Thomas Jefferson Papers

Memorandum Books, 1816


Jan. 2. Renewed my note in bank of 2000.D. for the 19th. inst.
5. Borrowed of Mr. Leitch 20.D.
7. Sewers 1.D. 8. Hhd. exp. 2.D.
10. Recd. of Th:J. Randolph 50.D.
13. Charge E. Bacon 27.34 recd. for rent of the factory & applied to his own use.
14. Pd. Roland Goodman 10.D.
Recd. of Th:J. Randolph 50.D. hhd. exp. 5.D.
15. Inclosed to John Vaughan 70.D. of which 50.D. are to be remitted to Thos. Appleton at Leghorn for wine17 now written for, the balance to be at my order.
Pd. James Leitch the 20.D. ante Jan. 5.
17. Inclosed 9.D. to Lancelot Minor to pay a debt of H. Marks’s estate to Dr. William Meredith.
18. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
22. Pd. Rachael the midwife 10.D. to wit for Edy, Virginia, Ursula & Mrs. Marks’s Sally, the 2.D. overpd. on account.
24. Inclosed to Peter Derieux an order on Gibson & Jeff. for 20.D. by order of Philip Mazzei & on his account.
A kiln of 29. cord has yielded 972. b. of coal, or 33½ b. to the cord. pd. Davy accdly. 1.67½ (overpd. him .32½).
Hhd. exp. 1.D.
27. Recd. of Th:J. Randolph 50.D.
Gave Th:J. Randolph an order on Gibson & Jeff. for 446.25
 viz.  Cash ante.  Dec.  17   115
22 80
29 20
Jan.  10. 50
14. 50
27. 50
for rye bought 30
boot excha. horses 50  to  wit Tuccapa & Blucher.
pd. for Jack-chain 1 .25
446 .25
Delivd. E. Bacon 19.D. to pay John Bustard 6 B.–1½ b. corn @ 3.D.
30. Wormly exp. to Snowden 1.D. hhd. exp. 3.D.
Mrs. Bacon for 10. turkies 5.D.
Feb. 2. Gave in charity 5 D. (Mrs. Patterson).
Put into Capt. Miller’s18 hands to buy corks 5.D.
Recd. back from Wormly .25.
4. Pd. for weaving 1.25 sewers 1.D.
Inclosed to Govr. Greenup of Kentucky 8.D. Mr. Steevens’s bill for taking the deposn. of Mrs. Henderson in my suit v. Michie.
6. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
Inclosed to Wm. Marshall Clk. US. court order on Gibson & Jefferson for 13.91 for 2 tickets in Livingston’s suit + his charge for a copy of the decree & exn.
Inclosed to P. Gibson John Harvie’s bond for 104.56 D. due Mar. 1st. and an order on Philip Thornton for 150.D. rent for the Natural bridge.19
12. Recd. of Th:J. Randolph 180.D.
Paid thro’ E. Bacon  to William Hogg for cattle 70.D.
to Jeremiah A. Goodman on account 80.D.
19. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
Feb. 25. Hhd. xp. 2.D. 26. Do. 1.D.
28. Pd. Madeiras for a pr. of shoes 3.D.
29. Inclosed to G. J. Hunt of N. York 2.D. price of a book20 subscribed for.
Inclosed to John F. Watson of German town 13.D. price of the 4th. 5th. 6th. 7th. 8th. vols. of the Edinbg. Review.
Inclosed to James Oram, N. York Water street 102. the price of Ware’s English grammar,21 subscribed for, to wit 1.D.
Pd. Jas. Leitch for butter 7.25 @ .25.
Mar. 4. Recieved of Th:J. Randolph 505.D.
Paid  to Robert Sthreshly  for Roland Goodman  49.83
for a guitar22 30. 79.83
to E. Bacon for  Craven Peyton 99 B. corn @ 18/6 305.33
John H. Craven 150. b. oats @ 3/6  87.50
Isaiah Stout 4068. ℔ hay @ 4/9 32.23
Note E. Bacon, some time ago, sold the Hiatilda colt to John Kuhn for 80.D. of which he pd. to
   J. H. Craven for ship stuff 68.60
to Joseph Bishop for leather 8.76
now returns me 1.75
the balance to make up fractions above  .89
8. Hhd. exp. 1.D. Do. 1.D.
9. Recd. for a ¾ Merino ram 10.D. 10. Sewers 1.D.
12. Hhd. xp. 2.25.
14. Recd. of Th:J. Randolph 100.D. hhd. exp. 2.25 D. Do. 1.
Inclosed to J. Barnes 100.D. for the use & to order of Ellen W. Randolph with a letter of credit to any extent she may call for.23
15. Inclosed to Joel Yancey an ord. on Gibson & J. for 170.D. to pay my US. taxes in Bedfd.
16. Charity 2.D.
Note on the 13th. I renewed my note to the bk. of Virginia for 2000 D. due from the 19th. to the 22d. inst.
18. Desired Mr. Gibson to remit to Genl. Wm. Duane for me 65.D. to wit 5.D. for the Aurora to May 1. 1816. and 60.D. for a translation of Tracy’s Pol. economy,24 on account of Joseph Milligan to whom I am to charge it. See post Jan. 26.
24. Hhd. exp. .50.
Drew on Gibson in favr. Th:J. Randolph for 1000.D. to wit
he paid for 8. bushels of clover seed @ 12/25 96. D.
Feb. 12.  ante 180 
Mar.   4. ante 505 
14. ante 100.
24. I now recieve from him    119 
My Congressional taxes26 now due are  the direct 282.37
furniture do.   19.
 to be paid him in April or May 301.37
Hhd. exp. 1.D.
On settlement with Elijah Ham I owe him 564.14 with int. from Dec. 8. 1815.
Hhd. exp. 2.50.
27. Pd. Saml. Carr for bringing up a ton of plaister 8.D.
Gave in charity 50.D.
Mar. 28. Inclosed to Arch. Robertson an ord. for 167.10 on Gibson & Jefferson. to wit
   for Jer. A. Goodman ante Nov. 30. 78.35
for leather ante Dec. 10. £20–16–1 69.35
deficiency of my ord. ante Mar. 15. for taxes  19.40
Apr. 1. Charity 5.D.
4. Recd. of Th:J. Randolph 40.D.
Pd. William Woods surveyor for Wm. Short 5.D.
Pd. do. for surveying for myself 30.D.
7. Sewers 1.D.
Drew on John Vaughan Phila. in favor of N. G. Dufief for 24.68 balance due him for books.
8. Recieved of Th:J. Randolph 1000.D.27 Hhd. exp. 1.D.
Pd. thro Edm. Bacon as follows D c
 to  Thos. W. Gooch for  500.  b. oats 281.25
John R. Campbell 100. Bar. corn 500. } 587.50
150. b. oats  87.5 
John Rogers 150. b. oats @ 3/6 87.50
Gave Colo. Monroe’s gardener for vines28 1.D.
9. Pd. Jas. Leitch for butter 4.25 D. Isaacs a book 1.50.
13. Gave James Lilburn Jefferson29 10.D.
Set out for Poplar Forest.
Warren. vales .50 ferrge. & watermen 4.D.  }
H. Flood’s lodgg. &c. 4.17.  10.75
Hunter’s breakfast 2.08.

