Thomas Jefferson Papers
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Memorandum Books, 1812


Jan. 3. Borrowed of D. Higginbotham 20.D.
Jan. 4. Gave in charity 1.D.
Drew on Gibson & Jefferson for 60.D. in favor of Joel Shifflet on the order of James Salmons.
6. Charity 1.D.
Gave my note to Clifton Rhodes for 71.32 D. for 6. beeves bought, payable Aug. 9. ensuing.
Gave my note to Charles Vest by order of Thos. Hunton for a mule bought of him for 55.D. payable May 1.
11. Accepted James Salmon’s ord. in favor of Johnson Rowe for £20. for hauling stone for the warehouse paiable in all March. pd. below Mar. 2.
12. Hhd. exp. 2.25.
Accepted James Salmon’s ord. in favr. Martin Dawson for 14.21 & int. from Aug. 1. say to Mar. 15. = .53.
Also his ord. in favr. Thos. Cradock assd. to M. Dawson 15.D.
14. Houshd. exp. 1.25.
17. Houshd. exp. 2.D.
19. Houshd. exp. 1.D. 26. Do. 1.D.
30. Borrowed of D. Higginbotham 30.D.
Pd. Samuel Grosse jailer of Bath county for TMRandolph 30.D. for taking up & bringing Isaac home, on account.
Assumed to Mr. McKinney4 for James Salmons 9.77.
Feb. 2. Hhd. exp. 3.D.
3. Accepted Salmons’s assnmt. of his balance to Mr. Garth deducting the assumpsit to McKenny, to wit 100.D.
Hhd. exp. 1.D. 10. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
14. Recd. of TMRandolph the 30.D. ante Jan. 30.
15. Hhd. exp. 1.D. 18. Do. 1.
19. Paid for weaving 3.D. pd. Mr. Sea, messenger from L. Minor5 3.D.
20. Drew on Gibson & Jefferson for 50.D. in favr. D. Higginbotham to replace the 20.D. ante Jan. 3. & 30.D. Jan. 30.
24. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
28. Sent Mrs. Boyd6 for Mrs. Marks’s bill .50.
29. Drew order on Saml. J. Harrison in favr. of Robertson7 of Lynchburg for 600.D. to be credited to my store acct.
Recd. by post from Gibson & Jeff. 100.D.
Mar. 2. Gave Mr. Bacon to pay  Kerr for 10. Bar. corn 30.D.
Also to pay  Bishop for leather 15.D.
Settled with Eli Alexandr. for the rent of 1811. as follows
Dr.  for rent  320.D.
Cr. by 22. sheep  44
by my assumpsit for Salmons to Rowe, ante Jan. 11. assigned to E. Alexander   66⅔
by cash now recd. of Alexander 209⅓ 
3. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
4. Paid  Leitch on account 100.D.
7. Pd. for weaving 1.75.
10. Pd. Isham Chisolm on account 20.D.
Hhd. exp. 1.D.
Mar. 13. Pd. for weaving 2.50.
15. Inclosed to Mr. Gibson John Harvie’s bond for 176.90 now due which is to be taken up by Dr. Brokenbrough.
Desired Mr. Gibson to remit for me as follows D
 to  John Low bookseller of N. Y. Encyclopedia8 75.
Nathaniel Hooe. in full to Jan. 1. 12. 131. 50
John Barnes 200.
406. 50
The remittance to John Barnes is for the following persons
 for  Richard Barry in full 70. 52
Henry Foxall for a stove9 55. 465
Joseph Millegan. acct. books & binding 65. 125
R. C. Weightman for a book,10 suppose 8. 89
Gave D. Higginbotham an order on Gibson & Jeff. for 82.15
 to wit.  acceptance for James Salmons. ante Oct. 7. 30.82
a cow bot. by E. Bacon 13.33
a cow bot. of  Turner by E. Bacon 13.
my assumpsit for J. Salmons to Turner. Oct. 7.  25.
16. Hhd. exp. 1.D. 17. Pd. for knitting 2.125.
17. Sent Capt. W. D. Meriwether for malt 2.D.11
Pd. Giovanini for work in vineyard 1.D.
21. Hhd. exp. 1.D. a waggoner for bringing seeds 1.D.
23. Pd. for hhd. exp. 2.D. Do. 1.D.
25. Sent Capt. Meriwether for 2. more bush. of malt 2.D.
27. Charity 1.D.
