Thomas Jefferson Papers
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Memorandum Books, 1815


Jan. 1. Hhd. exp. 5.D.
Bought a horse,87 a Bedford, of Pleasant German, for which I am to give him my note for 100.D. payable in a year. The horse was 6. y. old last spring, bright bay, with a blaze face, right hind foot white.
3. Hhd. exp. 4.D.
5. Recd. from D. Higginbotham 20.D. balance of the draught entd. Dec. 26.
7. Recd. from P. Gibson 100.D.
Drew on do. in favr. Th:J. Randolph for 120.D. Hhd. xp. 1.D.
8. Recd. from Th:J.R. for the sd. draught 120.D.
Pd. him tax for my Landau 11.D. for this current year.
Pd. thro Mr. Bacon to Danl. F. Carr 109.56 D. in full int. & principal of the debt for corn ante Aug. 1.
9. Gave Brunt in charity 2.D.
Pd. Roland Goodman 91.D.
Gave my note to Pleasant German for 100.D. payable Jan. 8. 1816. for the horse ante Jan. 1.
11. Hhd. exp. 2.D.
14. Pd. thro’ E. Bacon to Clifton Harris sheriff 16.08 D. for 1776. ℔ oats for myself & 1808. ℔ do. for Roland Goodman to whom charge 8.32 of the money.
15. Sewers 1.D.
19. Gave  Harlow ord. on Gibson for the carriage of 50. barrels of flour which he now carries down for me on account of W. Johnson.
22. Hhd. xp. 1.D.
Feb. 6. Pd. Th:J. Randolph 1.D. tax on gig.
10. Hhd. exp. 1.D. 11. Sewers 1.D.
14. Desired Mr. Gibson to inclose me 40.D. and 60.D. to Jer. A. Goodman, of which 30.D. is for  Johnson & 30.D. for  Chancy for horses bought payable Mar. 1. 19. Hhd. xp. 1.D.
20. Mrs. Smith knitting 2.D.
Recd. from Mr. Gibson the 40.D. desired ante Feb. 14.
21. Recd. from J. Barnard balance for firewood 3.D.
23. Recd. of Th:J. Randolph 19.D. in silver. 24. Hhd. xp. 1.D. + 1.D.
25. Hhd. exp. .50. 27. Hops 1.D.
Mar. 2.
Pd. E. Bacon  for Wm. Hogg for a mutton & 6 turkies 6.D.  }  = 12.50
for Nancy Bacon for 13 turkies 6.50
4. Hhd. exp. 2.D. 5. Sewers 1.D.
6. Drew on Gibson & Jefferson in favr. D. Higgenbotham for 40.D.
Pd. Elijah Ham 40.D.
Recd. of D. Higgenbotham (by Mr. Bacon) 40.D. for the above draught.
Pd. thro’ Mr. Bacon for a bushel of clover seed 10½ D. and to D. Higgenbotham for lambs 8.D.
8. Renewed my note in bank. See ante Nov. 4.
10. Hhd. exp. 1.D. 12. Do. .25. 14. Do. .25. 17. Do. 1.
19. Hhd. exp. 1.D. Do. 1.D.
22. Inclosed 10.D. to H. Niles for the Weekly register which pays up to Sep. 1816.
23. Drew on Gibson and Jefferson for 19.D. in favr. of Th:J. Randolph to replace ante Feb. 23.
Mar. 27. Hhd. exp. 2.D.
28. <Wormely ferrge. to Snowden 1.D.> Hhd. exp. 1.D.
Apr. 1. Hhd. exp. 1.D. 3. Do. 1.
4. Recd. from Gibson & Jefferson 70.D.
5. Gave Mrs. Proctor ord. on D. Higginbotham for 16.54 for groceries.
6. Paid Seth Burnley on account 50.D.
Paid an old acct. of Dr. Chas. Everett 3.D.
7. Hhd. exp. 5.D.
8. Pd. for shads @ 2/3 = 1.50.
9. Sent Isaacs for a book 1.50 sewers 1.D.
13. Hhd. exp. 1.D. 15. Pd. 4. shads 1.50.
15. Sold the mare Hyatilda to Pleasants German for 100.D. & recieved back my note of 100.D. ante Jan. 1. in payment.
16. Hhd. exp. 2.D. 17. Charity 1.D. 20. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
21. Hhd. exp. 2.D. 24. Charity 2.D. 26. Pd. 11. shads 3.63.
28. Gave Martin Dawson assignee of L. H. Girardin88 ord. on Gibson & Jefferson for 54.D. with int. from Mar. 1. for cattle bought.
29. The sale of my library89 to Congress for 23,950.D. being concluded, I drew on the 18th. inst. on the Treasury of the US.
in favor of  Wm. Short for 10,500  for my bonds Jan. 10. 1813
Thaddeus Kozciuzko  4,870  principl. & Int. due him
to remit to myself 8,580
Recd. from the Treasurer of the US. his order on Thos. Nelson Commr. of loans at Richmond for 8580.D. which I inclosed
to Patrick Gibson to pay  2000.  my note in bank of Virginia
to Darmsdadt 140.  for fish due, & to be ordered
Ellen W. Randolph 100 
to remit me 6340   in treasury notes
May 1. Hhd. exp. .50—2. Do. 1. 3. Do. .59.
6. See my lre. of this day to Gibson modifying my ord. to Gibson ante 29.