17. Pd. for candles 1.D.
20. Cord &c. .37½.
23. Servt. catching horse .25.
25. Gave Burwell 10.D. pd. for fish & cord 1.37½.
27. Pd. for fish 1.37½.
29. Gave Charles Clay ord. on A. Robertson for 100.20 for corn.
Pd. for fish 1.25.
Note I am to pay John Depriest June 1. 70.D. for a horse.
30. Gave Abraham Dehavens order on Arch. Robertson
for himself  board of Francis Eppes 6. mo.  33.33
bed and washing 10.
for Mr. Mitchell for tuition30 from June 1. 10.
Drew ord. on Gibson & Jeff. in favr. A. Robertson for 153.53.
May 2. Pd. debts & vales at Pop. For. 6.D.

 mending axle on the road 2.D. Hunter’s oats 1.D. } 11.45
Noah Flood’s lodging &c. 3. Gibson’s breakft. &c. 2.75.
Warren. ferrge. 1.D. arrears & fish 1.50 shoeing horse .20.

Cash on hand 42.95. 4. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
5. Sewers 1.D.
6. Drew on Gibson & Jefferson in favor of Martin Dawson for 77.85 for 7541. ℔ oats and 1800. ℔ fodder.
Sold a horse to Edmund Bacon for 60.D.
7. Paid Youen Carden on account 20.D.
May 8. Recd. from E. Bacon 1.25 change of paymts. ante Apr. 8.
9. Pd. Thos. Beck for bringing up plaister 4.33.
On settlemt. of D. Higginbotham’s acct. to Aug. 1. 1815. the balance due him is 2848.67 with int. from that date.
11. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
13. Pd. portage box of vines31 1.
15. Renewed my note for 2000.D. in bank Virga. dated 24th. inst.
19. Hhd. exp. 1.D. 20. Do. 1.D.
21. Drew on Gibson & Jefferson in favr. of Archibd. Robertson for 120 D. and inclosed the draught to Joel Yancey to pay thro’ Mr. Robertson 70.D. to John Depriest for a horse and 50.D. to Nimrod Darnell on account.
23. Recd. of Th:J. Randolph 200.D. 28. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
29. Recd. of Th:J. Randolph 50.D.
30. Delivd. E. Bacon for Richd. Roby for 62. b. oats @ 3/6 36.17 D.
Hhd. exp. 5.56.
June 1. Pd. Roland Goodman on acct. 15.D.
Repaid to Th:J. Randolph  80.04
Gave him ord. on Gibson & Jefferson 300.
Gave him do. on T. E. Randolph payable Sep. 1   240.
This settles for the following articles of acct.
cash ante Apr. 4. 40 
pd. for soap 2.50. for Solomon 4.50 7 
cash ante May 23. 200. do. May 29. 50  250.
my tax now due 301. 19
Mrs. Lewis’s order on me for her tax 21. 85  620.04
Drew order on Gibson accordingly for  300.
 and on Thos. E. Randolph for 240.
Cash on hand 124.21.
Delivered to E. Bacon to pay Sam. Leitch store acct.  12.70
on  Roland Goodman’s order in favr. do.  13.75 26.45
for  Branham & Jones, store acct. 29.67
John Winn. do.  9.50½
Martin Dawson. do. 24.87
Gave E. Bacon an order on Thos. E. Randolph for 53.125 in favor of John Fagg for 85. bush. oats @ 3/9.
Inclosed to John F. Watson of Germantown 5.D. for 9th. & 10th. vols. of Edingburg Review.
4. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
5. Recd. of Th:J. Randolph on acct. of T. E. Randolph 60.D. in part of rent which became due Apr. 1. 6. Hhd. exp. 5.D.
8. Drew on Gibson in favr. Wm. Johnson for 16.D. bringing 2. ton plaister.
Wrote to P. Gibson to remit to Nichs. G. Dufief for books 31.D. also to John Steele Collector of Phila. 16.80 duties & portcharges on 50. bottles of Hermitage & a box of Maccaroni sent there by Stephen Cathalan of Marseilles.
June 12. Pd. Dick & Gill for a barrel of tar 4.D. Nace sewers 1.D.
13. Stage portage of box .50. 14. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
15. Pd. E. Bacon for Wm. Suttle 7.08 D. for 17. galls. vinegar @ 2/6.
16. Hhd. exp. 2.70. 17. Do. 5.
19. Paid Betsy Farley for a month’s board of Moses33 10.D.
Delivered E. Bacon 32.67 D. for Richd. Roby 56. b. oats @ 3/6.
20. Paid (thro’ TMR’s Phill) John Craddock 1.D. bringing up pictures.
21. Gave Roland Goodman ord. on Martin Dawson for 1. barrel fish 8½ D. 100. ℔ bacon @ 1/ 16.67 = 25.17. See post July 17.
22. Recd. of Th:J. Randolph 63.D. & gave him verbal ord. on Thos. E. Randolph for the same, being the balce. of rent to Apr. 1.

Warren. ferrge. 1.5. } = 11.62½
Gibson’s lodging 3.5 H. Flood’s brkft. 3.12½. 
Hunter’s fodder .25.
Chilton’s lodging 3.25.