28. Pd. James Starke on account 50.D.
29. Desired Gibson & Jefferson to remit
 to  Benjamin Jones of Philadelphia 200.D. on acct.
Ezra Sarjeant of N. York 130.D. for printing.12
Pd. Rezin Wheat for a cow 13.D.
30. Gave annual gratuity to Johnny Hemings 20.D. See ante Apr. 11.
Apr. 5. Pd. Isham Chisolm 5.D. which was 4.88 over the balance I owed him for his 1st. trip in quest of Jame Hubard.13
Pd. Edmd. Bacon on account 5.D.
6. Pd. Isham Chisolm in advance on his 2d. trip 20.D.
Pd. Charles Massey14 for cyder at 10½d pr. gallon 9.67.
Settled with Wm. McGehee for his services as overseer during 1811. balance due him £66–3–4 = 220.56 D. for which I gave him an order on Gibson & Jefferson.
7. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
12. Drew on Gibson & Jefferson in favor of
George Hay 100.D.  }  fees in the suit of E. Livingston.15
William Wirt 100.D.
Littleton W. Tazewell   100.D.
Apr. 13. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
15. Pd. Daniel Farley for hops 1.33.
19. Recd. from Gibson & Jefferson 200.D.
20. Gave James 5.D. to procure carp at Ashlin’s for the pond.16
Hhd. exp. 1.D.
21. On settlemt. with Wm. Johnson for rent17 & carriage of produce, the balance due him is 79.83 D. for which drew on Gibson & Jefferson.
26. Hhd. exp. 1.D.—gave James a 2d. time to buy live carp for the pond 5.D.
May 1. Put into Mr. Bacon’s hands 135.D. to pay the followg. debts
Nimrod Branham, a store acct. £3–6–6 = 11. 09
Dr. Frank Carr,18 medical acct. 34.
Dr. Everett do. 16. 67
Gillam for oats 25. 27
Gooch do. 30.
Isham Chisolm balce. on acct. of Jame Hubbard   14. 78
Mrs. Price. 4. geese 1. 67
overplus on acct. 1. 52
Hhd. exp. 1.D.
Apr. 30. Desired Gibson & Jefferson to remit to John Barnes
for Genl. Kosciuzko. interest 360 .D.
for E. I. Dupont for powder19 50
410 .D.
May 4. Hhd. exp. 5.D.
8. Warren. vales 1.50 ferrge. 1.
Prior’s vales .25.
Flood’s. pd. for burnet from Wm. Duval 7.75 dinner &c. 1.375 vales .125.
13. Lynchbg. oats &c. .75 Burwell gratuity 10.D.
16. Lost a 5. Dollar bill.
18. Settled with Saml. J. Harrison as follows
22. hhds. tobo. weighing  31,321
1. do. supposed 1,220
32,541 D
Roberts 121 1549 ½  @ 7.D. =  108.46 ½
30,991 ½
Griffin 112 2582 ½ 180.77 ½
Th:J. 28,409 1988.63
Mr. Harrison owes on his 3d. bond 1333. 33
Amount of crop as above 1988. 63  3321.96
Cr.  By ord. favr. Brown & Robertson ante. Feb. 29. 600 
By ord. now given me on Gibson & Jefferson 2000.
By another do. on do. for 306. 58
By cash now paid me 400.
By warehouse expences & land tax to sher. of Campbell  15. 38  3321.96
19. Settled with W. & R. Mitchell my wheat accounts for 1810. & 1811. and there remained due to me 9.D. which are now recieved. Note <B. Griffin’s> Roberts’s part of the wheat of 1811. to wit 800.3321 bush. = 38b–8 ℔ which at 4/6 comes to 28.61. B. Griffin’s 112 of remainder is 63⅓ bush. = 47.80 D. of which he recd. 30.D. from Mitchell. My part was 699. bushels which @ 4/6 as arbitrated = 524.25.
May 19.
Left with Mr. Goodman 110.D. to be paid as follows D 
to reimburse monies advanced by him on acct. 45. 33
for John Tase20 acct. for tanning certifd. by Griffin 22. 04
for  Roberts, his share of wheat of 1811. as before 28. 61
for Wm. P. Martin surveyor 4.
99. 98
also  for 100. ℔ more of hemp           6.
for  50. ℔ cotton   8. 33
114. 31
20. Poplar Forest debts & vales 3.50.
Hunter’s lodging &c. ante May 8. & feeding 2.D.

