomeni 50
James 24
Garçon 15  331
2381–10
Balance due Petit as on preceding page   2753–13–9
Cash now paid him 1500
  Balance remaining due 1253–13–9
Charge to U.S. 9f6 pd. for portage of letters to Bordeaux by Mrs. Barclay.
5. Pd. for a guitar12 84.
13 Pd. postage of letters from N. York 39–10.
10. Recd. of W. Short what Trumbull had paid for him & charged me 10–4.
Pd. W. Short for Fulwar Skipwith for cheese14 36.
Gave in charity 6.
 
11. Pd. for books 2.
12. Charity 12s.
19. Gave Patsy to pay for sundries 200.
Pd. Boileau 100. & dismissed him.
Took La Croix into service in his place.
20. Recd. of P. Mazzei 48. lent ante 1787. Oct. 20.
Pd. for reprinting Dr. Franklin’s advice to emigrants15 18f16. U.S.
Gave in charity to a Turk 24.
Gave Ct. Langeac order on Mr. Grand for 1000. in part for quarter’s rent ending July 16.
Sep. 27. Pd. Petit on acct. 48 ferrge. 12s.
28. Expences to St. Germains, Marly, Louvechienne 12f10.
29. Gloves 1–16.
30. A Locket 40.
Octob. 1. Mr. Paradise has recd. of Grand’s correspondent at Lyons on my acct. 720.
Drew on Willincks & Van Staphorsts for ƒ1833–7 Banco and recd. of Grand for it 4000.
Pd. at Panthemont 600.
Gave Patsy 60.
2. Pd. for books 4f4.
Pd. Servants to wit  Petit 72
Espagnol  60
Bonair 60
La croix 20
Nomeni 50
James 24
Garçon 15
301
Pd. Petit on acct. 699
1000
3. Pd. Charpentier his acct. balance 79–10.
Pd. tuning harpsichord 3.
Analysis of Petit’s accounts.
Aug. 31.—Sep. 6 7—13 14—20 21—27 Total
123–7 =
6–10 × 19
136–8 =
6–10 × 21 
123–9 =
8–4 × 15
260–13 =
10–17 × 24 
643–17 =
8–3 × 79
Cuisine  93– 0  99–12  81–10 190– 7 464– 9
Office  30– 7  36–16  41–19  70– 6 179– 8
Pet. dep.  19–16  31–15  13– 3  25–12  90– 6
servants  37–10  7– 4  1– 4  45–18
portage  35– 4  11–18  47– 2
genl. post.  20–12  15– 6  49–15  25– 1 110–14
236– 9 202–11 187–11 311– 6 937–17
Paris post.  7  9  7–10  7  30–10
Extras books 8 books 8 } 90
hammercloth
 of chart. 60
servante 14







1027–17
Balance of Sep. 1. 1253–13–9
by cash Sep. 27.  48 2281–10–9
by do. Oct. 1 699
by do. this day Oct. 3  634–10–9 1381–10–9
Balance now remaining due to him  900– 0–0
Repd. him portage of Consular papers to Havre  170– 1
Pd. him forage acct. of last month  162–
Pd. him Chapelain the Sellier’s acct. 1036– 3 1368– 4
Oct. 5. Recd. back of the Sellier 48.
7. Pd. Dupré washing 58–2.
10. Gave Ct. Langeac order on Mr. Grand for 2750 rent in full to the 16th. inst. & notified that the lease should finish Apr. 16. 1789.16
12. Pd. for 1½ doz. steel buttons 12.
13. Pd. for 2 musick desks 7f4.
14. Pd. for a glass jar 3f10.
 
15. Pd. for glass jars, capsules &c. 21–9.
Pd. for a rouleau of paper, 11. Engl. yards 21¼ I. wide 2–10.
16. Pd. at Mont Calvaire in full to this day 48.
17. Pd. Crepy for 150. sheets ruled paper17 @ 8s. 60.
20. Pd. at Panthemont 300.
23. Pd. at Sykes’s18 for a glass gobelet 2.
24. Pd. for locks 4–14.
25. Pd. Upton on acct. 24.
29. Pd. for medicine 3.
Nov. 1. Analysis of Petit’s accounts

Sep. 28—Oct. 4 Oct. 5—11 Oct. 12—18 Oct. 19—25 Sep. 28—Oct. 25
98–619 =
7 × 14
96 =
9–12 × 10
158–7 =
11–6 × 14
144–4 =
11–2 × 13
496–17 =
9–15 × 51
Cuisine  73– 5  67–15 134–18 110–12  386–10
Office  25–10  28– 5  23– 9  33–12  110–16
Pet. dep.  52– 2  37–  36– 9  31–15  157– 6
breakft.  23– 3  6– 6  13–10  4– 5  47– 4
Washing  48–10  48–10
servants 101– 6  72–12  173–18
wood  30–10  26–  56–10
genl. post.  22– 5  11– 5  21– 5  7–15  62–10
376–11 223– 3 255–11 187–19 1043– 4
Paris post.  6  9  9–10  6–  30–10
Extras books 8   8
1051– 4
Nov. 3. Note of acct. with Mr. Grand. viz.




