Thomas Jefferson Papers

Memorandum Books, 1794


Jan. 1. Pd. James 8.D. pd. Carstairs for boxes in full 3.33.
Recd. from the bank of US. for William Short being one quarter’s interest on his stock 390.62.
Deposited it in the bank on my own account.83
Pd. Billington, taylor, in full 17/6.
Pd. for pamphlets 1.D.
2. Pd. drayman balance for bringing books from Schuylkill 3. D. (Note Petit pd. him 5.D.)
Recd. from James Wilson for book shelves84 91.73.
Paid a Notary .5 paid for toys 1.06.
Recd. from John Ross an order on bank of US. for 450.D. which he lends me. I gave him at same time a substitution to receive Mr. Short’s interest 390.62 which will be due on the 1st. of April next.
Entered the sd. note for 450.D. at bank of US. to my credit.
Pd. Moses Coxe rent 100.D. repairs 2.D. in full.
Recd. from James Madison 45.20. See Aug. 24. & Nov. 22.
My deposit in the bank of U.S. being now D.952.99
Drew the following orders as paiments
in favor of George Taylor for D.397. 06
Anthony & son for Fenwick & Mason   205. 42
Joseph Morris85 48. 02
Burgess & co. 35. 37
D. Rittenhouse for odometer & cam. obsc.86 39. 94
Kerr 18.
received cash from bank 209. 18  952.99
Recd. back from G. Taylor 25.55 of the above draught, being so much overpaid.
Recd. back from D. Rittenhouse 1.D. of the above being so much overpd.
Pd. D. Rittenhouse annual subscriptn. to Phil. society    2. D.
Pd. Sharpless for trunks in full 26.
Pd. Dunwoodie tavern acct. in full 13. 21
Pd. Mrs. Trist87 sundries for my daurs.    5. 8
Pd.  Mrs. Fullarton Maria’s debts, to wit
Charles Tawes88 8.5          
Samuel Folwell 4.67
Guenin 6.
Nelly Lowry 1.33
Harmstead shoemaker  4.5
Palmer do. 1.5 26.5  73.51
Recd. from Treasury a warrant for 875.D. a quarter’s salary.
Deposited it in bk. of US. in discharge of my note of Nov. 18.
Gave my note to Caleb Lowndes for 116.67 for nail rod89 and sheet iron, payable 90. days after vessel departs.
Pd. 2. ℔ Lucerne seed 5/.
Jan. 4. Pd. Joseph Mussi 5. weeks board 75 D. wine 8. 12½ galls. vinegar 3.95 & 50 marble slabs 12.5 = 99.45.
5. Pd. Billy Gardner in full for washing 10.18.
Settled with J. Bringhurst, and took his note for 722.33 D. due to me paiable to Adrien Petit Apr. 1. 94.
Settled with Adrien Petit as follows, D.
 my Note of Oct. 23. 92. to him was for 500.
 new balance due on the books from Jan. 93. is 218. 72
 interest on the note of 92. 35.
D.   753. 72
Delivd. him J. Bringhurst’s note as above  722.33
Gave him my note for the balance 31.39    753. 72
Paid Petit cash to pay his board to Weed90 for 6. weeks 25.D.
Pd. James for blackg. .25. gave him 4.D.
Pd. Crosby for porterage 1.5.
Gave him cash to pay Franks the barber 3.5.  D.
Gave him order  on Mrs. Mary Kean91 (for 12 chairs) 51.33
on J. Bringhurst (cash he recd. for gold)  19.
Out of the above Crosby is to pay the followg. accts.
Herbst & Lex. groceries 21. 42
Spurck. balce. for great clock   12.
Starr for shoes &c. 18.
Remsen for silver ink pot. 2.
Barclay for claret. 7. 2
Patton. book binding 3.
Sheaff. for wine 5. 62       69.24
Gave Vales to Secondo 4.D.
Left Philadelphia.
Chester. pd. Mrs. Withy dinnr. & lodgg. 1.75 servt. .25.
6. Wilmington. pd. Oflin brkft. .58 barber .13.
Gave in charity on the road 1.D. pd. a waggoner to Elkton .25.
Elkton.  recd. back from Hollingsworth of the 20.D. (Nov. 21) .94.
pd. him dinnr. & lodgg. 1.51.
Susquehanna.  pd. Colo. Rogers dinner .88 ferrges. 1.5.
pd. him for a traveller in charity .67 gave ferrymen .2.
8. Hartford. pd. supper & lodging 1.38 servt. .125.
Webster’s. pd. brkfast. .5.
Baltimore.  pd. balance of stage hire 11.17 barber .25.
Starck’s dinnr. lodgg. brkft. &c. 2.83 servt. .25.
1½ yd. oilcloth .75.
Spuryear’s. dinner 1.25.
9. Vanville. tea, lodgg. &c. 1.04.
10. Bladensbg. Ross’s. breakft. .75.
Geo. town. Shuter’s. dinner &c. 1.25 barber .25 ferrge. 1.
Alexandria.  toll .2 pomatum .2.
Weiss’s.  tea, lodgg. &c. 1.83.
brkft. and vales .5.
Colchester. 2d. breakft. .83 ferrge. .36.