7. Sewers 1. 8. Hhd. exp. 1.75 Do. 1.
9. Recd. from the Treasury office of the US. thro’ the Commr. of loans Thos. Nelson at Richmd. & P. Gibson 8580.D. in Treasury notes.
Inclosed to Mr. Gibson  1900. D.  of them for the bank
140. D.  for Jos. Darmsdat. fish
100. D.  for Eleanor W. Randolph
800. D.  to cover his advances for me
Pd. Th:J. Randolph 380.D. to wit 187.D. for books + 193.D. on account for corn oats & fodder.90
Pd. Dav. Higgenbotham 1000.D. on account. Still due 2323.54.
11. Pd. Seth Burnley 152.42 in full of my note ante Dec. 24. 1813.
Pd. James Leitch 433.56 amt. of my acct. to Aug. 1. 1814.
Pd. Hugh Nelson (thro’ Mr. Bacon) 105.87. my note ante Aug. 7. 1814.
12. Pd. Martin Dawson his acct. to 1815. May 1. in full 88.06.
Recd. of P. Gibson by mail 50.D.
Pd. portage of books by stage .50.
13. Pd. Roland Goodman 5.D. on acct. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
14. Bought of Elias Wells, a horse (Wellington)91 for 120.D. for which gave him an order on Gibson & Jefferson. The horse is 6. y. old, bay, no white but a few white hairs in his foretop, a lump on left side of his neck.
Pd. for tar 4.D.
May 15. Hhd. exp. 3.50.
Recd. back from Th:J. Randolph my draught for 120.D. in favor of E. Wells of yesterday, and gave him instead of it a draught on Gibson & Jeff. for 140.17 including a balance of 20.17 due him for oats & fodder more than the 380.D. ante May 10.
16. Set out for Bedford.
17. Enniscorthy vales 1.50.
Warren ferriage 1. Gibson’s oats &c. 1.06. a linchpin .20.
18. Noah Flood’s lodging &c. 2.D. H. Flood’s horseshoe .31.
Hunter’s breakfast &c. 2.40.
20. Pd. for candles 1.D.
Pd.  Michael Atkinson for sawing &c.  68.32
still due to him 20.10
the amount of his bill being 88.42
Pd. Archibald Robertson 1962.06 D. in full of my store accounts with Brown & Robertson & Robertson alone to Aug. 31. 1814. There is a bond of Griffin’s for earlier dealings still unpaid, to wit £233–15–1 = 779.19 1807 Sep. 1.
22. Drew on Archib. Robertson for 60.D. in favr. of Jer. A. Goodman to be pd. to  Cobb for a horse.
Gave Cate to buy milk pans 2.D.
Archib. Robertson has furnished 23.D. to Jer. A. Goodman to pay for 100. ℔ cotton.
29. Paid to John Watts,92 assee. of Burgess Griffin my two notes ante. 1812. Sep. 11. with interest to this day. to wit
   the bond for  500.D.  +  interest to this day  72.75  =  572. 75
that for 716.13 + interest 104.36 = 820. 3693
1393. 11
30. On settlement of accounts with Jeremiah A. Goodman to this day there is due to him a balance of 784.D. not including his wages of the current year.
Now give him an order on Gibson & Jefferson for 84.D. reducing the balance to 700.D.
Soon after this settlement we discovered that a charge of 72.D. entered Jan. 26. as a payment to N. Darnell on acct. of wages ought to be withdrawn, because it was for absent time which belonged to his account & not to Goodman’s which reduced the balce. to 628.D.
On settlement of accounts with Nimrod Darnell to this day the balance due him was 453.D. for which I gave him an order on Gibson & Jefferson.
Note there is a mare purchased from Goodman, valued at 60.D. to enter into our next account.
31. Pd. Rochester Atkinson for Michael Atkinson his father the balance of 20.10 ante May 20. (to wit 10 cents overpd.).
June 1. Drew on Archibd. Robertson for 55.D. in favr. Charles Clay for a horse bought of Brown.
Drew on Gibson & Jefferson for 138.D. in favor of Archib. Robertson to wit the 60.D. ante May 22. the 23.D. and the 55.D.
Gave Burwell 10.D. pd. for a screw .12½.
Cash on hand 98.75.
June 2. Debts and vales at Poplar Forest 6.70 Hunter’s oats 1.D.
3. H. Flood’s lodgg. &c. 3.50 Gibson’s brkft. &c. 1.62.
Warren ferrge. &c. 1.87½ old acct. .84 ferrymen .25.
4. Enniscorthy. vales 1.50 Hhd. exp. 1.
5. Recd. from  Fitz 15.D. on acct.