Paradise had placed on his hands for me (ante July 2.)  2400   
Grand  pd. Langeac my order of Sep. 20. 1000
to Paradise by his correspondt. at Lyons. (ante Oct. 1.)   720
to Langeac my order of Oct. 10.  2750
 I owe him on these accounts then    balance 2070

4470

4470
Drew on Willinks & V. Staphorsts ƒ2312–10s banco in favor of Mr. Grand.
     
repd. him the balance ante  2070
recd. in cash moreover 2930
    amounting to 5000 . in the whole for my bill.
Pd. Petit for servts. viz.  Petit 72
Espagnol    60
Bonair 60
Lacroix 50
Nomeni 50
James 24
Garçon 15
Sally 12
343
Brought over   343
 s 
Balance of Oct. 3. due Petit 900–0
Amt. of last accounts as before 1051–4
Cash now paid him in part 1000–0  1000
Balance still remaining due 951–4
1951–4 1951–4
Pd.  him  for Sartorius20 for Limozin     254–17–9
Pd.   him  for Panthemont  600–
for Patsy  192–
2389–17–9
 
Pd  him  also to correct an error in the article Cuisine
between Oct. 5. & 11. which I had noted  
20. too little  20
2409–17–9
Nov. 4. Pd. forage of last month 167.
Pd. De bray (Pal. royal) acct. for books 32–3 + 54–2 = 86–5.
6. Pd. tuning harpsichord 3.
9. Pd. Corneillon for paper21 for drawing 128. viz. Copper plate 30. engraving do. 48. 200 sheets paper & strikg. 50.
13. Pd. for a map 6. for books 8.
15. Pd. washing 46–16s.
19. Lent Thos. Lee Shippen 120.22
22. Paid for the ensuing year of Perrier’s water 50.
26. Borrowed of Petit 84.
Pd. Clousier23 for printing Consular convention & Observns. on the whale fishery 183. to be charged to U.S.
See below Novr. 29.
27. Borrowed of Petit 240.—pd. for repeating watch 240.
29. Pd. for books 1f10.
26. Inclosed bill of exchange (Grand & co. on Burton &c.) to J. Trumbull for £121–11–3 sterl. balance of acct. due from me to him for my carriage24 &c. for which credit Grand 3018–2.
 
Dec. 1. Analysis of Petit’s accounts.

Oct. 26.
Nov. 1
Nov. 2.—8 9—15 16—22 23—29 Oct. 26—
Nov. 29
21) 177
(8–9
15) 148–7
(9–18
8) 115–2
(14–8
21) 194–2
(9–5
31) 243–15
(7–17
86)25 878
(9–3
        
Cuisine   126– 6 124–18 94–15 135– 2 183–15 664–16
Office 50–14 23– 9 20– 7 59– 0 60– 0 213–10
Pet. dep. 46–16 21–17 66–19 78– 9 61– 3 275– 4
washing 36–15 14– 0 50–15
servants 54– 6 15– 8 42– 0 111–14
wood 30–15 26– 5 32–15 188–13 278– 8
furniture 93– 9 14– 8 107–17
portage 45   45– 
genl. post. 20– 1 4– 4 18– 8 11–19 8–11 63– 3
428– 7 220–11 256–14 26 331–13 558– 2 1810– 7 27
Paris post. 8– 0 11–10 10– 8 9–  11– 0 49–18
Extras books 7–10 7–10
 1817–17
Received of Mr. Grand 5000 for my draught of ƒ2317–14s banco on Willinks & V. Staphorsts.
Repd. Mr. Grand the 3018–2s ante Nov. 26.
Pd. Petit for  servants. viz.
Petit 72
Espagnol    60
Bonair 60
La croix 50
Nomeni 50
 
James 24
Garçon 15 Dr. Cr.   
Sally 12 343 
 balance of Nov. 1.  951– 4
 borrowed Nov. 26. & 27.  324–
 Amount as before 1817–17
 Cash now paid him in part 693–1 693–1
 balance remaining due 2400–0
3093–1 3093– 1
 forage for November 167–0
 Amount actually paid in cash 1203–1
Gave Patsy 60.
Pd. Molini for books 54.—gave in charity 6.
Dec. 3. Pd. for books 8.
4. Pd. for cleaning watch 6.
8. Pd. for tuning harpsichord 3.
12. Pd. Spanish master (Polly’s) 42.
13. Pd. Petit 12.
14.
Pd. Pissot28 for books 12.
Pd. for gazettes of next year viz.  Gazette  de Leyde 36
Pd. for servts. 12. de France 15
Pd. Petit 120. Journal de Paris 30
Pd. Royez for books 43–4s. de Physique   24
Pd. Petit 6. 105
15.
17.
19.
25.
26.
30. Pd. Petit 24.
Dec. 31. Analysis of Petit’s accounts

Nov. 30.
Dec. 6
7—13 14—20 21—27 Nov. 30—
Dec. 27
20) 193–9
(9–13
18) 145–15
(8–2
20) 210–6
(10–10
18) 215–3
(11–19
76) 764–13
(10–1
  
Cuisine 160–11 103–18 155–16 153– 9 573–14
Office 32–18 41–17 54–10 61–14 190–19
Pet. dep. 49–15 30–11 13– 5 77– 8 170–19
 
breakft. 5– 2 5–15 5–15 5–15 22– 7
Washing 42– 0 42– 0
servants 48– 6 15– 0 37–15 101– 1
wood 60– 0 188– 9 26– 5 274–14
furniture 22– 0 22   
clothes 39–10 39–10
generl. post 18–11 8–19 9–10 9– 3 46– 3
417– 3 206– 0 449– 5 410–19 1483– 7
Paris post 6– 0 6– 0 7–10 8– 0 27–10
Extras Serrurier 49–2 49– 2
1532– 9
✓Dec. 31. Recd. of Mr. Grand 6000. for my draught on Will. & V. Staph. for 2775 flor. banco.
Paid for a chariot29 960. for bringing it home 3.