Dumfries.  barber .25.
Smock’s. dinner. lodgg. &c. 1.83 servt. .28.
Stafford C. H. breakfast .67.
Fredsbg.  pd. Hartman’s driver from Baltimore here my share of stage hire 30.D. ferrges. 2.D. gratuity 1.D. = 33.
(delivered him the 5.D. put into my hands by Mr. Brent92 as his share to Geo. town)
Jan. 13.
Fredsbg.  pd. barber .25 hairpowder .125 ferrge. Falmouth .125.
vales at Mansfeild .5.
Benson’s  tavern bill 10.04.
horseler .25.
Gatewood’s breakft. 1.17.
15. Gordon’s. oats & servts. .79.

16. Arrived at Monticello.
16. Recd. from Bob 1.75 surplus of 5.D. delivd. him by Mr. Biddle for his expences to Fredericksbg.
21. Gave Watson and order on Brydie & co.’s store £5.
Settled with Manoah Clarkson93 balce. due him   £11–15–11½
assigned him T. Massey’s note for smith’s work 5–19–10
gave him an order on Quarles out of money to be 
 collected from Smith, Norris & Mansfeild
5–16–1½ 11–15–11½
Note he has still to take his share of wheat at Shadwell.
Pd. Tom Shackleford for lime 1/3 gave in Charity 4.D.
25. Pd. Tom Shackleford for Mrs. Bacon for 2 turkies 5/.
26. Lucinda for eggs .35.
27. Peter94 comes home from working for Chapman.
28. Recd. of Joseph Price for smith’s work for 1792.93 18/.
Note he produces to me Mr. Lewis’s settlement of his acct. to end of 1791. balance then due 17/5 which he paid me and 7d. over Oct. 20.
31. Recd. of Saml. Biddle 1.75 the remains of 5.D. he had borrowed of Colo. Bell on my acct. for exp. to Stanton.
Gave Patsy for small exp. 1.4.
Feb. 2. Repd. Colo. Bell the 5.D. ante.
3. Recd. from Frouillé the followg. livraisons of the Encyclopedie 39. 4 tomes. 40. 2 to. 41.4. 42.3. 43.4. 44.3. 45.3. 46.5. 47.5. 48.4. 49.5. 50.4. 51.4. 52.4. and 2. tomes the livraisons of which are not legible, being 14. livraisons & 56. tomes.
11. Agreed with  Bailey95 to serve me as gardener for £15 a year & 500 ℔ pork, with bread for his family.
12. Recd. from Valentine Fontrees for smith’s acct. 32/1½.
14. Gave Patsy for small exp. 8/1½.
17. Bailey commences his work.
21. Credit J. Harvie in his acct. for smith’s work 98 ℔ beef @ 3½d recd. from J. Rogers his overseer.
Mar. 15. Recd. of Wm. McGehee for smith’s work 36/.
See Colo. Bell’s acct. from Sep. 3. 92. to Feb. 26. 94. articles of acct. respecting the following persons.
£  s d
page.  1.  Brown Benjamin 15– 8– 9
Roberts Mourning 2– 0– 0
Gaines Hierom.    10– 11– 1
Cleveland J. } 5– 19– 9
Franklin B.
2. Sheriff. Albem. 5– 4– 0 ¾
3. White Jesse 8– 3– 10 ½
the butcher 5– 16– 2
See Brydie & co.’s acct. of 1793.—4. the following persons.
     Biddle Samuel    £1–10–0
Watson David 5– 0–0  ante Jan. 21.
16. Houshold exp. 4.
18. Pd. Biddle his expences to Staunton for the sheep 1.37.
21. Pd. Watson 1.D.
22. From the 17. to this day, 451½ bush. wheat delivd. Brydie & co. The price at Richmd. is 5/9.
24. Credit Littlebury Sullivan Mr. Randolph’s assumpsit 31/3.
29. Recd. from Clarkson for smith’s work 9/4.
Gave David Watson order on Brydie & co. for 18/.
31. Gave do. order on Shadrech Reynolds 20/ for which Reynolds is to be credited.
Apr. 1. Repd. Colo. Bell for transportation 4.D.
5. Recd. from George for corn sold at Shadwell 5.D.
10. Cake .05.
16. 55 ℔ meat delivd. to Mr. Bailey.
23. Recd. of Wm. Reynolds 6/.
28. Pd. Hierom Gaines in full 7/6.
29. Recd. 40. bundles of nail rod from Caleb Lownes. 1. ton.
30. Sent Dan. L. Hylton order to receive & ship to Caleb Lownes Philadelphia the 4. following hhds. of my tobo. from Bedford
No.  70. 1566 . ℔ nett
76. 1608 .
64. 1526 .
 4. 1516
6216  ℔ to be delivered by him to Mr. Mussi who
is to give a guinea the hundred = 290.08 D.
The money to be applied by Mr. Lownes as follows.
to himself my note for the iron ante Jan. 3.     116.67  
to Mr. Mussi a balance due him 33.35  
to John Ross, ante Jan. 2. 59.36  
<to Petit. ante Jan. 5.> <31.39>
to Samson Crosby 80.72  
The money recd. by Crosby to be applied as follows
to himself 2. 91 }
Herbst & Lex 21. 42
Mr. Remsen. 2.
Petit. ante Jan. 5.   31. 39
Henry Ingles 23.
80. 72
He is also to receive 26.33 from Mrs. Kean & to pay it to Ingles, which with the 23.D. before mentioned will make 49.33 the balance I owe him.
Inclosed Caleb Lownes a power of Atty. to receive Mr. Short’s interest payable July 1. 390.62 out of which he will stop the cost of his second cargo of iron.
May 2. Gave Patsy for small exp. 2.75.
3. On settlement with David Wood, I owe him £19–0–2 for which gave him an order on John Nicholas as security for Ben. Calvert.
5. Recd. from Bob 18/9 the remains of 10.D. he recd. on my acct. from Brydie & co. in Richmd. for expences moving furniture.
6. Recd. from Wm. Meriwether96 67¾ galls. whiskey in part of my share for grain sent him.
8. There is a balance of £2–10–8 due to Bernard Franklin.
Charles Rhodes claims 190. ℔ tobo. @ 12/6 a ticket from the clk. of Gen. ct. in Gatewood’s case 1784. Qu.?
12. Gave Tom Shackleford 12/ to buy buckwheat in Augusta.
Pd. him small debt of 1/3.
Pd. subscription for Hening’s Justice97 1.D.
16. Patsy small exp. 2/9 delivd. Bailey 53. ℔ bacon.
17. Recd. from Benj. Lively an order on Watson98 of Milton for 34/8 in full for his smith’s acct.
21. Credit Chapman by Colo. N. Lewis £13–9–4.
Recd. from N. Lewis senr. 20/2½ balance on settlement of accts.
Delivd. Watson of Milton 32. ℔ of 8d. & 10d. nails. See note.
24. Stacked the following empty bottles.