27. Poplar forest. paid for candles .75.
July 5. Lynchbg. books 2.25 entertt. Mrs. Byrd’s34 5.54.
Gave Joel Yancey ord. on Gibson & Jeff. for 32.25 for so much paid by him to John Depriest for plank.
8. Debts & vales at Poplar Forest 7.50

a horse shoe .25.  }  = 13.D.
Chilton’s oats 1.25 a plough 4.D. H. Flood’s lodging 4.37½. 
Gibson’s brkft. .87½ Warren. ferrge. 1.25.
Enniscorthy. vales 1.

Cash on hand 40.94.
12. Desired P. Gibson to remit to Chas. Simms, Collector of Alexa. 13.40 freight & port expences & 27.30 duties = 40.70 on 200. bottles of wine of Nice35 recd. at Alexa. from S. Cathalan of Marseilles.
Sent him also a renewal of my Note in bank ante May 15.
Hhd. exp. 1.D.
13. Do. 5.D.
17. Drew on Gibson & Jeff. in favr. Wm. Johnson for 12.33 for portage of molasses, fish, wine-hermitage Maccaroni.
Wrote to Gibson & Jefferson to pay John F. Oliveira Fernandes 63.81 for wine.
Roland Goodman informs me he made no use of the order on M. Dawson ante June 21. but instead of it got from James Leitch 100. ℔ bacon @ 1/3 on my acct.