35French diplomat and publicist Antoine Marie Cerisier (1749-1828) had recently arrived in Paris with a letter of recommendation to TJ from John Adams. Since the autumn invasion of Holland by the Prussian army in support of the Stadholder, Paris was full of ardent members of the defeated Patriot party like Cerisier and Jacob Van Staphorst (Papers, xii, 397 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; TJ to W. C. Nicholas, 5 Dec. 1796). The Analyse des papiers anglois, the Comte de Mirabeau’s political sheet, was being used at this time by Mirabeau’s collaborator, Brissot de Warville, as an organ of the Societé des Amis des Noirs, formally organized in Feb. 1788 (Hatin, Bibliographie, p. 66 description begins Eugene Hatin, Bibliographie historique et critique de la presse periodique française, 1866, repr. Turin, 1960 description ends ). For TJ’s reasons for not joining this anti-slave-trade society, of which Cerisier was one of the twelve founders, see TJ to Brissot de Warville, 11 Feb. 1788.

36The elderly and ceremonious Guy Claude, Comte de Sarsfield (1718-1789), a long-time friend of John Adams, was often to be found at the tables of the French “Americans” such as Malesherbes and La Rochefoucauld (TJ to Abigail Adams, 1 July 1787; Sarsfield to TJ, 23 Jan. 1788; Adams, Diary, ii, 380-1 description begins Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, ed. L. H. Butterfield, Cambridge, Mass., 1961, 4 vols. description ends ).

38The program of this concert included a Haydn symphony and works by Sarti, Paisiello, Devienne, Jean Lefèvre, Henri Berton, Niccolo Mestrino, and C. A. Vion (Journal de Paris, 2 Feb. 1788).

39In repayment for Madeira, copying presses, and books procured by TJ (see account in TJ to Poirey, 22 Jan. 1788).

40This wine cost 441–10. The Meursault was Goutte d’Or 1784 (MB 28 Apr. 1788; TJ to Parent, 17 Dec. 1787; Parent to TJ, 3 Feb. 1788).

41These were ceps de vigne of the great wine grapes of Burgundy (TJ to Parent, 13 Mch. 1787; Parent to TJ, 3 Feb. 1788).

42“Petites affiches” was the common name of Annonces, affiches et avis divers, ou Journal général de France, edited by Abbé Jean Louis Aubert. This daily Paris newspaper printed advertisements of property for sale or rent, notices of commercial novelties and cultural events, and announcements of new books. TJ had been a subscriber at least as early as 1787 and perhaps since his arrival in Paris (Hatin, Bibliographie, p. 19 description begins Eugene Hatin, Bibliographie historique et critique de la presse periodique française, 1866, repr. Turin, 1960 description ends ; receipt for subscription to “Affiches de Paris,” 9 Feb. 1787, MHi).

43This account is in William S. Smith to TJ, 22 Feb. 1788, first of that date.

44Mary Jefferson was sick at this time (William Short to TJ, 6 Mch. 1788). The English doctor Richard Gem (1717-1800) was intimate with TJ in Paris and closely involved in the political discussions of 1788 and 1789. Many years later TJ recalled Gem as the ablest physician he had ever encountered (TJ to James Madison, 13 Jan. 1821; Papers, xv, 384-7 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

45Actually a watch and a pedometer (TJ to James Madison, 8 Feb. 1786, 8 Oct. 1787, 6 Feb. 1788).

46For the Provençal foodstuffs TJ received, see TJ to Stephen Cathalan, 13 Nov. 1787, and Cathalan to TJ, 25 Jan. 1788.

47The account which Abigail Adams was settling before leaving Europe is in TJ to Mrs. Adams, 2 Feb. 1788. In 1782 M. C. Pahin de La Blancherie (1752-1811) had induced John Adams to become a member of his “Correspondance Générale et Gratuite pour les Sciences et les Arts,” ambitiously intended as an international collaboration of artists and savants. The society and its weekly publication operated at irregular intervals from 1778 to 1788 (Adams to TJ, 6 Sep. 1787; La Blancherie to TJ, 3 Nov. 1787; TJ to Adams, 20 Feb. 1788; Thiéry, Guide, ii, 356-9 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends ). Ubiquitous American speculator Daniel Parker (d. 1829), who travelled often between Paris and London, was a useful mode of conveyance on several occasions (Yvon Bizardel, Les Américains à Paris sous Louis XVI et pendant la révolution [Paris, 1978], p. 141-2).