Flood’s  recd. from Geo. Gilmer 50. his subscription to Maclure21 to be remd. to Jas. Hamilton.
dinner lodgg. breakft. 2.67.
Prior’s vales .25.
Warren. ferrge. 2.D. Hunter repairg. clocks 15.D.
22. Monticello. cash in hand 344.875.
23. Furnished Mrs. Marks 15.D.
Pd. Saml. & James Leitch (thro’ E. Bacon) 100.D.
24. Inclosed by post to Dr. Thornton for Barrett’s spinning machine22 50.D.
Hhd. exp. 2.625—gave Phil cleaning sewer .25 Ned do. 1.
25. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
26. Assumed to Joseph Barnet for James Salmons 28.D.
Recd. back from James 2.50 of the 5.D. ante Apr. 26.
28. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
29. Pd.  Sea for bringing a horse from Louisa 2.D.
Hhd. exp. .50.
Inclosed to Mr. Gibson S. J. Harrison’s order for 2000.D. to be applied to the credit of my note at the bank of Richmd. Also his further order for 306.58 to the credit of my acct. with G. & J. Countermandd. by lre. of June 17.23
Assumed to D. Higginbotham James Salmon’s ord. on me for 15.06.
June 1. Drew ord. on Gibson & Jefferson in favr. Martin Dawson for 176.92 in full of his account.
Drew order on Gibson & Jefferson in favr. of Jesse Winston Garth for the followg.
James Salmon’s order ante Feb. 3. 100.
assumpsit ante Oct. 6. for John Perry. principal  694.
interest from Oct. 1. 8 months 27. 76
do. for 7. days sight . 81 722.57
Delivd. E. Bacon for Jos. Barnet on acct. of Salmons,
ante May 26. 28.D.
also to pay for oats bought of Wm. Hogg  12.D.
Hhd. exp. 1.D.
3. Recd. from J. B. Magruder 50.D. to be pd. to James Hamilton of N. C. for  Maclure.
4. Paid Charles Vest for a mule 55.D. ante Jan. 6.
7. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
8. Pd. Mr. Wingfield officiating at the burial of Wm. Moreton Harrison24 10.D.
Hhd. exp. 1.D.
June 14. Houshd. exp. 2.D. gave Nace25 as ante May 24 .25.
William Johnson has purchased for me Anderson Rowe’s storehouse on the river near Milton, which he had purchased from Bennet Henderson. I am to pay 35.D.
15. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
17. Desired Gibson & Jefferson to remit to
Benjamin Jones Philada.  200. D. for iron now ordered
Ezra Sargeant balance of 21. 50 for printing
221. 50
& to place in the bank 150. to the order of James
 Hamilton of Williamsboro’ N. Carolina. These 150.D. are to pay to him the subscriptions of George Gilmer 50 D. pd. me ante May 20. Magruder’s 50.D. ante June 3. and my own subscription of 50.D.
The 200.D. remitted to Jones, besides the iron & tin now written for are to pay
 Thos. Hope arrearages & a year advance of Price current.26
 Benj. & Thos. Kite 1.D. for a book.27
 N. Dufief 2.50 for a book.28
18. Purchased of Craven Peyton 20. lots in Milton, being all he holds there under the Hendersons, except the improved one in which Conrad & Henderson’s store was. The consideration 150.D. to be credited in his acct.29
20. Hhd. exp. 3.5 Davy exp. to Washington for sping. machine 5.D.
22. Hhd. exp. 1.25 Do. 1.
26. Renewed my note at the bank of Richmond for 3000. payable in 63. days from July 14.
Gave my promisory notes to Burgess Griffin or order as
follows for the paiment of  700.D. in all December next.
500.D. July 1. 1813.
500.D. July 1. 1814. See post Sep. 11.
These paiments to be made at the Counting house of Gibson & Jefferson. These notes are to be assigned to George Chamberlayne of Norfolk, ship carpenter.
30. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
July 1. Pd. Cradock for bringing up 7. barrels of fish 7.D.
2. Remitted to David Gelston of N. York 5.D. for charges on Spinning machine & to pay E. Herrick 3.D. of charges.
Repd. TMRandolph for a land warrt. 100. as.30 2.75.
Recd. from Gibson & Jefferson 175.D.