6. Patrick Gibson having with the remittance of May 10. ante, and the sales 257. barrels of flour of my crop here, and 8372. ℔ of tobo. from Bedford paid off my note of 3900.D. at the bank of Virginia, I now inclose him a new note of 1000.D. for the same bank, and John Harvie’s note for 176.20 payable last March; and I write to him to remit to Benj. Jones ironmonger of Philada. 142.76 for iron furnished me. He has also recieved 213.* Bar. of flour from T. M. & T. E. Randolph’s on account of rent.94 *Only 146.
Note the 8372. ℔ tobo. abovementd. with 700. ℔ sold by J. A. Goodman makes up the Bedford crop of last year 9072. ℔.
7. Wormley exp. to Snowden .87½.
8. Houshd. exp. 1.D.
11. Sewers 1.D. hhd. exp. 1.D. 13. Do. 1.
14. Purchased a horse95 of David Isaacs, bright bay, without any white except a few white hairs in the forehead where there is usually a star. Said to be 6. but believed 7. y. old.
Drew on Gibson & Jefferson in favr. David Isaacs for 125. Dol. payment in full for the sd. horse.
16. Hhd. exp. 2.D. 17. Do. 2.D.
18. Gave Th:J. Randolph ord. on Gibson & Jefferson for 167.D. and recieved from him that sum in cash.
Pd. E. Bacon  for Drury Wood for corn 144.D.
for Wayt & Winn store acct. 23.85.
20. Drew on Gibson & Jefferson for 26.35 in favr. Wm. Fitz for 31. galls. whiskey @ .85.
Pd. E. Bacon 2.38 Interest on the 105. for 4½ months for Hugh Nelson ante May 11. 22. Hhd. xp. 2.D.
23. Hhd. exp. 1.125 Israel96 exp. to Snowden .25.
24. Hhd. xp. 1. 25. Charity 1.D. 26. Hhd. exp. 2.D. 28. Do. 1.D.
July 2. Hhd. xp. 2.25—sewers 1.D. pd. Roland Goodman 10.D.
3. Pd. Ewen Carden 10.D. on acct. 4. Hhd. exp. 2.
5. Charity 10.D. 8. Hhd. exp. 4.D. 16. Do. 5.D.
Gibson remits for me to John Vaughan this day 550.D.97
17. Drew on Gibson and Jefferson in favor of D. Higginbotham for 19.37 to replace the 16.54 ante Apr. 5. the difference 2.83 to be returned. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
22. Roland Goodman 5.D.
26. Pd.  Madeiras for boots & shoes 2.75.
Pd.  Vest for leather 7.87½ Hhd. exp. 1.D.
28. Drew on Gibson for 230.D. in favor of Th:J. Randolph, to replace 21.D. he paid  Wheat for corn, 160.D. cash, which he now pays me, and 49.D. to be remitted me in small bills from Richmond.
Hhd. exp. 5.
July 30. Inclosed to Dabney Carr an order on Gibson & Jefferson for 68.10 in payment of the assumpsit for Craven Peyton ante 1813 May 30.
Gave Johnny Hemings 20.D.
Aug. 2. Drew on Gibson & Jefferson in favor of L. H. Girardin for 25.D. to wit for books 19.D. plants 2.D. one year of the Compiler98 4.D. Hhd. exp. 2.D.
5. Wormly exp. to Snowden 1.D.
Pd. Mr. Vest transportn. of books from Milligan 4.D.
Sewers 1.D.
6. Recd. back from Wormly .25.
Recd. from Th:J. Randolph the 49.D. ante July 28.
7. E. Bacon paid this day to David Carr for oats 39.35 to James H. Terril99 for 12. lambs 24.D. M. Bramham for a beef 16.D. = 79.35 money which I deposited with him for that purpose some days ago & did not then enter.
My brother Randolph Jefferson died this morning.1
11. Drew on Gibson & Jefferson in favor of Joseph Milligan for 92.D. for books. hhd. exp. 1.125 F. Eppes shoes 2.
Recd. back from Wormly .37½.
13. Colo. Lindsay’s vales .50—Ellen Randolph 1.D.
14. Montplier. do. 1. 15. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
16. Gill2 exp. going for Mrs. Marks 2.D.
Th:J. Randolph now pays to  Ballard3 on account of wages 100.D. for which I am to give him a draught.
18. Pd. Rolin Goodman on account 20.D.
Pd. Charles Vest leather 24/6 portage 10/6 = 5.84.
19. Owing Th:J. Randolph for 12. B. corn 42.D. sundry small articles 14.D. + the 100.D. to Ballard ante, and recieving from him now 119.D. cash, in all 275.D. I give him a draught on Gibson and Jefferson for 275.D.
Recd. back from Gill 1.12½ of the money ante 16th.
Pd. Mr. Bacon  for   Hogg. for 2. horses  78.D.
for Rothwell 50. b. oats   25.
20. Left with Patsy for hhd. xp. 15.
Warren oats .37½ ferriage 2.25.
Raleigh. F. Eppes 2.D.
Noah Flood’s lodging &c. 2.D.
21. Henry Flood’s breakfast 2.12½.