See post
July 25.
short English. 261. long do. 160. French 670  =  1091
there are besides about 500. full bottles in the house  = 509
call whole stock 1600
D. Watson gives an order on me in favr. of Dyer99 to pay a jdmt. of Wm. Hay & co. agt. him for about £9. part of which however he has pd.
25. Gave in Charity 4.D.
26. Borrowed of Brydie & co. 20.D.
28. Pd. W. D. Fitz for 6. chairs for Alexander100 3.D.
Gave D. Watson ord. on Brydie & co. for a pr. of overalls & 7. yds. linen @ 4/ or 5/ a yard. (came to 46/6 see acct.)
Charge him 8½ yds. oznabrigs @ 14d.
29. Pd. exp. at Byrd ordinary 1.D. at Rutherford’s .25.
30. Ferrge. Goochld. C. H. .5 breakfast at Carter’s 6/3.
Williamson’s1 feeding horses 3/.
June 2.
Richmond.2 pontage 3/ barber 1/3 coach hire 1/6.
Collins for garden seeds 3/ watchmaker 8/.
combs, pomatum &c. for Maria 7/6.
postage for Watson 1/6.

Sold to James Brown the residue of my tobacco, to wit 14. hhds. weighing 18,813 nett at 28/ cash, amountg. to £263–7–9.
Pd. pontage 3/4.
4. Pd. do. 3/4.
5. Gave in charity 1/6.
June 5. Gave orders on James Brown in favor of
£ s  d
Robert Gamble3 54– 3–4 ½ in full.
Montgomery & Henry  83– 5–3 do. old balance
Henry Heath 11– 13–0 do. for groceries
Hague & Lister 12– 19–6 do. for storage
Darmstadt 12– 3–0 do. for 9 brls. fish
174– 4–1 ½
recd. of him cash 46– 1–1 ½
left in his hands 43– 2–6 for Colo. Bell
263– 7–9 amt. of my tobo.
Pd. entertt. at the Eagle4 £2–18 vales 2/9.
Pd. pontage 3/.
7. Vales at J. B.’s5 1/3.
9. Do. at Eppington 1/3.
At Williamson’s corn &c. 5/6 penknife & ribbon 4/.
10. Ferriage & corn at point of fork 5/.
Corn at Frog ordinary 1/10½.
12. On settlement with Humphrey Gaines a balance was due to
him of 46/11. £
assigned him in paymt. of do. H. Kirby’s note     2– 4–
pd. him cash in full 3
2– 7
Gave Colo. Bell order on James Brown for £43–2–6¾.
14. Gave Patsey for small exp. 14/3.
20. Repd. John Watson 20.D.
21. Sent Kirby 2. Doll. for 2 lambs.
Gave Patsey for small exp. 2.D.
Pd. Revd. M. Maury his acct. £36–13–4.
22. Bailey receives 23 ℔ bacon.