Pd. Mr. Bacon for T. Jefferson 86 Bar.–3⅛ bush. corn  173. 20
Pd. Mr. Bacon on his own account 75.
248. 20
Ned, Philip, Nace cleansing sewers 1.D.
8. Hhd. exp. 1.D. 10. Desired Gibson to remit 20.D. to bk. Fredsbg. for Mary Dangerfield for Edmund.
11. On settlement with James Salmon of all accounts whatsoever I owe him £30–2–3 which I am to pay to D. Higginbotham.
12. Hhd. exp. 1.D. 14. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
15. Hhd. exp. 1.50. 17. Do. 2.D.
20. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
23. Recd. from Gibson & Jefferson 50.D.
27. Pd. Starke on account 3.D. Note he recd. but 600. ℔ pork last winter.
Hhd. exp. 1.D.
30. Horseler at Milton .25. 31. Pd. at Watson’s for yesterday’s dinner .75.
31. Pd. Wm. F. Gordon fee in the case of Michie’s forcible entry 20.D.31
Aug. 3. Drew order on Gibson & Jefferson in favor of Martin Dawson for 72.91 of which 66.37 is for corn @ 20/ 3.33 for Cradock water carriage & 3.21 for merchandize.
Charity 2.D. 4. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
5. Drew ord. on Gibson & Jefferson in favor Clifton Rodes for 71.32 for cows bought last year.
6. Hhd. exp. 2.75. 10. Hhd. exp. 1.
12. Hhd. exp. 1.D.