49On 2 Mch. TJ had learned that John Adams was at the Hague taking official leave before returning to America. He immediately decided to join Adams in Holland to confer on the best means of bolstering the shaky financial credit of the United States (TJ to Adams, 2 Mch. 1788; TJ to John Jay, 13 and 16 Mch. 1788; TJ to George Washington, 2 May 1788; Malone, Jefferson, ii, 187-91 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends ). TJ travelled in his own carriage, using post horses, and took with him his manservant Espagnol and his portable copying press. Of the several additional sources on this journey, TJ’s “Notes of a Tour through Holland and the Rhine Valley” and “Hints to Americans Travelling in Europe” will be cited repeatedly in the footnotes (Papers, xiii, 8-36, 264-76 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ). See also Kimball, Jefferson, iii, 218-41, and Dumbauld, Jefferson Tourist, p. 110-24 description begins Edward Dumbauld, Thomas Jefferson, American Tourist, Norman, Okla., 1946 description ends . In MHi there are fifty-four pages of miscellaneous items concerning this trip, including tavern and merchants’ bills, Espagnol’s accounts, suggested itineraries, and a four-page rough account from which TJ transcribed MB entries 4 Mch. to 28 Apr. Significant differences between this account and the MB will be noted.

50TJ donned the colors of William v, Prince of Orange, not in sympathy but out of necessity. “From the day when the Stadtholder’s Party . . . had dominated the Patriots’ Party, both conquerors and conquered had worn a piece of orange ribbon in either their buttonhole or their hat. Women attached a small piece to the end of their belt or to their fichu, and servants wore it as a cockade” (Memoirs of Madame de La Tour du Pin, ed. Felice Harcourt [New York, 1971], p. 161). Anyone failing to wear the cockade was subject to the insults of a clamorous street population (T. L. Shippen to TJ, 29 May 1788; note to C.W.F. Dumas to TJ, 30 May 1788).

51At Haarlem TJ saw the almost completed country house of Amsterdam banker Henry Hope (Papers, xiii, xxvii, 11-12, and illustration facing p. 16 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

52Like several other Americans in this period TJ was probably transported up the River Ij in a yacht by one of the friendly Dutch bankers to the United States. Their destination was the picturesque village of Zaandam, often then called Saardam, noted for the striking costumes of its inhabitants and the wooden hut where Peter the Great had lived when he practiced ship-building (Letters of Mrs. Adams, p. 302 description begins Letters of Mrs. Adams, ed. Charles Francis Adams, 4th ed., Boston, 1848 description ends ; Morris, Diary, i, 450 description begins Gouverneur Morris, A Diary of the French Revolution, ed. Beatrix Cary Davenport, Boston, 1939, 2 vols. description ends ; T. L. Shippen travel journal, 8 June 1788, DLC: Shippen Papers).

53Waffles apparently became a culinary fixture at Monticello. There is a recipe for Monticello waffles in Septimia Meikleham’s manuscript cookbook in the Monticello archives.

54 Drinkgeld, gratuity.

55A “Wooden Screw press for Letters” (André Limozin to TJ, 9 Apr. 1788).

56 Agio was the premium borne by banco or bank money, as opposed to current money.

57Rough account (MHi) reads, “Pd. for the roof of boat to Utrecht.”

58Het Wapen van Amsterdam (the Amsterdam Arms) was at the corner of Rusland and the Kloveniersburgwal (Papers, xiii, xxvi-xxvii and illustration facing p. 16 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ). The itemized hotel bill indicates that TJ drank Graves and Moselle wine with his dinners and, for the second half of his stay, drank hot chocolate instead of coffee for breakfast (MHi).

59TJ placed strictly personal purchases (the books, china, and so forth) on his own account; entertainment, charity, sightseeing, and miscellaneous expenses were chargeable to the United States (see TJ to William Short, 28 July 1791, for his policy for charging travel expenses).

60At Nijmegen TJ saw the Romanesque palace of the Carolingian emperors, now in ruins, and climbed the seventeenth-century Belvedere to enjoy the view (Papers , xiii, 12, 264 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

61TJ left the more travelled west bank road to Düsseldorf, crossed the Rhine at Essenburg, and stopped in Duisburg. Here he was searching for a site that to this day has not been determined, the spot where in 9 A.D. the Germans under Arminius defeated the legions of Quinctilius Varus and arrested the expansion of the Roman empire east of the Rhine. TJ’s own inquiries were frustrated by the language barrier, but the disputed site of the battle of Teutoburger Wald is generally agreed to be in the vicinity of Detmold, about one hundred miles farther east (Papers, xiii, 13, 264 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

62TJ visited the gallery of paintings in the palace of the Palatinate Elector. He called this collection “sublime” and “precious,” not because of the “old faded red things” of Rubens, but because of the apartment devoted to the paintings of Adriaen van der Werff; Carlo Dolci was also “a violent favorite” (Papers, xiii, 14, 264-5 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; TJ to Maria Cosway, 24 Apr. 1788). Most of the paintings TJ saw are now in the Alte Pinakothek, Munich (Trumbull, Autobiography, p. 136-9 description begins The Autobiography of Colonel John Trumbull, ed. Theodore Sizer, New Haven, 1953 description ends ). On the way to Cologne TJ stopped to view Schloss Benrath, the Elector’s summer palace built by Nicolas de Pigage.

63Date from MHi rough account; TJ failed to enter a figure.