Also 10. ℔ sugar @ 11½d. D.
Inclosed  to Isaac Hazelhurst a draught on Caleb Lownes to pay storage of furniture &c. 36.
to Mason & Fenwick at Georgetown a draught on do. to pay freight &c. of wine &c. 92. 8
to James Currie a draught on do. to be credited on my bond to him 100.
228. 8
Note Lownes is to pay this out of the 390.62. ante April 30.
July 10. Recd. from David Nimmo in part his balance smith’s work 5.D.
Recd. from John Carr6 order on the sheriffs of Albemarle for £29–18–. Note this balance includes what was due to me on the judgmt. v. Rice, & the partial assumpsits for the same by D. Ross & by Langham.
13. Small expences 4.D.
22. Small exp. 2.D.
23. Bailey receives 50. ℔ bacon.
24. Borrowed of Colo. Bell 6.D.
25. Gave Patsy for small exp. 2.D.
Recd. 46 bottles of wine, last of my stores from Philadelphia to be added to the stock ante May 24.
July 28. Gave Patsy for sm. expences 3.D.
30. Borrowed from J. Watson 8.D.
Aug. 1. Pd. Kelly7 for 1. ℔ Souchong 1.25.
Gave Patsy for small expences .75.
3. Pd. Huckstept for 2. geese .5.
4. Pd. do. for 12. do. 3.
5. Gave Patsy for small exp. 1.
Gave Phill for ferriages to Bedford .5.
Alexander receives 102. ℔ of meat makg. 212 ℔ in the whole.
13. On settlemt. with Bolling Clarke, he was £35–17–4 in my debt, which sum I now received of him in cash.
14. Pd. David Clarkson balance for mares to Fitzpartner the last year £2–11–9.
Colo. Bell is to pay to  Franklin a balance due from my estate to him of 50/8 (ante May 8).
Pd. Colo. Bell 19.77 D. which was intended to replace the 6.D. borrowed ante July 24. and 13.5 D. he paid for bringing up 9. barrels of herring for me.
Repd. J. Watson the 8.D. borrowed ante July 30.
Exp. .125.
16. Patsy hhd. xp. .5.
17. Pd. my sister Carr in full of my debt to D. Carr’s estate £8–2–6 (see settlemt. signed by her).

Patsy  hhd. xp.  8.D.
Do. do.  .44.
Sent Bishop for a lamb 1.D.
26. 8 Hhd. xp. 4.D.
30. Pd. D. Watson 26/2.
Sep. 1. Gave Menan Mills an order on the sheriffs of Albemarle for £26–9–1½ arrears of taxes in Albemarle for the years 1789. 1790. The sheriffs are to pay it out of J. Carr’s order on them July 10. so that there will remain in their hands of that order still £3–9–9½.
3. Gave T. Shackleford to pay for 15. geese & 6. ducks 27/.
Patsy small exp. .52.
6. Sent Bishop by Phill for a lamb 1.D.
18. Pd. P. Derieux9 in part of an antient acct. £2–5–9.
19. Sent James Defoe by Bob for a lamb 1.D.
Patsy small xp. 2/9.
Recd. from Philip Gooch in part of my judgmt. against him £12–14–8.
22. Pd. P. Derieux in full (by hands of Mr. Randolph) £5–13s–4d.
Entered Phaeton & paid the tax10 (by the hands of Mr. Randolph) 4.D. Patsy small xp. 1.D.
23. Sent Claiborne Rothwell by Bob for 7. lambs 44/.
24. Lent P. Carr 22.48 to be taken out in law.11
Sep. 25. Recd. back from Mr. Randolph the 26/ ante 22d.
26. Pd. Mr. Birch for lamb 3/ & Mr. Bruce for beef 3/4 (by Bob).
28. Pd. Mr. Jouett for beef (@ 2½d) 2/9.
Inclosed 26/ to T. Divers for Phaeton tax (by Zachary).
Patsy for hhd. xp. 4/9.
Oct. 1. On the 17th. of Sep. I inclosed to Caleb Lownes a power of Attorney to receive at the bank of the US. 390.62.D. being a quarter’s interest due to W. Short and drew on him this day the two following orders, to wit in favor of James Brown 108.58 to repay duties on wine, Sampson Crosby 21.04 to pay the following debts
   B. F. Bache   13.50
J. Dunlap. 5.67
Henry Ingles   1.87
21.04 .
Patsy hhd. exp. 1.D.
7. Do. 4/.