Chilton’s oats .375.
Poplar Forest. cash on hand 61.
26. John Clarke for lime 1.D.
31. Paid for 2. slays 2.31.
Sep. 1. Cate for chickens 2.D.
10. Hunter’s oats &c. 1. 11. H. Flood’s vales .25.
12. Raleigh. vales .25 Buckingham C. H.4 Branch dinner .50.
Buck. C. H. Staples entertainmt. &c. 8.075.
Sep. 13. H. Flood’s lodgg. &c. going & coming 6.75.
Hunter’s breakft. &c. 2.06 Lynchbg. Hoyle’s5 dinner 2.58.
14. Pd. for candles 1.D.
17. Liberty. dinner &c. .93.
18. Peak of Otter.6 sharp one. took Lat. 37°–33′–17″.
19. Christr. Clarke’s vales 1.D. Skidmore’s ferry .62½.
20. Douthat’s7 lodgg. &c. 3.37½.
Natl. bridge. took Latitude 37°–42′–44″.
Greenlee’s ferry .44.
21. David Douglas’s lodging &c. 1.
22. Gave Wm. Salmons depy. sher. of Bedford ord. on Arch. Robertson for 165.62 amount of state taxes & levies now due.
Gave Dr. William Steptoe8 ord. on Arch. Robertson for 35.89 balance for Medical services after deducting smith’s acct.
24. Gave Morgan and McDaniel assees. of my note to John May order for 60.D. on Arch. Robertson for a mare bought.
29. Sent to Archibd. Robertson an order on Gibson & Jefferson for 387.D. to reimburse the following advances towit
   the order of  22d. inst. in favr. of  Salmons 165. 62
Wm. Steptoe 35. 89
24. Morgan & McDaniel    60.
his paymt. to Richd. Chilton for corn 100.
an order still to be drawn in favr. Mic. Adkinson 25. 47
368. 989
Inclosed to P. Gibson my note to the bk. of Virginia for 1000.D. additional to that of June 6. ante.
Gave Michael Adkinson order on Archib. Robertson for 25.47 D. for a bill of sawing finished this day.
Oct. 1. Gave Roland Goodman ord. on A. Robertson for clothes (35.67).
Debts & vales at Pop. Forest 6.5.
Hunter’s oats 1.D.
2. H. Flood’s lodgg. &c. 3.25 Gibson’s oats .50 Warren ferrge. 1.D.
3. Warren vales 1. Enniscorthy do. .25.
5. Accepted W. Ballard’s ord. in favr. of E. Bacon for 16.50.
6. Recieved from Th:J. Randolph 30.D.
8. Houshold exp. 15.D.
See ante 1813. Apr. 7. my bond to E. Bacon for 370.D. Of this 327.12 were assigned to John Bacon and 42.88 remain the property of E. Bacon, of which I now recieve notice.
Hhd. exp. 1.D.
9. Settled with Wm. Johnson account for carriage to this day and rent for the year 1814. balance due him 32.88. for which I gave him order on Gibson & Jefferson.
12. Hhd. exp. 5.D. 13. Gave James Hem.10 finding eyeglass of Borda 2.D.
14. Recd. of Th:J. Randolph 15.D.
He has pd. Wm. Ballard for me also 50.D. and to Hugh Chisolm 184.D. See ante pa.
15. Philip sewers 1.D.—hhd. xp. 4.D.
19. Hhd. exp. 1.
Oct. 20. Th:J. Randolph pays Wm. Ballard for me this day 200.D. which leaves a balance of 76.83 D. still due to him.
22. Bought a mule 4. y. old of Jesse Abell of Kentucky and gave him an order on Watson & Dawson for 80.D.
Gave Bagwell 7.D.
25. Recd. from Th:J. Randolph 100.D.
Pd. Watson & Dawson the 80.D. ante 22d.
26. Drew on Gibson and Jefferson in favor of Clifton Harris sheriff of Albemarle for 309.82 D. for taxes, levies & tickets now due. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
28. Drew ord. on Gibson and Jefferson in favr. Joseph Milligan for 136.75 balce. in full.
Settled with Th:J. Randolph as follows D 
 Oct. 6. cash 30.
14. do. 15 
pd. Chisolm 184.
pd. Ballard 50.
20. do. 200 
do. in full 76. 83
25. cash 100.
28. do. now recd. 12.
pay Madeiras for shoes 3. 50
furnd. Mrs. Rand. for hhd. xp.  . 92
 gave him an ord. on Gibson & Jeff. for 660. 2512
Note Mr. Gibson procures me a discount of 1000.D. additional to the 1000.D. ante June 6. in the bank of Virginia, and I now send him a note for 2000. for the bank, with a blank date.
Warren. oats .67 ferrge. 1.06. }  9.93
Gibson’s lodging &c. 1.70 Noah Flood’s oats 1.67 H. Flood do. .75. 
Hunter’s lodging &c. 4.08.
Nov. 7. Lynchburg13 exp. .62½ gave Burwell 10.D.
12. At Christopher Clark’s vales 1.5.14
13. Pop. For. Hhd. exp. 2.D.
25. Pd. for beef from Lynchbg. 22½ ℔ @ 6d 1.91.