64At Bonn TJ saw the Elector of Cologne’s palace, now part of the University (Papers, xiii, 265 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

65At Koblenz TJ saw the medieval fortress of Ehrenbreitstein and the palace just completed for the Elector of Trier, particularly noting its system of central heating (Papers, xiii, 265 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

66Of the sights of Frankfurt, which TJ called “worth examining in detail,” TJ made no mention (Papers, xiii, 266 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ). He met the Baron de Geismar here and on 8 Apr. they went together to Hanau, where TJ saw other Hessian officers he had known at Charlottesville during the Revolution. They also visited Wilhelmsbad, the pleasure ground near Hanau recently laid out in the English style for the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel by F. L. Cancrin. TJ was much taken with several of its fabriques, including a hermitage with a polychrome plaster hermit (TJ to Geismar, 18 Mch. 1788; TJ to William Short, 9 Apr. 1788; Papers, xiii, 17-18 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

67While staying at the large and magnificent Red House in Frankfurt, TJ sampled some of the fine local wines from the cellar of its landlord, John Adam Dick (Maison Rouge bill, 10 Apr. 1788, MHi; Papers, xiii, xxv, 20, 266 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; Berry, Journals, i, 24 description begins Extracts of the Journals and Correspondence of Miss [Mary] Berry, ed. Theresa Lewis, London, 1865, 3 vols. description ends ).

68In a small boat with a sail and two oarsmen, TJ sailed from Mainz to Rüdesheim and returned by land, stopping along the way to examine the vineyards near Rüdesheim (Hinterhaus and Rüdesheimerberg) and those of Schloss Johannisberg and Markobrunn. The vines he bought flourished in his garden at the Hôtel de Langeac and he looked forward to offering “a glass of Hock or Rudesheim of my own making” to the Baron de Geismar, should he revisit Monticello (TJ to Geismar, 13 July 1788). There is no record that TJ succeeded in making wine from these German stocks. TJ’s detailed notes on viniculture in the Rheingau are in Papers, xiii, 19-21 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends .

69Having suffered through the muddy tracks between Bonn and Frankfurt, TJ more cheerfully paid the road taxes on the gravelled chaussées to the south (TJ to William Short, 9 Apr. 1788; Papers, xiii, 26 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

70Of the sights of Mannheim, TJ mentioned only the observatory and the palace of the Palatinate Elector, which then had a very large art gallery as well as cabinets of antiquities and natural history (Papers, xiii, 266-7 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; Berry, Journals, i, 25 description begins Extracts of the Journals and Correspondence of Miss [Mary] Berry, ed. Theresa Lewis, London, 1865, 3 vols. description ends ).

71At Heidelberg TJ visited the castle, “the most magnificent ruin after those left us by the antients,” taking time to measure the famous Grosses Fass, the huge wine barrel which is still an attraction at the site. Afterwards he went to the gardens at Schwetzingen, where he preferred the section in the English style (TJ to Maria Cosway, 24 Apr. 1788; Papers, xiii, 23-4, 267 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

72At Käfertal TJ saw the Elector’s wild boars and a private rhubarb plantation (Papers, xiii, 24, 267 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

73Of the sights he saw at Karlsruhe TJ mentioned only the palace and gardens of the Margrave of Baden (Papers, xiii, 25, 267 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ). A map of Karlsruhe, then being developed according to a comprehensive plan by Friedrich Weinbrenner, was one of many TJ later sent to Pierre L’Enfant to aid in the creation of the city of Washington (TJ to L’Enfant, 10 Apr. 1791).

74Because of his personal motives for turning south into Germany after concluding the public business in Amsterdam, TJ later decided to charge the United States only half the expenses of his return journey, 901 livres 3 sous (MB 23 Apr. 1788; Account with U.S. 1792, 23 Apr. 1788 description begins “Account with U.S. of America as their Minister Plenipotentiary in Europe. Exact copy as given in to the Auditor July. 1792” DLC: TJ Papers, 13286-94. See Papers, XXIV, 175-89. description ends ).

75The von Türckheim or de Turcheim family had been bankers at Strasbourg since the sixteenth century. For a detailed account of TJ’s stay in Strasbourg, see Howard C. Rice, Jr., “Thomas Jefferson à Strasbourg (1788),” Cahiers Alsaciens d’archéologie, d’art et d’histoire, i (1958), 137-54.

76 Gerard Walter was a dealer in fine furnishings opposite the Hôtel de Ville, Strasbourg. The compotiers may have been Niderviller as Walter specialized in this porcelain (Walter trade card, MHi).

77TJ considered Amand Koenig’s bookshop in the Rue des Grandes-Arcades the best in Europe for the purchase of classical works and continued to buy from him throughout his stay in Paris (Papers, xiii, xxviii, 267 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; TJ to George Ticknor, 19 Mch. 1815).

78Strasbourg’s Hôtel de l’Esprit was on the Quai Saint-Thomas. The hotel and TJ’s bill for lodging are illustrated in Papers, xiii, facing p. 17 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends .

79At Strasbourg TJ saw the Château des Rohan and the cathedral, climbing the 662 steps to the top of its steeple (Papers, xiii, 267 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

80Here TJ omitted: “Saudrupt 9 charities &c. 2” (Rough account, MHi).

81 Cousin, keeper of the Hôtel de Rohan at Épernay, accompanied TJ to the cellars of Ay. There TJ purchased still champagne, which he always preferred to the sparkling variety (Papers, xiii, 29-32 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; TJ to William Short, 12 Aug. 1790; TJ to Fulwar Skipwith, 4 May 1803; Cousin trade card, MHi).

82Here TJ omitted: “St. Jean 6” (Rough account, MHi).