£  s
Received from Smithson  TMRandolph’s bond  20– 10–0
cash 5– 12–7
26– 2–7
in full for my acct. against Edward Carter’s estate & against Charles Carter.
Debit Mr. Randolph accordingly.
11. Paid for 52 potatoe pumpkins12 11/3.
14. Pd. David Watson 4.D.
16. Pd. Smith & Kelly for 6½ ℔ country cheese 6/6.
19. Patsy hhd. exp. 2/6. do. 6/.
21. Recd. from Col. J. Harvie by Chas. Jouett £9–3–1 for smith’s acct.
Pd. Charles Jouett, Collector of Fredericksville parish 10.34 in full of all public dues for that parish for 1793. Also 3.38 for 2 tickets of clk. of Buckingham.
22. Pd. David Watson 2.D.
23. Pd. Mr. Bailey 27/9.
Recd. from Benj. Lacy £2–8–6 in part of acct. for smith’s work.
Small exp. 4.D.
Borrowed of  S. Carr 2/6 of  Jupiter 3d. pd. for 10. chickens 2/9.
Pd. S. Carr 3/ Jupiter 3d.
Pd. butcher for 50. ℔ beef furnished Mr. Jouett 8/4.
Recd. from Milvorne Hogg a beef wt. 230 ℔ for which his smith’s acct. is to be credited 50/.
30. Pd. T. Shackleford for 8. bushels of lime from Bran 6/ still owe him 8d.
Drew on Caleb Lownes for 25.D. in favor of Henry Remsen of N. York to pay for two Gongs13 brought by Mr. Gouverneur from the East Indies.
Nov. 1. On settlement with Samuel Biddle I owe him for
14. months service @ 10.D. 140.
travellg. exp. from Elkton here  22. 46
an order of Davd. Watson 5.
167. 46
Drew on Caleb Lownes for 167.46 D. in favor of Fleming & Mclanahan14 who are to give Biddle the cash for the draught.
Charge D. Watson the above order for 5.D.
Biddle leaves my service this day.
2. Small exp. 1/6 do. 6/.
7. Delivd. Baily 2. bott. whiskey & 1. of Termo wine 2/ + 4/.
11. Sent Bruce for 73¾ ℔ beef @ 2½d 15/3.
Small exp. 2/9.
Tom Shackelford for ferriages to Eppington 6/.
12. Recd. from Shadrech Reynolds in discharge of his smith’s acct. Mr. Dyer’s note for 42/. This note is to be to my credit with Dyer in part of my assumpsit for D. Watson.
Small exp. viz. to Morgan for chickens 3/.
13. Delivd. Robt. Baily 2. bott. whiskey & 1. of claret 2/ + 4/.
Credit John Henderson’s exrs. £6–11–1 in full of his smith’s acct. they havg. answered that sum to Mr. Kerr for my taxes for St. Anne’s due this year. To this add the £3–9–9½ balce. of John Carr’s order in their hands (see Sep. 1) makes £10–0–1½ towards the dues for St. Anne’s. There are still some shillings due.
Charge Dav. Watson £8–1–11. for goods recd. from Flem. & Mclanahan to my debit.
15. Charge Robert Bailey my note of this day to Flem. & Mclanahan for goods.
16. Small exp. 6/.
19. Drew on Caleb Lownes for 73.14 D. in favor of Philip Nicklin & co. for freight & duty of Sherry wines sent me by Yznardi.15
Drew on James Maury of Liverpool for £37–10s sterl. in favor of Wm. B. Giles.16 Giles had given me a bill of excha. to import a watch for him. I remitted it to Donald & Burton. He countermanded the watch & D. & B. applied the bill to my credit. The draught on Maury is by order of James Munroe in part of his debt for Thenia17 & her children, valued at £173. currency. Excha. was then 40. pct. which makes it £125–11–5 sterl.
18. Petit18 comes into my service as overseer @ £30. a year.
Nov. 23. TMRandolph to be further debited for Ben Calvart so as with the former debet to make up £38–0–3.
26. Pd. small expences 2.D.
28. Small exp. 2.D.
29. Do. 2.D.
Dec. 2. Borrowed of J. Watson 20.D.
On a settlement with Bowling Clarke this day
the balance due me is £22– 0–9
Johnson’s note to be repaid me  4–10–0
6. years interest on do. 1– 7–0
Recd. of him the said sum of £27–17–9.
Pd. Isaac Millar my acct. for postage 23.D.
3. Repd. J. Watson the 20.D. ante (sent by T. Shacklefd.).
Pd. Eli Alexander £5–9–9 (sent it by John).
Lodged with Colo. Bell 50. Dol. to be forwarded by him to Archib. Stuart, Staunton, to buy sheep for me.
9. Credit John Lively Mr. Dyer’s assumpsit for him 49/ in full of his acct. for smith’s work, and debit this to Dyer in part of my assumpsit for David Watson to him.
11. Pd. Clarkson for the knitting a pr. stokings 6/.
Pd. Kindred for fish furnished last spring 3/.
Credit Philip Gooch his assumpsit to Mr. Garland to pay the judgment Watson v. David Watson, wherein I stood special bail. Qu. sum?
Assumed to  Bruce for David Watson to pay Dr. Barber’s demand against him. Qu. sum?
Note I am to have Watson’s cow & calf, valued at £5. but say £5–10.
13. On settlement with John Nicholas, it appears that Ben Calverd’s debt to me is completely satisfied without calling on him as security. Therefore gave him order on William Chapman for £16–2–2 which refunds the balance due for the order I gave D. Wood on Nicholas May 3.
Recd. from Wm. Milliner £72–8–8 in part of his 2d. bond becoming due tomorrow.
Gave Patsy for small exp. 4.D.
Dec. 14. Sent by TMRandolph the £72–8–8 received yesterday from Milliner to James Lyle, this being one of the bonds19 destined towards the discharge of mine to Henderson McCaul & co.
16. Pd. for turkies 10/.
20. Pd. Watson 4.D. assumed for do. to Peter 5.D. to Tom 4.D. = 13 D.
Settled with Watson except blanks to be filled for some articles. Agreed that making up lost time his year is up this day, & the new year is to begin on his return from Augusta.
23. Received from Robert Hawkins £41–16 in discharge of his bond for that sum due the 14th. inst. This is one of the bonds destined for Henderson McCaul & co.
Paid Mr. Bailey on account 30/.
24. Pd. small exp. 1/6.
Pd. Peter the 5.D. assumed for Watson.
Executed a deed of emancipation for Bob, by the name of Robert Hemmings.20 He has been valued at £60. which Stras is to advance. Inclosed to TMR. an order to recieve the £60. & to pay £41–16 of it to James Lyle for Henderson McCaul & co. instead of the £41–16 pd. yesterday by Hawkins, which therefore I retain for other purposes. Also to lodge 9.D. with Colo. Harvie for J. Taylor to pay for a drill plough.21
25. Small exp. 2.D.
26. Do. 2.D.
Sent by D. Carr to Thos. Walker £30–11–10 viz.
for 7. mares to the Jack @ 2. guineas  £19– 12– 0
abatement of ⅕ 3– 18– 5
due to Mrs. Barclay 15– 13– 7
due to T. Walker for a mule bought 15–
30– 13– 7
remains a balance still due him 1– 9
30– 11– 10
Gave D. Carr to purchase stockings for me 24/.
27. Gave TMR’s Jamey & Billy 2. Doll. for their trip to Richmd. with their waggon for my nail rod.