D c
Drew on Gibson & Jefferson for  33. 43  in favr. James & Wm. Cochran, for groceries
 & 6. pr. cotton cards.
17. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
18. Recd. of Mr. Watson32 of Louisa 50.D. to be remitted to James Hamilton of N. Carolina on acct. of William Mclure.
24. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
26. Lent Mr. Mclure for his journey to N. Carolina 15.D.
28. Hhd. exp. .75. 29. Ned &c. cleaning sewer 1.D.
30. Hhd. exp. 6.D.
31. Warren. vales 1.50. ferrge. .50—H. Flood’s dinner 1.65.
Sep. 1. Hunter’s lodgg. 1.80.
7. Agreed with NimRod33 Darnell for another year. I am to give him 200.D. for the current year, & 200.D. for the next year.
10. Drew on Gibson & Jefferson for 83.60 in favr. of Sheriff of Bedford for my taxes.
11. Note that of my notes ante June 26. to Burgess Griffin he has used the first only for 700.D. He now returns me the two for 500.D. each which I cancel: & on a final settlement of all accounts I owe him 1216.13 for which
 I now him34 one note  for  500.  paiable  1813.  June  20.  & int. from Dec. 26. 12 &
one for 716.13 1814. July  1. & int. from Dec. 26. 12.
13. Debts & vales at Pop. For. 5.D. Hunter’s feedg. .50.
14. H. Flood’s dinr. lodgg. 2.75 lent my brother Mrs. Pryor’s vales .25 Warren ferrge. .50.
15. Enniscorthy. vales 1.50.
17. Hhd. exp. 3.10. 19. Do. .50.
22. Hhd. exp. 1. 22. Do. 7.D.
26. Gave James Starke ord. on D. Higginbotham for 40. ℔ bacon. Note I omitted to set down an order I gave him on do. for 60. ℔ bacon @ 1/ and a barrel of fish 9.D.
27. Hhd. exp. 1.5. 28. Do. 1.
Oct. 2. Hhd. exp. 2.D. 4. Do. 3.D.
5. Recd. thro’ E. Bacon from J. Winston Garth Sher. Alb. 100.D. to be repd. by draught on Gibson & Jefferson. My taxes in St. Anne’s this year are 94.35 and W. Johnson draws on me for 35.D. for Rowe’s warehouse purchasd. for me.
E. Bacon out of the 100.D. paid 16.D. to James Kerr for 4. barrels of corn.
7. Hhd. exp. 3.D.—Do. 1.
10. Do. 1.
13. Drew on Gibson & Jefferson in favr. Eli Alexander for 53.67 for sawing done at Colo. Monroe’s saw mill.
Sent Mrs. Molly Lewis by Th:J. Randolph 42.83 D. for sundries furnished & 2. y. int. on my note of Oct. 8. 1811.
Drew on Gibson & Jefferson for 100.D. in favr. Saml. & Jas. Leitch.
Hhd. exp. 1.D.
Oct. 18. Hhd. exp. 1.56.
My taxes in St. Anne’s  94.35
 cash borrowed from Winston Garth ante Oct. 5. 100
 gave him ord. on Gibson & Jefferson for amount  194.35
Gave him also a separate order on do. for 35.D. the price of a lumber house on my lands at Milton heretofore held by Anderson Rowe, accdg. to his agreemt. with Wm. Johnson.
Hhd. exp. 1.D.
21. Pd. John Wilson, sheriff of Rockbridge 2.D. being 3 years taxes for my lands at the Natural bridge, to wit for the years 1811. 1812. & the next year 1813. He says he recieved them up to 1810. inclusive from Mr. Caruthers.
Pd. James Starke on account 10.D.
24. Recd. of G. Divers 50.D. his sbscrptn. to Mclure to be deposited in the bk. of Richmd. for James Hamilton.
27. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
30. Recd. from Gibson & Jefferson 300.D. by post.
31. Promised Wm. Mclure to credit Jas. & Wm. Cochran the 22.D. they owe for firewood, and to place it to his debit.
Nov. 1.
Pd. E. Bacon for  Curtis Johnson for oats 43.83 
Charles Lively for do.     7.58 
<John Watson 7. B. corn> <28.> 51.41 
 <1 year’s firewood> <20.> <8.> 
Drew ord. on Gibson & Jefferson for 35.33 D. in favor of John Rogers for 10.B. 3 b. corn @ 20/.
2. Settled with James Starke and paid him the balance due to him 216.17 D.
3. Drew order on Gibson & Jefferson for 28.D. in favor of John Watson for 7. bar. corn.
Gave my note to Isaiah Stout for 50.D. for a horse.
Ned for cleansing sewers 1.D. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
5. On settlement of all accts.35 to this day with Craven
Nov.  5. 
Peyton they stand thus.  Debits Principal  1415.10
Interest 469.88 1884.98
Credits  Principal 1318.11
Interest 401.57 1719.68
balance due me 165.30
Cr. by Smith’s excha. on Hollins say Gibs. & Jeff. 988.03
balance due Craven Peyton 822.73
To my ord. of Nov. 12. on Gibson & Jeff. 500. 
balance remaining due to C. Peyton 322.73
Bought of Craven Peyton 100. Bar. corn to be delivered Nov. 25. at 2.D. paiable Apr. 30.
8. Drew on Gibson & Jefferson <in favr. Richard Chandler 55 D. for a horse>.
Drew on do. in favr. David Lawrence for 47.50 D. for a horse.
Purchased also a mule from the same Richd. Chandler for 60.D. paiable 6 months hence. Gave my note.
Nov. 8. Gave TMR’s Isaac on finishg. the chimney of the Factory36 1.D.
Hhd. exp. 1.D.
9. Took back my draught of yesterday in favr. of Richd. Chandler and paid E. Bacon for him 55.D. cash.
10. Pd. for knitting stockings 2.D.
11. Set out for Pop. For.
12. Warren vales 1.D. ferrge. 1.D. Gibson’s brkft. 1.D.
13. Flood’s dinr. lodgg. &c. 2.25 Hunter’s brkft. 1.25.
17. Pop. For. pd. Kate for 6. turkies 3.D.
19. Pd. Chas. Johnston for 5. bush. plaister Paris 6.75.
23. Pd. for coffee pot & patie pans 1.D.
Dec. 12. Gave Burwell 10.D.
15. Pd. debts & vales at Pop. For. 3.75.
16. Flood’s. dinner lodgg. &c. 2.75 Gibson’s oats .25.