D c
Pd. Mrs. Proctor thro’ Mr. Bacon a balance of  5.67  for an
acct. of brown sugar & whiskey furnished Apr. May, June 1815. Note in this account I allowed her  for Elijah Ham & had credit 25.D. for the hire of a woman of Mrs. Marks.
19. Hhd. exp. 1.D. 24. Charity 1.D. 25. Hhd. xp. 2.D. do. 1.D.
28. Sewers 1.D.
Aug. 3. Hhd. expences 1.D. 4. Do. .25.
6. Borrowed from Th:J.R. 35.D.
Pd. Roland Goodman 15.D.
Wormly exp. to Richmd. for Nice wine 2.D.
10. Montpelier. vales 2.D.
11. Colo. Lindsay’s do. .50 Defoe 18 geese 6.D. Cole’s people 4.D. orchard grass.
12. Recd. back from Wormly .25 ante 6th.
Aug. 18. Hhd. exp. 5.75 Do. 1.D.
23. Paid E. Bacon for tar of Shifflet 4.D.
The last kiln of coal yielded 1240. bushels from 30. chord which is 41. b. @ .05 = 2.05 pd. Davy 2.D.
29. C. Vest stage portage .50.
Sep. 1. Small exp. 5.D.
2. Th:J. Randolph pays thro’ E. Bacon to Thos. Gooch 22.17 D. for 38 bushels of oats @ 3/6.
3. Midwife Rachael for Rachael & Scilla (Lego) & Fanny 6.D.
4. Recd. of Th:J. Randolph 60.D. 5. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
7. Inclosed to H. Niles 5.D. for Weekly register to Sep. 1817.
10. Renewed my note in bank for 2000.D. date Sep. 24.
Desired P. Gibson to pay to Sheriff Henrico 42.29 taxes on my 4. lots in Beverly town36 from 1787. to 1797 inclusive. Hhd. exp. 2.D.
12. Debit Elijah Ham 5.25 allowed Dr. Douglass in his wood acct.
13. Ned sewers 1.D.
15. Gave Joseph Gilmore37 ord. on Gibson & Jeff. for 45.25 D. for sundries, to wit plaister, wine, maccaroni &c. brought last season.
Hhd. xp. 1.D.
17. Drew order on Gibson & Jefferson for 200.D. in favr. Branham and Jones assees. of my note to Elijah Ham ante Mar. 24.
 D c
Drew do. on do. for  30.93  in favr. Charles Vest for leather acct.
Pd. Williamson Kelly for cheese 4.20.
18. Recd. of Th:J. Randolph 22.83.
Pd. do. for Elijah Ham’s tax 4.23 Hhd. exp. 1.D.
Drew on Gibson & Jefferson for 140.D. favr. Th:J. Randolph.
19. Pd. for a tickler .25.
21. Enniscorthy vales 1.
Warren. ferrge. 2.D.
22. Gibson’s lodging 3.25 H. Flood’s brkft. 3.75.
Chilton’s lodging 5.10 a servt. on the road .25 = 15.35.
25. Pd. for a book 2.50 candles 1.12½.
28. Gill for cutting gr. coat .25.
Oct. 1. Lynchbg. charity 1.D. feedg. horses 2.D. shoes F. Eppes 2.D.
3. Gave ord. on Gibson & Jeff. in favr. sheriff Bedford 133.80 taxes.
Debts & vales Pop. For. 4.25½ Hunter’s lodgg. 5.75.
4. H. Flood’s brkft. 2.75 Gibson’s lodging 3.50.
5. Warren ferrge. 1.57 Brown’s38 servts. & horses 2.87½ = 20.70.
Cash in hand 17.37½.
6. Pd. Lewis’s smith an antient & doubtful claim 2.D.
7. Recd. of Th:J. Randolph 200.D.
Pd.  Grady thro’ E. Bacon for 49⅓ Bar. corn 197.33.
Th:J. Randolph furnishes E. Bacon 11.25 to pay for tallow.
8. Hhd. exp. 1.D. recd. of Th:J. Randolph 19.D.
Inclosed 17.D. to Jas. H. McCulloch collector of Baltimore for duties on 2. cases of Florence wine, to wit 57. bottles of Artimignano & 57. do. Chianti.
Gave Wormly 2.D. expences to Richmd.
10. Pd. for hops 10.D.
11. Sent to Charles Vest .50 for stage carriage.
Oct. 12. Recd. of Th:J. Randolph 15.D. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
15. Drew on Gibson & Jefferson in favr. Clifton Harris for Benj. Harris sher. Alb. for 163.51 for taxes & tickets.