83Since Dec. 1793 William Short’s sizable American investments had been consolidated in the hands of TJ, who was attorney in fact for his absent friend. In 1800 TJ related the story of how he had invested the interest payments from Short’s stocks and certificates; from the beginning of 1794 to the end of 1798 he lent them to himself, first to pay for the nailrod to set up his Monticello nailery and later to provide a useful source of cash in Philadelphia. As he expressed it: “The facility offered on the spot by your interest, drew me on insensibly after the real necessity had ceased.” Although he ceased this practice in 1798, it was not until 1800 that TJ drew up his account with Short and learned to his astonishment that he owed him more than $9,000, plus interest. He began to make monthly payments on this debt in 1803 and by July 1807 had repaid it in full (TJ to Short, 23 Dec. 1793, 13 Apr. 1800, 19 Apr. 1802; “A view of the paiments” made to Short, Mch. 1803-July 1805, DLC: Short Papers; MB 30 Apr. 1794, 6 July 1807).

85 Joseph Morris was a house carpenter on Eighth Street between Arch and Race streets (Phila. Dir. 1793 description begins Philadelphia Directory, issued annually with varying imprints description ends ).

86This camera obscura may be the one TJ had asked David Rittenhouse to lend him so that “two young ladies at his house [his daughter Maria and her friend Sarah Cropper] whose time hangs heavily on their hands . . . may take a few lessons in drawing from nature.” He bought a second camera obscura in 1805; one he gave to a grandson in 1808 and one is presently at Monticello (TJ to Rittenhouse, 6 Sep. 1793; TJ to Maria Jefferson, 15 Dec. 1793; MB 24 Nov. 1805; TJ to JWE, 4 June 1808).

87TJ’s lifelong friend Elizabeth House Trist (c. 1754-1828), daughter of Mary House and widow of Nicholas Trist (d. 1783), at this time kept a boardinghouse in Mulberry Court (Phila. Dir., 1794 description begins Philadelphia Directory, issued annually with varying imprints description ends ; Papers, vii, 289 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; Monticello Association Papers, p. 100 description begins Collected Papers to Commemorate Fifty Years of the Monticello Association of Descendants of Thomas Jefferson, ed. George Green Shackelford, Princeton, N.J., 1965 description ends ).

88 Charles Tawes, one of Philadelphia’s early pianoforte makers, serviced all keyboard instruments in his shop at 60 Walnut Street (Harold D. Eberlein and Courtlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, “Music in the Early Federal Era,” PMHB, lxix [1945], 118; Philadelphia General Advertiser, 1 Mch. 1792, 19 Mch. 1793).

89Shortly after this ton of nailrod was received on 29 Apr., the first nails were made at Monticello—the beginnings of an industry which continued, with some breaks, for thirty years. TJ’s nailery, with the projected Shadwell mill, was part of a plan for producing income from his Albemarle County estate. It flourished in its first decade, making an average profit in good years of $1,000. A crew of slave boys aged ten to sixteen made both hand-wrought and, after 1796, machine-cut nails in the combination nailery-blacksmith shop on Mulberry Row. Plagued by unreliable managers and difficulties in procuring nailrod and collecting payments, the nailery became progressively less dependable as a source of cash income (Betts, Farm Book, p. 426-53 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Farm Book, ed. Edwin M. Betts, Princeton, N.J., 1953 description ends ; Malone, Jefferson, iii, 217-20 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends ; Nailery Accounts, 1794-1796, in Ledger, 1767-1770; Nailery Account Book, 1796-1800, CLU; David Howard Shayt, “The Nailery of Thomas Jefferson: Ironworking in Arcadia,” 1983, typescript in Monticello Archives). Caleb Lownes, Philadelphia Quaker iron merchant and prison reformer, supplied TJ with nailrod until 1796 (Latrobe, Virginia Journals, ii, 342 description begins Edward C. Carter II, ed., The Virginia Journals of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, New Haven, 1977, 2 vols. description ends ).

90 Adrien Petit, who was leaving TJ’s service and returning to France, had stayed at George Weed’s White Horse tavern on Market Street between Sixth and Seventh streets while TJ was living at the house of Joseph Mussi (Jackson, Market Street, p. 361 description begins Joseph Jackson, America’s Most Historic Highway, Market Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia, 1926 description ends ).

91TJ sold his chairs to Mary Kean, a boardinghouse keeper at 291 Market Street (Phila. Dir. 1794 description begins Philadelphia Directory, issued annually with varying imprints description ends ).

92According to the TJ Index, 1791-1803 description begins Thomas Jefferson manuscript indexes for the Memorandum Books, 1767-1826, bound with them, except for 1773 (unlocated), 1776-1778 and 1779-1782 (ViU) description ends , a William Brent shared the hired vehicle from Baltimore as far as Georgetown. TJ was met at Fredericksburg by Bob Hemings, with horses from Monticello.