Warren.  ferrge. .75.
vales 1.5 arrivd. at Monto.
18. Small exp. 1.D. do. .25.
21. Isaac for a truss for Abram. 1.D. hhd. exp. 2.125.
24. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
26. Borrowed of D. Higginbotham 10.D.
30. Hhd. exp. 1.D.
Assumed to Messrs. Cochrans for Wm. Mclure 33.D. which pays for their firewood to May. 1. ensuing.

4TMR and James McKinney of Culpeper County had bought out the last year of the Shoemakers’ lease of TJ’s Shadwell manufacturing mill. They were to pay TJ an annual rent from June 1811 of two hundred barrels of superfine flour, but McKinney soon withdrew from the partnership and TJ later wrote that he lost $1,000 because of him. From July 1812 until he was joined by Thomas E. Randolph in 1814, TMR was sole tenant of the mill (TJ to Thomas Richards, 11 May 1811; TJ to Charles Bankhead, 10 June 1811; TJ to John Barnes, 25 Dec. 1812, 17 Jan. 1813; TJ to George Creager, 28 May 1814).

5 Lancelot Minor (1763-1849) of Minor’s Folly, Louisa County, wrote to TJ on matters connected with the settlement of Hastings Marks’ estate, of which he, TJ, and TMR were executors (TJ to Minor, 19 Feb. 1812; Marks’ will, Louisa County Deed and Will Book, v, 386, Louisa County Courthouse, Louisa, Va.; Malcolm H. Harris, History of Louisa County, Virginia [Richmond, 1936], p. 114, 392).

6 Mary Magruder Boyd, widow of Thomas D. Boyd, kept a tavern (formerly Watson’s ordinary) on the Three Notched Road at present Boyd Tavern twelve miles east of Charlottesville (Merrill, Jefferson’s Nephews, p. 32, 416-17 description begins Boynton Merrill, Jr., Jefferson’s Nephews: A Frontier Tragedy, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends ; Woods, Albemarle, p. 261; AlCPPL 1813 description begins Edgar Woods, Albemarle County in Virginia, 1901, repr. Bridgewater, Va., n.d. description ends ).

7 Archibald Robertson, partner in the firm Brown & Robertson, had a Lynchburg mercantile business which was the main supplier of the Poplar Forest plantation. In his dealings with Robertson, as with the merchants of Milton, TJ experienced the same inexorable accumulation of debt and owed him over $6,000 at his death (Malone, Jefferson, vi, 511 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends ).

8Several years earlier TJ had subscribed to the New and Complete American Encyclopedia, published by John Low at New York from 1805 to 1811. It was a seven-volume work, apparently adapted from the Encyclopaedia Perthensis, published in Perth, Scotland, in 1806 (Low to TJ, 29 Nov. 1811, 9 Jan. 1812; TJ to Low, 27 Dec. 1811, 15 Mch. 1812).

9TJ purchased a cast iron stove which Henry Foxall had made from a description sent to TJ from Scotland by David Steuart Erskine, eleventh Earl of Buchan (1742-1829). TJ installed this stove, which, with its many interior baffle plates, was based on a Swedish model, in one of the small rooms at Monticello and liked it better than any stove he had seen before (TJ to Foxall, 7 May, 31 Oct. 1811, 16 Mch. 1812; Foxall to TJ, 12 Oct., 13 Nov. 1811).

10TJ bought a five-volume miniature edition of the poetical works of Sir Walter Scott (TJ to R. C. Weightman, 19 Oct. 1811; Washington National Intelligencer, 3 Oct. 1811).

11The malt and hops purchases of this spring mark the first brewing efforts at Monticello (see MB 2 Feb. 1816).

12TJ paid Ezra Sargeant for 250 copies of his justification in pamphlet form of his position in the recently dismissed case of Livingston v. Jefferson. He arranged for its distribution to members of Congress and began his own private dissemination of his account of the case in April (Sowerby, No. 3501 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ; see note 15 below).

13TJ had learned that his slave James Hubbard (b. ca. 1783), who had run away from Monticello late in 1810 or early in 1811, was living seventy miles to the southwest in Lexington. After his departure TJ sold Hubbard to Reuben Perry, his carpenter at Poplar Forest, with the deed specifying that TJ was to receive $500, or its value in work, if Hubbard was recovered and $300 if he was not. When Isham Chisholm reached Lexington, Hubbard had just left, and a second trip by Chisholm was necessary to apprehend him in Pendleton County, now West Virginia. On Hubbard’s return, TJ had him “severely flogged in the presence of his old companions” before committing him to jail and advising Perry, his new owner, to sell him at once. Hubbard’s subsequent fate is unknown (TJ’s Conveyance of Hubbard to Perry, Feb. 1811; TJ to Perry, 16 Apr. 1812; Account with Chisholm, [ca. 1 May 1812]). [Note revised for digital edition, 2016-03-22]

14TJ continued to purchase his cider supply from Charles Massie (d. 1817), whose orchard at Spring Valley on the southwestern border of Albemarle County later became renowned for its Albemarle Pippins (Woods, Albemarle, p. 266 description begins Edgar Woods, Albemarle County in Virginia, 1901, repr. Bridgewater, Va., n.d. description ends ).

15 Edward Livingston’s private suit against TJ for one of his official acts as President had been dismissed for lack of jurisdiction in Dec. 1811. For a full account of this celebrated case, which concerned title to the batture of the Mississippi River near New Orleans, see Malone, Jefferson, vi, 55-73 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends .

16TJ’s slave James (b. 1776) took a boat down the Rivanna River to the residence of John Ashlin in Fluvanna County (TJ to Ashlin, 20 Apr. 1812; TJ to Matthew Wills, 26 Apr. 1812). TJ had recently completed two fish ponds, one for carp and one for chub, on Colle Branch at Tufton. His only limited success in stocking these ponds, plus a third one for eels added a few years later, can be followed in Betts, Garden Book description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Garden Book, ed. Edwin M. Betts, Philadelphia, 1944 description ends .

17Waterman William Johnson rented from TJ part of the southern portion of the Milton lands bought from the heirs of Bennett Henderson (TJ account with Craven Peyton, 1801-1811, DLC: 34558-9).

18 Francis Carr (d. 1854), son of Garland Carr, was a physician and editor in Charlottesville who lived at Red Hill about eight miles to the north (Woods, Albemarle, p. 161 description begins Edgar Woods, Albemarle County in Virginia, 1901, repr. Bridgewater, Va., n.d. description ends ). His itemized bill for medical services to TJ’s slaves from 1813 to 1816 is in ViU.

19TJ paid for two twenty-five pound kegs of gunpowder ordered in 1811 from the powder works of E. I. du Pont (1771-1834) at Eleutherian Mills, Del. Part of each order was for shooting powder in six one-pound canisters which TJ distributed to neighbors as a sample of the du Pont product, but the rest was needed for blasting rock in the construction of TJ’s roads and sawmill canal along the Rivanna River (TJ to du Pont, 24 Apr., 4 Nov. 1811, 30 Apr., 16 June 1812).

20 John Teas had a New London tannery (Lynchburg Press, 21 Oct. 1813).

21Eleven local farmers, including TJ, TMR, and James Monroe, had each subscribed fifty dollars so that William Maclure could pay off debts contracted at his residence in North Carolina and remove to Albemarle County. Maclure, who was a weaver by trade, had been in the county since 1811 making spinning machines for the revived household cloth industry (TJ to James Hamilton, 4 May, 25 June 1812; TJ to Nathaniel Macon, 24 Sep. 1811). TJ’s own revival of cloth manufacture, at a time when imported cloth was becoming virtually unobtainable because of impending war with Britain, was his most enthusiastic and ambitious to date. He intended to make the 2,000 yards of cloth he annually needed to clothe his slaves and he apparently achieved this by 1814. TJ and TMR hired Maclure as superintendent of their joint cloth “factory,” supplied him with provisions, and provided him with workmen to set up machinery and slaves to operate it. Maclure was to instruct the spinners and weavers and retain for himself a portion of the cloth produced. He was released at the end of 1813, when TJ considered his slaves able to proceed on their own; slaves had also been brought over from Bedford County and trained for a similar establishment at Poplar Forest (TJ to Maclure, 10 Sep. 1811, 16 Oct. 1813; TJ to Jeremiah Goodman, 5 Mch. 1813). For spinning, TJ finally settled on the Hargreaves-type spinning jenny; by 1815 he had three of these, of twenty-four spindles each, and two looms with flying shuttles. At work at this time were two weavers, four carders, and five spinners, three for hemp and one each for wool and cotton (Farm Book, p. 152 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s “Farm Book,” 1774-1826. Reproduced in facsimile in Betts, Farm Book. MHi description ends ). TJ, who never attempted to manufacture anything finer than the coarse materials for clothing his slaves, kept his cloth factory active after the war in order to remain independent of imported English cloth and the inevitable debts its purchase engendered. For correspondence concerning this last period of cloth manufacture at Monticello, see Betts, Farm Book, p. 464-95 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Farm Book, ed. Edwin M. Betts, Princeton, N.J., 1953 description ends .

22TJ’s cloth manufacture was delayed by his desire to find the best possible spinning machine. His object was a machine which combined simplicity with efficiency so that its operation and repair could be performed by country artisans, and he felt it “a duty to my neighbors to take on myself the risk of disappointment” (TJ to Robert R. Livingston, 20 Apr. 1812). He therefore had countermanded an order for a spinning jenny from William Maclure and had ordered two machines he learned of from the newspapers. One was a six-spindle machine for spinning wool, which was purchased for $15 from Ebenezer Herrick of West Stockbridge, Mass. It arrived in 1813 and was apparently of some use in training spinners (MB 2 July 1812; TJ to Herrick, 20 Feb., 2 July 1812; Bear, Jefferson at Monticello, p. 69 description begins Jefferson at Monticello, ed. James A. Bear, Jr., Charlottesville, Va., 1967 description ends ). The other was a twelve-spindle machine patented by Oliver Barrett of Troy, N.Y., and purchased for $50 from Barrett’s agent Dr. William Thornton. When Davy brought this machine back from Washington in late June, the manufacture of cloth finally began, but it was soon superseded by spinning jennies, which in the end proved the most satisfactory (MB 20 June 1812; TJ to Thornton, 14 Jan., 24 Apr., 24 May, 3 July 1812; TJ to Barrett, 20 Feb. 1812; TJ to James Ronaldson, 11 Oct. 1812).