16. Inclosed to P. Gibson a renewal of my note in bank for 2000.D. dated Nov. 24. See ante Sep. 10.
Recd. of Th:J. Randolph 123.D.
Inclosed to Matthew Carey Phila. for books39 4.D.
Inclosed to John F. Watson of German town 10.D. for the <9th. 10th.> 11th. 12th. 13. 14 vols. of Ed. Review.
18. Inclosed to David Gelston 7.D. for 6.60 freight of books.
20. Ned sewers 1.D. hhd. exp. 4.75.
Recd. from T:J. Randolph 30.D. and gave him an ord. on Gibson & Jefferson for 400.D. to wit
   ante Oct. 7. Grady 200.
Bacon 11. 25
8. cash 19.
12. do. 15 
16. do. 123 
20. do. 30 
398. 25
balance due 1. 75
Paid Roland Goodman on acct. 20.D.
Drew on Gibson & Jefferson for 114.D. in favr. of Th:J. Randolph, dated Nov. 4. to pay on that day to William Hogg for 6. cows & 12 lambs.
21. Cash in hand 119.125.
Pd. Ira Garrett40 by ord. Mrs. Molly Lewis 13.50. Hhd. xp. 1.D.
22. Warren ferrge. 1.50.
23. Gibson’s lodging 3.58 N. Flood’s brkft. 2.5 H. Flood’s oats .62½.
24. Hunter’s lodging 5.D. arrived at Poplar For. = 13.20½.
26. Gave John Hemings his annual donation 20.D.41
29. Pd.  Bradfeut laying a hearth & trimmer42 3.D.
Pd. for candles 1.12½ for 4. turkies 2.D.
Nov. 1. Gave Burwell gratuity 10.D.
11. Inclosed to John Steele Collectr. Phila. 10.D. to replace 9.33 for duty 5.D. freight 3.43 porterage & storage .91 on a cask of 20. galls. Roussillon wine43 & a box from Cathalan.
13. Pd. for a galln. oil 1.50 1. gross corks 1.25 candles 1.12½ = 3.87½.
15. Pd.  Watkins mendg. threshing machine (Griffin’s time) 5.D.
22. Drew on Gibson & Jeff. in favr. Arch. Robertson 222.D.
 this is to pay  Joseph  Slaughter for a horse 45.
Butler for <leather> wheels  20 
Bridgland 87. ℔ beef 7 
Arch. Robertson for corn 150 
25. Paid for candles and oil 1.87½.
Dec. 3. Pd. for candles & hops 1.62½.
6. Pd. debts & vales at Poplar forest 9.D.
Campbell C. H. feed .75.
7. Hunter’s lodging 6.24 H. Flood’s brkft. 3.D.
Dec. 10. Millbrook vales 2.D. Buckingham C. H. feed 1.D.
11. Gibson’s lodging 3.D. (2/6 over)
Warren ferrge. 2.D. Brown’s feed & on acct. 3.D.
13. Recd. of Edm. Bacon 150.D. for A. S. Marks being the price for which he sold her man Peter.
15. Hhd. exp. .25.
Gave  Hardy order on Jas. Leitch for 5.D. balance of 35¾ ℔ hops ante Oct. 10. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
17. Recd. of Th:J. Randolph 155.D. Note he has paid Garner 8.D. for having had a gun of mine repaired.
Pd. Jerem. A. Goodman 147.50 which reduces balance to 400.D.
18. Recd. of Th:J. Randolph 50.D.
21. Gave Barnaby ord. on T. E. Randolph for the price of 18. Barrels to wit 1. in every 31. See ante 1813. Mar. 17. Note he has delivered (with 72. to be delivd. this day) 563. barrels from Oct. 9. to this day inclusive.
Drew on Gibson & Jefferson for 94.70 D. in favr. of US. Collector being my taxes due to US. for Bedford, to wit ante Mar. 15. 170.D. & Mar. 28. 19.40 ÷ 2 = 94.70 & inclosed ord. to Joel Yancey.
Househd. exp. 1.D. 22. Do. 5.D.
23. Subscribed to the ‘N. York public sale Report’44 and inclosed 5.D. to T. Eldredge editor in advance for the 1st. year.
Pd. Ewen Cardin on account 30.D.
25. Hhd. xp. 2.50.
27. Repaid James Leitch the 5.D. ante Dec. 15.—hhd. exp. 1.D.
28. Drew on Gibson in favr. Th:J. Randolph for 220.D. to wit 155 + 8 + 50. ante Dec. 17. 18. & a surplus of 7.D.
30. Ned sewers for Nov. & De. 2.D.