93 Manoah Clarkson (1741-1829) was overseer at Monticello for two years from the fall of 1791 (Farm Book, p. 29 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s “Farm Book,” 1774-1826. Reproduced in facsimile in Betts, Farm Book. MHi description ends ; Woods, Albemarle, p. 168 description begins Edgar Woods, Albemarle County in Virginia, 1901, repr. Bridgewater, Va., n.d. description ends ).

94 Peter Hemings (1770-after 1830), ninth child of the slave Betty Hemings, was inherited by TJ from John Wayles, Peter’s alleged father. Described by TJ in 1821 as “a servant of great intelligence and diligence,” Peter became the Monticello cook after being trained from 1794 to 1796 by his brother James. In 1813 he learned brewing and subsequently took charge of the malting and brewing operations at Monticello. Although there is no record of his manumission, he was listed as a free man in the 1830 Albemarle County census (TJ to James Barbour, 11 May 1821; MB 2 Feb. 1816).

95TJ, who had long wanted a Scottish gardener, obtained one in Robert Bailey (d. 1804), who lived and worked at Monticello for three years. During TJ’s presidency he was a gardener and nurseryman in Washington (TJ to Bailey, 9 Dec. 1802; TJ to Madame de Tessé, 30 Jan. 1803).

96 William Douglas Meriwether (1761-1845), son of Nicholas Meriwether and cousin and guardian of Meriwether Lewis, lived at Clover Fields, nine miles northeast of Monticello. He was married to Elizabeth Lewis, daughter of Nicholas Lewis. This prominent and wealthy Albemarle County citizen, whose ill will TJ had the “misfortune to have incurred” by 1813, proved a troublesome enemy, obstructing TJ’s efforts to acquire the Henderson lands at Milton and to settle the controversy over TJ’s canal with the Rivanna Navigation Company (Woods, Albemarle, p. 272 description begins Edgar Woods, Albemarle County in Virginia, 1901, repr. Bridgewater, Va., n.d. description ends ; Jackson, Letters of Lewis and Clark, ii, 474 description begins Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition with Related Documents 1783-1854, 2d ed., Urbana, Ill., 1978, 2 vols. description ends ; TJ to Joseph Hornsby, 21 Apr. 1813).

97 William Waller Hening, The New Virginia Justice (Richmond, 1795; Sowerby, No. 1971 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

98 John Watson (d. 1841) was factor for McLure, Brydie & Co. at Milton, where he settled and prospered as a merchant (Woods, Albemarle, p. 339 description begins Edgar Woods, Albemarle County in Virginia, 1901, repr. Bridgewater, Va., n.d. description ends ).

99 Samuel Dyer (1756-1840) was a prominent southern Albemarle County citizen who lived at Plain Dealing and operated a general store nearby, about twenty miles south of Monticello on the road to present Scottsville (Woods, Albemarle, p. 185 description begins Edgar Woods, Albemarle County in Virginia, 1901, repr. Bridgewater, Va., n.d. description ends ).

100 Eli Alexander of Elkton, Md., had been engaged for TJ by Jacob Hollingsworth. He was overseer at Shadwell for 1794 and 1795 and later leased that farm for a number of years (TJ to Hollingsworth, 4 Dec. 1793; TJ to TMR, 8 Dec. 1793; Betts, Farm Book, p. 171-83 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Farm Book, ed. Edwin M. Betts, Princeton, N.J., 1953 description ends ).

1 Jacob Williamson kept a tavern near present Genito in southeastern Powhatan County (TJ to Richard Richardson, 22 Apr. 1800; Latrobe, Virginia Journals, i, 107, ii, 558 description begins Edward C. Carter II, ed., The Virginia Journals of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, New Haven, 1977, 2 vols. description ends ).

2This trip to Richmond was the only journey of any length TJ made during his three years of retirement. Its purpose was both social and financial. TJ evidently went first to Eppington to consult with Francis Eppes about arrangements for paying the Wayles debt, then to Richmond where he met with James Lyle, one of his creditors, and returned to Eppington after a visit to the Bollings at Chestnut Grove (TJ to Lyle, 24 Apr. 1794).

3 Robert Gamble (1754-1810), prominent Richmond merchant, had handled the forwarding of wine, books, and furniture for TJ in 1793. Hague and Lister had a storehouse at Rocketts landing in Richmond (Norfleet, Saint-Mémin, p. 164 description begins Fillmore Norfleet, Saint-Mémin in Virginia: Portraits and Biographies, Richmond, Va., 1942 description ends ; TJ to Gamble, 18 Aug., 26 Sep., 22 Dec. 1793; Gamble to TJ, 21 Nov. 1793).

4The Eagle tavern on the south side of Main Street between Twelfth and Thirteenth streets was built in 1787 and burned in 1839 (Virginius Dabney, Richmond: The Story of a City [New York, 1976], p. 46, 102).

5John Bolling.

6John Carr, son of Thomas Carr (1735-1807), was deputy clerk of the Albemarle County court. He lived at Belmont just south of Charlottesville (Woods, Albemarle, p. 159 description begins Edgar Woods, Albemarle County in Virginia, 1901, repr. Bridgewater, Va., n.d. description ends ).

7John Kelly (d. 1830) became one of Charlottesville’s most prominent merchants and citizens and its leading Presbyterian. In the period of the founding of the University of Virginia, Kelly demonstrated considerable personal animosity toward TJ (Woods, Albemarle, p. 242-3 description begins Edgar Woods, Albemarle County in Virginia, 1901, repr. Bridgewater, Va., n.d. description ends ; Bruce, University of Virginia, i, 143, 167-8 description begins Philip A. Bruce, History of the University of Virginia, 1819-1919, New York, 1920-1922, 5 vols. description ends ).