83On the verso of Espagnol’s memorandum, now in MHi, are TJ’s preliminary sketches for his moldboard of least resistance (Papers, xiii, xxv-xxvi, illustration facing p. 16 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

84TJ had been authorized in 1786 to settle the claims of Schweighauser & Dobrée, representatives of the late Daniel Schweighauser, an agent of the Continental Congress during the Revolution. TJ’s intervention in this complex affair brought no resolution and the claim was still unsettled at the end of his presidency. See John Jay to TJ, 27 Oct. 1786; TJ to Schweighauser & Dobrée, 27 June 1788; note to TJ to Rayneval, 17 Apr. 1789; and TJ’s “State of the Case” in Papers, xiv, 315-23.

85TJ had been ordered to receive and forward to the Board of Treasury the consular papers of Thomas Barclay (MB 3 Oct. 1788, 1 Apr. 1789; Commissioners of Treasury to TJ, 5 Dec. 1787, 22 July 1788; TJ to Commissioners, 6 Sep. 1788).

86The Château d’Yquem paid for in 1789 (MB 2 Feb. 1789).

87TJ’s total payments to William Short exceed the 1787 loan by 66–10. This was to resolve the discrepancy between the 375 livres left with Short in March to pay for Burgundy wine and the 441–10 Short actually paid (MB 28 July 1787, 3 Mch. 1788; Short account with TJ, 3 May 1788, DLC: Short Papers, 3: 398-9).

88Correctly April.

89After the depletion of United States funds in 1786, Ferdinand Grand had used 29,765 livres of Virginia funds and 49,180 livres of his own to sustain the American diplomatic establishment in Europe (MB 17 July 1785, 28 July 1787; TJ to John Jay, 16 Mch. 1788; TJ to Commissioners of Treasury, 16 May 1788).

90TJ never completed this figure, which was 13,146–6. From 24 Sep. 1785 to 24 Apr. 1788 William Short had earned 18,716–5. He had actually received, besides TJ’s April and May payments, only 4,800 livres, furnished by Ferdinand Grand at various times in 1786 and 1787 (MB 28 July 1787, 28 Apr., 3 May 1788; Short account with U.S., DLC: Short Papers, 1: 76).

91Correctly 39–2.

92From this date, with the exception of a brief spell of balance in the spring of 1789, TJ remained generally from 1,000 to 2,000 livres behind in his payments to Adrien Petit for the household accounts.

93 Procureur du roi Louis Dominique Ethis de Corny (1738-1790) and his wife, who lived on the Chaussée d’Antin, were close friends of both TJ and Maria Cosway. TJ had had Charpentier alter M. de Corny’s copying press to improve its operation (TJ to De Corny, 17 Dec. 1787; Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 42-3 description begins Howard C. Rice, Jr., Thomas Jefferson’s Paris, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends ; TJ specifications and diagrams for “M. de C.’s travelling copying press,” ViU).

94Here begins TJ’s involvement in the disordered financial affairs of John and Lucy Ludwell Paradise, who had arrived in Paris in May. This particular loan was soon repaid, but from Oct. 1788 to Aug. 1789 TJ lent Paradise a further 4,224 livres, which was repaid in full by the spring of 1790 (MB 3 Nov. 1788, 21 Apr. 1790; TJ to Ferdinand Grand, 26 June 1788; TJ to Edward Bancroft, 30 Mch., 12 July 1789). For a complete account of TJ’s relations with the Paradises, see Archibald Bolling Shepperson, John Paradise and Lucy Ludwell of London and Williamsburg (Richmond, 1942).

95 Louis Nicolas Prevost was a bookseller on the Quai des Augustins. This was a freight payment for books TJ had purchased in Strasbourg (Lottin, Catalogue, p. 143 description begins [Augustin Martin Lottin], Catalogue chronologique des libraires et des libraires-imprimeurs de Paris, 1789, repr. Amsterdam, 1969 description ends ; MB 18 Apr. 1788; Amand Koenig to TJ, 26 May 1788).

96TJ paid postage for Edward Carrington’s and John Jay’s letters of 9 June 1788, which contained news of the accession of South Carolina to the new constitution. The suppression of the packet boats between New York and Le Havre brought increased postage costs as Jay and others in New York now had to send TJ’s mail via Amsterdam (William Short to John Rutledge, 11 July 1788, DLC: Short Papers; MB 5 Sep. 1788, 28 July 1789).

97TJ presumably wrote “protested” on 25 July when Ferdinand Grand returned the draft (Grand to TJ, 25 July 1788; TJ to Banister, 27 July 1788).

98After his journey to southern France in 1787, TJ wrote of the olive tree: “I never had my wishes so kindled for the introduction of any article of new culture into our own country.” He persuaded William Drayton to authorize the purchase of olive trees for the South Carolina agricultural society. Stephen Cathalan at Marseilles was commissioned to procure them, and the first shipment of trees reached Charleston in 1791. TJ’s enthusiasm for the olive tree was unwaning, but to his disappointment his efforts yielded only a few trees for private gardens rather than the orchards he had envisioned (TJ to Drayton, 30 July 1787, 7 May 1789; TJ to George Wythe, 16 Sep. 1787; TJ to Cathalan, 22 Mch. 1804; TJ to James Ronaldson, 12 Jan. 1813; TJ to Nicholas Herbemont, 3 Nov. 1822; TJ’s list of his services to his country, L & B, i, 258 description begins Andrew A. Lipscomb and Albert E. Bergh, eds., The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, “Memorial Edition,” Washington, D.C., 1903-1904, 20 vols. description ends ).