Gave Jer. A. Goodman order on Arch. Robertson for 50.
 also assumed his debt to do. payable in 90. days 78. 35
 sold him negro girl Sally,15 daur. of Aggy, 3. y. old for  150.
 to which the balance of his cash acct. for 1815. 17. 29
295. 64
On settlemt. with him after taking credit for the above, I owe him 413.D. with int. from this date besides 200.D. his wages for this year which will become due Apr. 30.
Dec. 2. Gave James Cooney an order on Archib. Robertson for 17.65 balance due for a horse.
10. I am to reimburse to Arch. Robertson £20–16–1 for so much paid for leather when I pay him Goodman’s debt of 78.35 ante Nov. 30.
12. Drew on Gibson & Jefferson in favr. of Arch. Robertson for 112.65 to replace 45.D. advanced to Mr. Yancey16 to pay for corn & the 50.D. and 17.65 ante Nov. 30. & Dec. 2.
Dec. 12. Gave Roland Goodman for expences 2.D. not to be chargd.
13. Debts and vales at Pop. Forest 5.D.
14. Henry Flood’s lodging &c. 4.25 N. Flood’s brkft. 2.12½.
Warren. ferrge. 2.32.
15. Enniscorthy vales 1.D.
Cash on hand 6.55.
16. Hhd. exp. 1.06.
17. Recd. from Th:J. Randolph 115.D.
Furnished E. Bacon 90.D. to pay for 30. Barrels of corn to John Byrd.
Hhd. exp. 7.97½.
22. Sewers 2.D. borrowed of Th:J. Randolph 80.D.
Pd. Roland Goodman on account 35.D.
22. Pd. Charles Massie for 143. galls. cyder 143/ + 7/ for bringing = 25.D.
Hhd. exp. 5.D.
24. Sent Mrs. Fanny Brand 28.50 for cyder.
Hhd. exp. 5.D.
27. TMR’s Harry for bringing up clock 1.
28. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
29. Recd. of Th:J. Randolph 20.D.