8About this date TJ suffered a severe attack of rheumatism, which still troubled him three months later and was the first sign of what he considered the complete breakdown in health which characterized his years of retirement (TJ to Edmund Randolph, 7 Sep. 1794; TJ to Joseph Mussi, 20 Nov. 1794; TJ to James Madison, 27 Apr. 1795; TJ to Philip Mazzei, 12 June 1796).

9 Justin Pierre Plumard, Comte de Rieux (1756-1824), and his wife, Maria Margherita Martin (1761-1826), stepdaughter of Philip Mazzei, had come to America in 1784. Peter Derieux, as he was thereafter known, lived first adjoining Monticello at Colle and began in the 1790s an itinerant life as a schoolteacher in an attempt to support his large family. TJ’s generosity to this worthy but unfortunate couple was unflagging (Mazzei, Life, passim description begins Philip Mazzei: My Life and Wanderings, trans. S. Eugene Scalia, ed. Margherita Marchione, Morristown, N.J., 1980 description ends ; “Two Unpublished Letters of Thomas Jefferson,” WMQ, 1st. ser., xvii [1909], 20; “Books Read in Virginia in Early 19th. Century—1806-1823,” VMHB, xlvi [1938], 56-9).

10The first internal duties in the United States were those laid on distilled spirits in 1791. Vehicles for personal transport became the second object of internal taxation at the federal level in June 1794. The carriage tax was abolished during TJ’s administration in 1802 (U.S. Statutes at Large, i, 373-5, ii, 148-50 description begins The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America from the Organization of the Government in 1789 to March 3, 1845, ed. Richard Peters, Boston, 1848, 8 vols. description ends ).

11“In law books”?

12TJ evidently bought the Sweet Potato pumpkins for seed. As well as a garden vegetable, the pumpkin was customarily cultivated at Monticello as an autumn feed for livestock (Betts, Farm Book, p. 255 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Farm Book, ed. Edwin M. Betts, Princeton, N.J., 1953 description ends ).

13In 1792 TJ had asked Henry Remsen’s assistance in procuring a Chinese gong “to serve as the bell to a clock which might be heard all over my farm.” TJ bought two more gongs in 1795. One of these gongs was given to Alexander Stuart in 1797 and one is still struck by the machinery of the “great clock” at Monticello (TJ to Remsen, 13 Nov. 1792; Remsen to TJ, 19 Nov. 1792; MB 11 Dec. 1795; TJ to Stuart, 6 Jan. 1797).

14 John Fleming and James McClenahan were merchants in Milton from 1794 to 1798 (AlCDB, xi, 249, 288, i [1790-1806], 86-7 description begins Albemarle County Deed Books, Albemarle County Courthouse, Charlottesville, Va. description ends ).

15In 1793 TJ had asked Josef Yznardy, American consul at Cadiz, to send him a pipe of “good dry Sherry, ready for drinking,” such as he had sampled at the residence of the Spanish agents in Philadelphia, Josef de Viar and Josef de Jaudenes (TJ to Yznardy, 7 Sep. 1793). TJ continued to import Spanish wine through Yznardy for many years.

16 William Branch Giles (1762-1830), TJ’s often too partisan friend and political supporter, was at this time a congressman from Amelia County, Va.

17 Thenia (b. 1767), daughter of Betty Hemings, had been inherited by TJ from her alleged father, John Wayles.

18Replacing Samuel Biddle, Hugh Petit was overseer at Monticello for 1795 and 1796.

19 William Milliner’s bond and the bonds of Robert Hawkins and John Clarke referred to below were for the purchase of slaves. At the end of 1792 TJ had sold a dozen of his Bedford County slaves in order to provide for payment of the bonds for his debt to Henderson, McCaul & Co. (TJ to Bowling Clarke, 21 Sep. 1792; TJ to James Lyle, 14 and 24 Dec. 1794).

20 Robert Hemings, the first slave freed by TJ, and his wife Dolly were at this time in the service of George Frederick Stras (1746-1811), a French émigré living in Richmond. TJ, who considered that Bob had been “debauched” from him, complied reluctantly with an agreement by which Stras in essence purchased a number of years of Bob’s service and retained the deed of emancipation until Bob had reimbursed him by serving out his time. Bob evidently fulfilled his engagement by 1799, when he first appears in the Richmond tax rolls, which later give the impression that he operated a livery or hauling business. In 1802 he owned a half-acre lot at the corner of Grace and Seventh streets (James A. Bear, Jr., “The Hemings Family of Monticello,” Virginia Cavalcade, xxix, No. 2 [1979], 80-1).

21TJ had purchased a grain drill with cups on a revolving band invented by Thomas C. Martin, a neighbor of John Taylor of Caroline (1753-1824). In 1813 TJ wrote that he had used Martin’s drill since 1794 for sowing “various seeds, chiefly peas, turnips, and benni.” (TJ to Taylor, 1 May 1794; TJ to Isaac McPherson, 13 Aug., 18 Sep. 1813; La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Travels, ii, 150-1 description begins Duc de La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Travels through the United States . . . in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797, London, 1799, 4 vols. description ends ).

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