23This phrase written beside entry in left margin. The letter has not been found.

24 William Mortimer Harrison (1801-1812), son of Randolph Harrison of Clifton, had drowned on 19 May and was buried in the Monticello graveyard (Robert I. Randolph, The Randolphs of Virginia [n.p., n.d.], p. 196; Monticello Association Papers, p. 253 description begins Collected Papers to Commemorate Fifty Years of the Monticello Association of Descendants of Thomas Jefferson, ed. George Green Shackelford, Princeton, N.J., 1965 description ends ).

25TJ’s slave Nace (b. 1796), who was responsible for cleaning the Monticello necessaries, was also a cooper.

26 Thomas Hope published the weekly newspaper Hope’s Philadelphia Prices-Current, and Commercial Record from 1804 to the end of 1813 (Brigham, History, ii, 918 description begins Clarence S. Brigham, A History and Bibliography of American Newspapers, 1690-1820, Worcester, Mass., 1920, 2 vols. description ends ).

27TJ had subscribed to James Mease, The Picture of Philadelphia, published in 1811 by Benjamin and Thomas Kite at Philadelphia (Kites to TJ, 9 Oct. 1811; Sowerby, No. 4027 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

28Seventeenth-century lexicographer Nicolaus Gürtler’s Greek, Latin, German, and French dictionary (Sowerby, No. 4740 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

29This entry is marked out by a diagonal line, no doubt indicating cancellation of the agreement.

30TJ needed the warrant issued in 1795 for the 100-acre Stith tract in Campbell County as an exhibit in his defense in Samuel Scott’s suit against him (MB 11 Apr. 1811; copies of exhibits in Scott v. Jefferson, 1812, ViU).

31Albemarle County Commonwealth’s Attorney William Fitzhugh Gordon (1787-1858) represented TJ in the second chapter of litigation over title to part of the Henderson lands TJ had bought around Milton. After the failure in January of TJ’s appeal in Peyton v. Henderson (MB 8 May 1804), David Michie unveiled his own claim, allegedly dating from 1804, to joint interest with Henderson in the riverside lots in dispute in that case. On 23 July he began digging a canal across the property. TJ brought a writ of forcible entry and on 30 July regained possession by a warrant of restitution after an inquest on the site. Proceedings were protracted by Michie’s opposition, which appears to have finally faded away after 1817, by which time TJ had been obliged to employ several attorneys and go over the ground of Peyton v. Henderson once again (Warrant, 30 July 1812, ViU; TJ to George Hay, 2 Nov. 1813; Jefferson v. Michie: court record and related documents, ViU).

32 David Watson (1775-1830), son of James Watson, lived at Bracketts in southwestern Louisa County (Malcolm H. Harris, History of Louisa County, Virginia [Richmond, 1936], p. 144-5, 426-7).

33TJ first wrote “Rod.” for Roderick, later correcting himself by adding “Nim.”

34Correctly “now give him.”

35This is a final balancing of accounts for Craven Peyton’s management of the Henderson lands he had begun purchasing for TJ in 1801. On the debit side was money Peyton had received for the sale of firewood and rental of the tobacco warehouse and other buildings. On the credit side were Peyton’s payments for legal fees, taxes, and repairs for the years 1801 to 1811 (TJ’s account with Peyton, 1801-1811, DLC: 34556-9). As Peyton was part owner of the Smith bill, he left his portion of the proceeds in TJ’s hands as a loan (TJ to Patrick Gibson, 18 Sep. 1812).

36TJ used the term “factory” for the spinning and weaving establishment he operated in common with TMR (see note 21 above; Farm Book, p. 152 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s “Farm Book,” 1774-1826. Reproduced in facsimile in Betts, Farm Book. MHi description ends ). Its location is not certainly known, but in 1811 TJ had proposed that it be built across the Rivanna River from Monticello near the Lego-Edgehill boundary (TJ to William Maclure, 10 Sep. 1811).

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