99This was the cost of two cast iron heating stoves in antique style which TJ had seen while in Cologne. They were columnar in form and had urn-shaped domes. The larger was placed in the salon of the Hôtel de Langeac and both were later shipped to America (TJ to Jean Jacques Peuchen, 7 Apr., 22 Aug. 1788; Peuchen to TJ, 25 Apr. 1788; Peuchen’s translation of account of the “Serrurier Göbell,” undated, MHi; Packing List 1790, Crates No. 30 and 31 description begins Itemized invoice of Grevin, maitre layetier, 17 July 1790. DLC: William Short Papers description ends ).

1For a partial list of books TJ received from Amsterdam bookseller Pierre Van Damme, see TJ to Van Damme, 18, 21, 23 Mch. 1788.

2At the traditional Fourth of July dinner there were twenty-three persons, including the Lafayettes, the Paradises, Philip Mazzei, Daniel Parker, Joel Barlow, George Washington Greene, and other Americans (William Short to Edward Carrington, 5 July 1788; Short to T. L. Shippen, 11 July 1788, DLC: Short Papers).

3Partial payment for a carriage (see MB 26 Nov. 1788).

4No record has been found of repayment by Gaudenzio Clerici, whom TJ had known at Annapolis, of this or a later loan (MB 31 Aug. 1788; Clerici to TJ, 28 July, 31 Aug. 1788, 20 Jan. 1789; TJ to Clerici, 2 and 31 Aug. 1788).

5That is, Lambert. The payment was for a manuscript copy of the meteorological observations made at Marseilles from 1779 to 1786 by Pons Joseph Bernard (Bernard to TJ, 1 Mch. 1788; Stephen Cathalan to TJ, 11 June 1788; TJ to Bernard, 12 Aug. 1788; Sowerby, No. 656 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

6TJ considered the morning hailstorm of 13 July 1788 “the coup de grace to an expiring victim.” The hailstones, some reportedly weighing ten pounds, destroyed the wheat crop in a large area surrounding Paris (TJ to St. John de Crèvecoeur, 9 Aug. 1788; Journal de Paris, 15 and 19 July 1788).

7The arrêt announcing the convening of the Estates General for May 1789 was published this morning; TJ sent a copy to John Jay (TJ to Jay, 11 Aug. 1788).

8This was a pochette or kit which TJ used for practice and later gave to a student at the University of Virginia (Cripe, Jefferson and Music, p. 44-5 description begins Helen C. Cripe, Thomas Jefferson and Music, Charlottesville, Va., 1974 description ends ).

9TJ took his daughters and young Kitty Church on this outing to a favorite resort of fashionable Parisians, the pavilion and gardens of the Comte d’Artois in the Bois de Boulogne. Bagatelle, built in 1777, and its Anglo-Chinese gardens were designed by François Joseph Bélanger. They survive today in much altered form. TJ had visited Bagatelle at least once before, with Maria Cosway in 1786 (TJ to John Trumbull, 24 Aug. 1787; TJ to Mrs. Cosway, 12 Oct. 1786; Thiéry, Guide, i, 25-30 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends ; Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 102, 104 description begins Howard C. Rice, Jr., Thomas Jefferson’s Paris, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends ).

10 Anthony Gerna, Dublin bookseller (TJ to Gerna, 18 May 1788).

11In late 1786 TJ had turned his mind to new ways of combatting Buffon’s theory of the degeneracy of animals in America. In order to topple one of the two “pillars” of this theory—the belief that the atmosphere of America was more humid than that of Europe—he first needed to find a hygrometer suitable for comparative observations. By this date he had at least three—the present purchase and two sent by Benjamin Vaughan in Apr. 1788. One, made by the London firm of Nairne & Blunt, was Jean André Deluc’s whalebone hygrometer (not his better known ivory bulb type) and the other was a wooden one designed by Vaughan after a principle of Benjamin Franklin. The instrument TJ bought from Ferdinand Grand was Horace Bénédict de Saussure’s hair hygrometer, the most accurate and widely used type using porous material, and still used today. TJ developed his own plan for a wooden hygrometer on Franklin’s principle, but apparently did not execute it before he left France (TJ to Vaughan, 29 Dec. 1786, 23 July 1788, 17 May 1789; Vaughan to TJ, 26 Jan. 1787, 5 Apr. 1788). TJ entered hygrometer readings in his weather record beginning 1 June 1788 with Deluc’s instrument and adding Saussure’s on 1 Sep. 1788 (MB end 1790).

12This guitar was for Mary Jefferson (Cripe, Jefferson and Music, p. 47-8 description begins Helen C. Cripe, Thomas Jefferson and Music, Charlottesville, Va., 1974 description ends ).

13TJ’s check marks indicate expenses to be charged to the United States. He probably made the marks, which cease with the 1 Apr. 1789 entry, when preparing his preliminary accounts with the United States in the spring of 1789.

14William Short’s cousin Fulwar Skipwith (1765-1839) of Virginia had procured for TJ a sixteen-pound cheese in London. Skipwith was appointed consul for Martinique in 1790, consul general in France in 1795, and commercial agent at Paris in 1802 (Skipwith to Short, 14 June 1788, DLC: Short Papers; TJ to Skipwith, 23 June 1790; Walter Prichard, “Selecting a Governor for the Territory of Orleans,” Louisiana Historical Quarterly, xxxi [1948], 297-309).