87This carriage horse, called Bedford, died in March (TJ to TJR, 31 Mch. 1815).

88French emigré educator Louis Hue Girardin (1771-1825) was at this time living four miles east of Monticello at Glenmore, where, with TJ’s books and suggestions, he was preparing his continuation of John Daly Burk’s History of Virginia (Sowerby, No. 464 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ; Edith Philips, Louis Hue Girardin and Nicholas Gouin Dufief [Baltimore, 1926], p. 1-55).

89TJ’s patriotic intentions as well as his financial condition had prompted him to offer his library to Congress after the destruction of its library by the British in 1814. Congress approved the purchase of TJ’s lifetime collection of over 6,700 volumes in Jan. 1815. TJ spent much of the ensuing spring preparing his library for shipment to Washington and made his usual spring journey to Poplar Forest only after the departure of the last wagonload of books in early May (TJ tally sheet, undated, DLC: TJ Papers, 37212; see Malone, Jefferson, vi, 169-84 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends ; and Sowerby description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends , which is a catalogue of the titles TJ sold).

90TJR’s farm was Shadwell, which—excluding the mills and canal—TJ had given him in 1813. An adjoining 400-acre piece of Edgehill had been conveyed to him by his father by 1815 (AlCDB, xix, 154-5, 322 description begins Albemarle County Deed Books, Albemarle County Courthouse, Charlottesville, Va. description ends ). After his marriage to Jane Hollins Nicholas at Warren in Mch. 1815, TJR and his wife lived in the dome room at Monticello until 1817, when they removed to a house at Tufton. By the summer of 1815 TJR had begun to assume the direction of all TJ’s Albemarle County farming operations and from 1818 he leased TJ’s Tufton and Lego farms, paying a rent of flour and farm produce. In 1821 TJ turned the direction of his Bedford County properties over to his grandson (TJ to William Newby, 21 June 1815; TJR Memoirs, ViU; Malone, Jefferson , vi, 160-1, 314-15 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends ).

91Wellington was mainly a carriage horse (Betts, Farm Book, p. 107 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Farm Book, ed. Edwin M. Betts, Princeton, N.J., 1953 description ends ).

92According to TJ’s granddaughter, Bedford County resident John Watts was “the only decided enemy that my dear Grandfather has in the neighborhood” (Ellen W. Randolph to Virginia J. Randolph, 14 Aug. 1819, ViU).

93Correctly $820.49.

94TMR and Thomas Eston Randolph were joint tenants of TJ’s Shadwell manufacturing mill from July 1814. TMR soon retired and T. E. Randolph continued to lease the mill during TJ’s lifetime, for part of that time in partnership with Daniel Colclaser. For particulars of the annual rent payments, made sometimes in cash and sometimes in flour, see the TJ-Randolph correspondence in MHi.

95This carriage horse was Tecumseh (Betts, Farm Book, p. 107-8 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Farm Book, ed. Edwin M. Betts, Princeton, N.J., 1953 description ends ).