17TJ ordered a supply of Montepulciano. Because of the inferiority of its most recent vintage, Thomas Appleton substituted other Tuscan wines which, in TJ’s opinion, were not equal to Montepulciano (TJ to Appleton, 14 Jan., 18 July 1816, 1 Aug. 1817; Appleton to TJ, 15 Apr., 30 May, 30 July, 27 Sep. 1816; MB 8 Oct. 1816).

18English sea captain Joseph Miller, “the most skilful brewer that has ever come to the country,” had been TJ’s guest for several months while he sought a farm, but he returned to his Norfolk brewery and never settled in Albemarle County (TJ to Joseph Cabell, 23 Dec. 1815). While TJ’s malt and hops purchases of 1812 indicate early experiments in brewing, the first successful production of beer at Monticello was probably in Sep. 1813, when Miller, who was then interned in Albemarle County because of the war, supervised the enterprise. TJ’s slave Peter Hemings thereafter conducted the spring and fall malting and brewing operations and annually produced about two hundred gallons of beer, made from either malted corn or wheat (Stanley Baron, Brewed in America: A History of Beer and Ale in the United States [Boston, 1962], p. 135-48).

19In Dec. 1814 TJ had leased the Natural Bridge to Dr. Philip Thornton of Richmond for use as a shot tower, at an annual rent of $150. The five-year lease agreement enjoined the preservation of the bridge in its “perfect natural and uninjured form” as a “natural curiosity” (Lease agreement, 2 Dec. 1814, MHi).

20 Gilbert J. Hunt, The Late War, Between the United States and Great Britain (New York, 1816; TJ to Hunt, 29 Feb. 1816; Library Catalogue, 1829, No. 144 description begins Catalogue: President Jefferson’s Library, Washington, D.C., 1829 description ends ).