15A French version of Benjamin Franklin’s Information to Those Who Would Remove to America (TJ to Gallimard, 29 July 1788, note; Sowerby, No. 2567 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

16This was the date TJ proposed to take a leave of absence in America, with the intention of returning to a less expensive residence in Paris. Unable to find a suitable house, he later negotiated a reduction in rent instead of terminating the lease of the Hôtel de Langeac (MB 14 Apr. 1789; TJ to Langeac, 10 Oct. 1788, 15 Feb. 1789; Langeac to TJ, 10 Oct. 1788). TJ officially requested leave in his letter of 19 Nov. 1788 to John Jay, but the inchoate state of the American government delayed the arrival of his permission until Aug. 1789.

17This is probably the coordinate paper designated CQ in Kimball, TJ Architect, p. 116-17 description begins Fiske Kimball, Thomas Jefferson, Architect, 1916, repr. New York, 1968 description ends . Nine sheets, made by “Crepy rue S. Jacques à S. Pierre près la rue de la parcheminerie,” survive among TJ’s papers: eight blank sheets in ViU and one with a drawing in MHi (Nichols, No. 458 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Architectural Drawings, ed. Frederick D. Nichols, 4th ed., Charlottesville, Va., 1978 description ends ). For a discussion of TJ’s pioneering use of graph paper for architectural drawings, see Peter Collins, “The Origins of Graph Paper as an Influence on Architectural Design,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, xxi (1962), 159-62.

18The optician H. Sykes had a fashionable shop at the Palais-Royal where he sold, besides the articles of his trade, prints and items of British manufacture (Thiéry, Guide, i, 223-4 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends ; Morris, Diary, i, 354 description begins Gouverneur Morris, A Diary of the French Revolution, ed. Beatrix Cary Davenport, Boston, 1939, 2 vols. description ends ; Maurice Daumas, Les instruments scientifiques aux xviie et xviiie siècles [Paris, 1953], p. 228, 317).

19Correctly 98–15. The error is repeated in the total 496–17, which should be 497–6.

20 Sartorius was a banker on the Rue de Bourbon-Villeneuve, now the Rue d’Aboukir (Thiéry, Guide, ii, 697 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends ). For the articles for which André Limozin paid the shipping costs, see TJ to Limozin, 21 Aug. 1788.

21Probably coordinate drawing paper BD; three blank sheets (ViU) and a large number with drawings have survived among TJ’s papers (MB 17 Oct. 1788; Kimball, TJ Architect, p. 112 description begins Fiske Kimball, Thomas Jefferson, Architect, 1916, repr. New York, 1968 description ends ).

22 Thomas Lee Shippen, son of Dr. William Shippen, Jr., of Philadelphia, had just arrived in Paris after a tour of the continent. This loan was repaid through John Trumbull (Papers, xii, 502-4 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; Trumbull to TJ, 10 Mch. 1789).

23The new Franco-American Consular Convention and TJ’s Observations on the Whale-Fishery had been printed by imprimeur du Roi Jacques Gabriel Clousier. The “squalls of work” associated with these two documents, printed in Papers, xiv, 171-80, 242-56 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends , had prevented TJ from making a projected trip to view the vendange in Champagne (TJ to William Short, 21 Nov. 1788; TJ to T. L. Shippen, 29 Sep. 1788; Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 81 description begins Howard C. Rice, Jr., Thomas Jefferson’s Paris, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends ).

24London carriage maker John Kemp had made for TJ a crane neck chariot, which, with brass harness for four horses, cost £171–5. It was brought to Paris in Jan. 1789 by Daniel Parker. TJ intended this vehicle for the use of his daughters and he took it to Virginia in 1789 (TJ to John Trumbull, 24 Aug., 10 Sep. 1788; Trumbull to TJ, 18 Nov. 1788, 18 Jan. 1789; List of Baggage, c. 1 Sep. 1789, Papers, xv, 376).

25Correctly 96. TJ had changed the dinner figure in the first column from 11 to 21, but failed to change this figure. He did, however, use the correct total when refiguring the average dinner cost, writing the “9–3” over “10–2.”

26Correctly 271–14.

27This figure, the vertical total, is written over “1795–7,” the sum of the horizontal figures, including the incorrect 256–14.

28 Laurent Noël Pissot was a bookseller and printer on the Quai des Augustins. TJ promoted Pissot’s pirated editions of British authors and subscribed to his English-language newspapers (Lottin, Catalogue, p. 141 description begins [Augustin Martin Lottin], Catalogue chronologique des libraires et des libraires-imprimeurs de Paris, 1789, repr. Amsterdam, 1969 description ends ; TJ to Francis Hopkinson, 6 July 1788; Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 78 description begins Howard C. Rice, Jr., Thomas Jefferson’s Paris, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends ; Sowerby, Nos. 101, 4658 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ; MB 1 Jan. 1789).

29This vehicle, probably secondhand, was shipped to Philadelphia in 1790 (Packing List 1790, Crate No. 85 description begins Itemized invoice of Grevin, maitre layetier, 17 July 1790. DLC: William Short Papers description ends ).

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