96TJ’s slave Israel (b. 1800), son of Ned and Jenny, was sent to Snowden to get a set of harness TJ had lent his brother (TJ to RJ, 23 June 1815; RJ to TJ, 23 June 1815). Israel was a scullion and waiter for the Monticello household, as well as a driver and postilion for TJ’s landau and a carder in the cloth factory (TJ to MJR, 6 June 1814; Ellen W. Randolph to MJR, 28 July 1819, ViU). Sold after TJ’s death, he purchased his own freedom from his owner, Thomas Walker Gilmer (1802-1844), took the surname Jefferson, and removed to Ohio. His reminiscences, taken down in 1873, are printed in Brodie, Jefferson, p. 477-82 description begins Fawn M. Brodie, Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History, New York, 1974 description ends .

97This money was sent to Europe through the agency of Philadelphia banker Stephen Girard (1750-1831) for the purchase of books and wine. Young Bostonian George Ticknor (1791-1871), while at Monticello in February, had offered to help TJ replace some of the “literary treasures” sold to Congress, and $350 of this money was forwarded to him for the purchase of the mainly classical titles TJ could not live without. The remaining $200 was sent to Stephen Cathalan in Marseilles for a supply of white Hermitage, red Bellet, and Roussillon wines (TJ to Girard, 10 July 1815; TJ to John Vaughan, 11, 15 July 1815; TJ to Ticknor, 4 July 1815; TJ to Cathalan, 3 July 1815; MB 8 June, 12 July, 11 Nov. 1816). See Malone, Jefferson, vi, 185-99 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends , on TJ’s replacement library—most of which is listed in Library Catalogue, 1829 description begins Catalogue: President Jefferson’s Library, Washington, D.C., 1829 description ends —and his reading tastes in his last years.

98 L. H. Girardin was at this time one of the publishers of the Daily Compiler and Richmond Commercial Register, which had been established in 1813. TJ probably received the semiweekly country edition (Brigham, History, ii, 1137 description begins Clarence S. Brigham, A History and Bibliography of American Newspapers, 1690-1820, Worcester, Mass., 1920, 2 vols. description ends ).

99 James Hunter Terrell (d. 1856) succeeded his father, Chiles Terrell, at the Music Hall estate northeast of Monticello (Woods, Albemarle, p. 326 description begins Edgar Woods, Albemarle County in Virginia, 1901, repr. Bridgewater, Va., n.d. description ends ; Edward C. Mead, Historic Homes of the South-West Mountains Virginia [1898, repr. Bridgewater, Va., 1962], p. 153-8).

1TJ had set out to visit his ailing brother early on this day, but, learning at Scott’s ferry (Scottsville) of his death, returned to Monticello without crossing the river to Snowden (TJ to Wilson C. Nicholas, 9 Aug. 1815).

2TJ’s slave Gill (b. 1792), son of Ned and Jenny, was a driver, postilion, and house servant at Monticello (Brodie, Jefferson, p. 478 description begins Fawn M. Brodie, Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History, New York, 1974 description ends ).

3 William Ballard was overseer at Tufton in 1814 and 1815 at an annual wage of £65 (Betts, Farm Book, p. 153-4 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Farm Book, ed. Edwin M. Betts, Princeton, N.J., 1953 description ends ).

4TJ went to Buckingham Courthouse to appear as a witness in a suit between the widow and children of RJ, who had left two wills. TJ, who had helped RJ prepare the first will, supported the claims of the children (TJ deposition, 15 Sep. 1815, ViU). The tavernkeepers were Bolling Branch and Guerrant Staples (Buckingham County Personal Property List, 1815, Vi). Staples’ bill and most of TJ’s other tavern bills for September are in MHi.