21 Jonathan Ware, A New Introduction to English Grammar (Windsor, Vt., 1814; TJ to James Oram, 29 Feb. 1816).

22This may be the ten-string cittern now at Monticello. According to family tradition TJ presented it to his granddaughter Virginia Jefferson Randolph (1801-1882). Robert Sthreshly was leaving Virginia to settle in Kentucky (Cripe, Jefferson and Music, p. 47-8 description begins Helen C. Cripe, Thomas Jefferson and Music, Charlottesville, Va., 1974 description ends ; Sthreshly to TJ, 24 Feb. 1817).

23TJ’s granddaughter Ellen was in Washington, making an extended visit to the Madisons at the President’s House. Her colorful observations during five months of travel, which eventually included Philadelphia and Baltimore, are contained in her letters to family members in ViU (TJ to Ellen Randolph, 14 Mch. 1816; Malone, Jefferson, vi, 162 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends ).

24 Antoine Louis Claude Destutt de Tracy’s Treatise on Political Economy, the manuscript of which was first received by TJ from the author in 1812, was finally published by Joseph Milligan in 1817. During the first three months of 1816 TJ spent about five hours a day revising the poor translation provided by William Duane, who had kept the manuscript for three years. For TJ’s important role in the publication of this work by an author he considered “the ablest writer living on intellectual subjects,” see Gilbert Chinard, Jefferson et les Ideologues (Baltimore, 1925), p. 97-188, and Malone, Jefferson, vi, 305-7 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends (TJ to John Adams, 14 Oct. 1816).

25TJ no doubt meant “@ 12.D.”

26Most of the inequities of the direct tax of 1798 were eliminated by the direct tax of 1815, which assessed all property rather than just land, houses, and slaves. In preparation for the tax on household furnishings and gold and silver watches, enacted in Jan. 1815, TJ drew up two informative inventories and calculated the value of his furnishings at $1,996 (MB 4 Aug. 1800; U.S. Statutes at Large, iii, 22-34, 53-72, 164-80, 186-92 description begins The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America from the Organization of the Government in 1789 to March 3, 1845, ed. Richard Peters, Boston, 1848, 8 vols. description ends ; TJ list of property and draft list, 14 May 1815, MHi).

27TJR handled for TJ a private loan of $1,000 from an unidentified member of the Carr family. TJ repaid it in 1820 (MB 19 Oct. 1820).

28The presence in Virginia of French vigneron Jean David had inspired TJ to reestablish the Monticello vineyard with cuttings from vines brought from France by James Monroe for his Highlands (now Ash Lawn) estate about three miles south of Monticello (TJ to David, 25 Dec. 1815, 13 Jan. 1816; TJ to John Adlum, 13 Jan. 1816; TJ to Monroe, 16 Jan. 1816).

29 James Lilburne Jefferson was RJ’s fifth child. TJ, who had interested himself in this nephew’s education in the past, had invited Lilburne to Monticello while RJ’s estate was still unsettled (TJ to RJ, 25 May 1813; Randolph Jefferson to TJ, 26 May, 21 June 1813; J. L. Jefferson to TJ, 18 Feb., 19 Apr. 1816).

30TJ’s grandson Francis Eppes was about to attend the New London Academy, just three miles from Poplar Forest. Its principal at this time was Thomas Mitchell and in 1818, when Francis returned to the Academy after a period of study at Georgetown College, Alfred Dashiell was principal (TJ to JWE, 30 Apr. 1816; TJ to Francis W. Eppes, 6 Feb. 1818; Samuel Clarke Morgan, “The New London Academy,” M.A. thesis, University of Virginia, 1941).

31These were 150 cuttings of the Alexander grape, which TJ had requested from John Adlum (1759-1836), the champion of the cultivation of native American grapes for making wine. TJ thought the wine made from this grape, the first American variety to be grown on a commercial scale, resembled “the best Burgundy” (TJ to John Adlum, 13 Jan. 1816; Levin Gale to TJ, 30 Mch. 1816; TJ to Gale, 7 May 1816).

32Correctly $90.49½. By overwriting TJ changed Goodman’s order from $12.75 to $13.75 and the subtotal from $25.45 to $26.45, but he neglected to revise the total.

33TJ’s slave Moses (b. 1779) or Moses (b. 1792) had broken his leg “in a trial of strength in a wrestle” with one of his fellow slaves (Frank Carr to TJ, 18 Mch. 1816).