5 Charles Hoyle kept the Indian Queen tavern in Lynchburg (Lynchburg Press, 21 Feb. 1817).

6TJ and his guests, the Abbé Joseph Correa de Serra (1750-1823) and Francis Walker Gilmer (1790-1826), were staying with Christopher Clark at Mount Prospect on the Otter River between Liberty (now Bedford) and the Peaks of Otter. According to a report that reached Gilmer’s brother, they passed two days “taking the elevation of the Peaks of Otter and then exploring the sides of them for subjects botanical” (Peachy Gilmer to F. W. Gilmer, 3 Oct. 1815, printed in Davis, Gilmer, p. 90). For TJ this visit was preliminary to a second one he made in November to determine the elevation of the two peaks (see note 14 below). At that time he also revised his September estimate of the latitude of Sharp Top, bringing it somewhat closer to the correct 37°25′. The three scientific travellers left Mount Prospect for the Natural Bridge on 19 Sep. The next day TJ parted from his friends “on” the bridge and, while they turned south to make a two-month tour of the southern states, he travelled east, crossing the James River at Greenlee’s ferry near present Natural Bridge Station and the Blue Ridge at Petit’s gap. He lodged at David Douglas’ ordinary six miles beyond the gap and just north of present Charlemont in Bedford County (TJ to Correa, 1 Jan. 1816; TJ’s pocket notes of expences and mileages, with calculations of latitudes on verso, Sep. 1815, CSmH; Böÿe, Map of Virginia description begins Herman Böÿe, Map of the State of Virginia, 1825, corrected 1859, repr. in E. M. Sanchez-Saavedra, A Description of the Country: Virginia Cartographers and Their Maps, 1607-1881, Richmond, 1975 description ends ). On TJ’s friendship with the learned Portuguese abbé and the brilliant young son of Dr. George Gilmer, see Malone, Jefferson, vi, p. 163-4 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends ; Davis, Gilmer description begins Richard Beale Davis, Francis Walker Gilmer, Richmond, 1939 description ends ; and Richard Beale Davis, “The Abbé Correa in America, 1812-1820,” Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., n.s., xlv, pt. 2 (1955), p. 87-197.

7 Robert Douthat kept an ordinary in the building known as the Stone Castle about two miles southwest of the Natural Bridge (E. P. Tompkins and J. Lee Davis, The Natural Bridge and its Historical Surroundings [Natural Bridge, Va., 1939], p. 12-13). The correct latitude of the bridge is 37°37′40″.

8Dr. William Steptoe, son of TJ’s old friend James Steptoe, lived between Poplar Forest and New London, in which town he had a shop and office (Lynchburg Press, 4 Aug. 1814). Steptoe’s itemized accounts of his treatment of the Poplar Forest slaves are in ViU.

9Correctly $386.98.

10This entry may mark the reappearance of Critta Hemings’ son, James (b. 1787), who had run away from Monticello in 1804 (TJ to James Oldham, 20 July 1805; Oldham to TJ, 23 July 1805). James found the eyepiece for the telescope of the reflecting circle TJ had bought in 1808 (MB 7 Mch. 1808).

11TJ’s page numbers refer to MB entries for 17 Sep., 17 Nov. 1810, and 22 and 23 June, 5 July 1814.

12Correctly $672.25.

13On this date TJ attended a public dinner given by the citizens of Lynchburg for General Andrew Jackson, who had called on TJ at Poplar Forest on 4 Nov. (Holcombe et al. to TJ, 4 Nov. 1815; TJ to MJR, 4 Nov. 1815; TJ to Christopher Clark, 5 Nov. 1815).

14TJ had returned to Mount Prospect, this time bearing his Ramsden theodolite, to take observations for determining the elevation of the Peaks of Otter. After five days there he returned to Poplar Forest and spent five more days making geometrical calculations (TJ to Charles Clay, 18 Nov. 1815; TJ to Christopher Clark, 14 Sep., 5 Nov. 1815; Clark to TJ, 31 Aug., 2 Nov. 1815). TJ’s field notes and calculations are in MHi and his conclusions appear as a manuscript note to his Notes on Virginia (Notes, p. 262-3).

15 Sally (b. 1812) was the daughter of Aggy (b. 1789) and granddaughter of Poplar Forest slaves Dick and Dinah. The sale was cancelled in 1817 (TJ to Jeremiah Goodman, 30 Nov. 1815, 20 July 1817; MB 5 Mch. 1821).

16Finding affairs at Poplar Forest in disarray on his arrival in May, TJ had dismissed his overseers Jeremiah Goodman and Nimrod Darnell and had hired Joel Yancey, who lived on an adjoining farm, to superintend his Bedford County property. From 1815 through 1821, at an annual salary of $400, Yancey was in charge of all operations at Poplar Forest and was responsible for hiring the overseers for the two plantations there: Bear Creek in the northern portion and Tomahawk (formerly designated Poplar Forest) in the southern portion of the property and near the main house (Goodman to TJ, 16 June 1815; TJ to William P. Newby, 21 June 1815; TJ to Yancey, 2 Jan. 1822).

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