34 Anna Byrd, widow of William Otway Byrd, kept a boarding house “at the upper end” of Lynchburg’s Main Street (Lynchburg Press, 13 Oct. 1814; Cabell, Sketches of Lynchburg, p. 107 description begins Margaret C. Cabell, Sketches and Recollections of Lynchburg, Lynchburg, Va., 1854 description ends ).

35TJ called this particular shipment of red Bellet “the most delicious wine I ever tasted” (TJ to V. A. Sasserno, 26 May 1819; TJ to Stephen Cathalan, 3 July 1815; Cathalan to TJ, 19 Mch. 1816).

36The town of Beverley was established in 1752 on the James River at Westham, six miles upstream from Richmond and at the lower end of navigation of the upper James. It never developed as expected and the lots, originally sold for £4–6, had little value, especially after completion of the canal around the James River falls in 1800; it is now within the limits of the city of Richmond. TJ inherited his four lots, which included the ferry landing, from his father, who had laid out the town (Hening, Statutes, vi, 273-4 description begins William Waller Hening, The Statutes at Large; Being a Collection of All the Laws of Virginia, Richmond, 1809-1823, 13 vols. description ends ; TJ to Thomas Taylor, 28 Dec. 1814; TJ to David Higginbotham, 26 May 1817; Farm Book, p. 32, 127 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s “Farm Book,” 1774-1826. Reproduced in facsimile in Betts, Farm Book. MHi description ends ; PJ’s plan of the town is reproduced in John W. Reps, Tidewater Towns: City Planning in Colonial Virginia and Maryland [Williamsburg, Va., 1972], p. 228).

37 Joseph Gilmore (d. 1821), a Milton waterman and millwright, worked at TJ’s Shadwell mills in 1820 and rented some land from TJ–probably a small part of the Henderson tract (MB 14 June 1820, 16 Sep. 1821; TJ to Joel Yancey, 15 Aug. 1821).

38 William Brown kept the stone tavern at Warren (Woods, Albemarle, p. 58 description begins Edgar Woods, Albemarle County in Virginia, 1901, repr. Bridgewater, Va., n.d. description ends ).

39Of the twenty-two titles TJ had ordered from Mathew Carey’s catalogue of the sale of the library of Dr. Joseph Priestley, only three were still available: John Bonnycastle, An Introduction to Algebra, first published in London in 1782; John Potter, A System of Practical Mathematics (London, 1759); and a quarto edition of Antonius Van Dale, Dissertatio Super Aristea de lxx Interpretibus, published in Amsterdam in 1705 (Library Catalogue, 1829, Nos. 388, 396, 511 description begins Catalogue: President Jefferson’s Library, Washington, D.C., 1829 description ends ; TJ to Carey, 1 Sep., 16 Oct. 1816; Carey to TJ, 12 Sep. 1816). Subsequent purchases from Carey are identified in TJ-Carey correspondence and in Carey accounts in MHi.

40 Ira Garrett (d. 1870) was deputy to his brother, Albemarle County clerk Alexander Garrett, whom he succeeded in 1831 (Woods, Albemarle, p. 202-3 description begins Edgar Woods, Albemarle County in Virginia, 1901, repr. Bridgewater, Va., n.d. description ends ).

41 John Hemings and two assistants were at Poplar Forest working on the house. Many of his letters to TJ about finish work performed on subsequent visits to Poplar Forest are in MHi.

42The trimmer, the brickwork that supports a hearth, may have been that below the fireplace in the central square room at Poplar Forest.

43This Roussillon wine from Rivesalte was described by TJ as a dry red vin de liqueur which he had first enjoyed after dinners at Paris. It was not the better-known Muscat de Rivesalte, which TJ first received in 1820 (TJ to Stephen Cathalan, 3 July 1815; Cathalan to TJ, 4 June 1816; TJ to Samuel J. Harrison, 18 Sep. 1817; MB 23 Feb. 1820).

44 Nathaniel T. Eldredge began publishing the weekly New-York Public Sale Report in Jan. 1814 (TJ to Eldredge, 23 Dec. 1816; Brigham, History, i, 683 description begins Clarence S. Brigham, A History and Bibliography of American Newspapers, 1690-1820, Worcester, Mass., 1920, 2 vols. description ends ).

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