Thomas Jefferson Papers
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Memorandum Books, 1809


Jan. 2. Printer’s carrier .50.
Lemaire’s accts. Dec. 3. to Dec. 31. 08
provns.  servts. ice cont. total meat buttr. eggs veget.
Dec.  10 82.02  82.02  343 30.  20. 7.56  43.52   ÷  55  =   .79
17. 55.51  18. .50  74.01  107 21  8  1.87  27.755 ÷ 23 = 1.20
24. 65.07  1.  66.07  219 37  18. 3.62  32.535 ÷ 51 =  .638
31. 97.88  16.  113.88  208 33½ 63  3.78  55.88  ÷ 38 = 1.47
300.48  17.  18. .50  335.98  877 121½  109  16.83   159.69  ÷ 167 = 1.0259
Dec.  6. balance of this date 281.14 
Jan.  4. servts. wages to this day  122.  
by ord. on bk. US. 500.  
balance due 239.12 
6. Gave Richard Barry ord. on bk. US. for 200.D.
7. Wrote to G. Jefferson and desired him to pay as follows
 to  Hugh Chisolm 150. D. on account
Craven Peyton   100. part paimt. of land bot. from James Lewis10
 remit to Edmd. Bacon  700. to be applied as hereafter directed.
  Drew orders on the bk. US. in favr.  John Barnes 400. on acct.
Isaac A. Coles 150. salary
Bacon for Bishop 24. 50 for cloth11
C. W. Peale 50. for Th:J. Rand.
Abr. Benade for Craven Peyton  275. for land as above
899. 50
James Mclachlin for shoes 13. 75
8. Pd. Gannin the barber 5.D.
Wrote to Edmund Bacon to apply the 700.D. ante from G. Jefferson thus
now due.    Belt 12.
Mrs. Lewis 80. 69
Turner for beef 86. 67
Davis for cows & calves 30.
Jan.  9. Gillam for corn 33. 30
10. Henly Hamner 26.   barrls. corn  @ 9/ 39.
Murray Pace 50. do. @ 9/6 79. 16
Shadreck Reynolds  30. do. @ 9/6 47. 50
John Spears. 121.  15. do. @ 9/6 } 43. 75
do. for 4000. ℔ fodder @ 3/
Bernard Butler 4000. @ 3/ 20.
Robert Terril 5700. @ 3/ 28. 50
500. 57
John Perry 200.
700. 57
9. Inclosed to Genl. Sam. Smith ord. on bk. US. for 200.68 to pay a draught of Peter Kuhn in favr. of Mr. Patterson of Baltimore for Nebioule wine heretofore furnished.12
Gave Thos. Taylor ord. on bk. US. for 75.D. for filling ice-house.
Gave Joseph Dougherty ord. on bk. US. for 50.D. on acct.
Recd. from bk. US. 50.D.
10. Gave Francis Eppes 1.D.
Paid Jos. Dougherty 39.36 D. to pay the  musical band  20. + Colvin for
constables  4  2 years
Labille  4.18  Monitor
ice  2.05  10.D.
Jan. 12. Pd. stage office bill for transportn. 4.125 D.
23. Through the agency of G. Jefferson & Mr. Venable, I have borrowed 8000.D. of Mrs. Tabb of Amelia,13 for which I have given my note dated the 26th. inst. to Gibson & Jefferson payable at the bank of Richmd. at 6. months after date, but it is understood that it is to be renewed for another 6. months. I inclosed the note to Gibson & Jefferson to recieve the money, and drew upon them as follows.
to pay my order in favr. of  John Perry 800.
Hugh Chisolm 157. 16
to deposit in the bk. of Richmond for Jas. Dinsmore  500.
John Nielson 500.
to remit to Edmund Bacon 170.
to remit to me 5872. 84
Inclosed orders to Perry & Chisolm.
The remittance to Bacon is for the following purposes
to pay.  Johnson Roe 40/  }  hauling ice 
Anderson Roe 20/
Charles Hutchins 20/ D
Richd. Johnson 40/ 20.
John Pace. corn 23. 75
Nichs. Giannini. fodder  11. 67
to buy.  2 beeves. suppose 50.
40. bushels seed oats 13. 33
3. tons of hay 35.
3. muttons 13. 50
167. 25
29. Recd. from Gibson & Jefferson an order of the bank Richmd. on the bank of Columbia for 5872.84 D.
30. Inclosed to James Dinsmore an order on the bk. Richmond for the 500.D. above mentd. Jan. 23. also an order in favor of John Neilson for the 500.D. ibidem.
31. Gave checks on the bank of Columbia as follows
in favr.  John Barnes  4000. to take up one of my notes bk. US.
do. 1500. to take up one do. in bk. Columbia
do. 372. 84 to my credit with himself
5872. 84
Feb. 1. Charity 1.D. 4. Carrier of Monitor .50.
6. Pd. Gannin. barber 5.D.
Drew orders on the bank US. as follows
in favr.  John Cox. store account14 75. 84
Theophilus Holt garden seeds 31. 36
Henry Ingle. cabinet work 16. 11
Dr. Charles Worthington. medical bill15     60. 75
R. C. Weightman. books & stationary 45. 125
229. 185
  Do. in favr.  Govr. Milledge for Savanna newspapers16 28. 50
Saml. Harrison Smith printg. & newspap. 33. 45
Chas. W. Peale. books 6.D.17 Th:J. Randolph 50. 56.
Henry Foxall castings  for myself 150. 465      
for G. Divers  69. 18 219. 645
Thomas Munro. window glass of public18 150. 07
Charles A. Burnet. plate19 39. 615
John Rea. a bed coverlid20 40. 50
796. 965
James Melvin, taylor, including 17.D. for newspapers, 
 to wit Democrat of Boston 272. 67
Lemaire’s acct.
provns. servts. cydr. washg. stores charcl. cont. total meat buttr. eggs veget.
7 55.89   .75 56. 64 163 23 15 2.05  27 .945  ÷  23  =  1. 215
14 71.68  4. 4. 28.57 29.67  .75 138. 67 190 18 19 4.75  35 .84 ÷ 41 = . 87
21 69.24  2.25 3. 74. 49 229 37 20 3.83  34 .62 ÷ 50 = . 69
28 48.   48. 166 27  9 4.06  24 ÷ 22 = 1. 09
4 83.61  27.21  .25 111. 07 203 35 10 6.03  41 .80 ÷  30 = 1. 39
328.42  7. 4. 55.78 29.67 3 1. 428. 87 951  140 73 20.72  164 .205 ÷ 166 = 1. 05121
Jan.  4.  balance of this date 239.12
servants wages to this day       122.
Feb. 6. by ord. on bk. US. 500.  in favor Lemaire
balance remaing. due 289.99
7. Gave Jos. Dougherty ord. on bk. US. for 50.D.
8. Gave do ord. on bk. US. 44.41 the balance of his account rendered to this day.
Pd. for a perpetual Almanac22 1.D. charity 1.D.
9. Recd. from bk. US. 50.D.
Pd.  Dr. Patterson 1.62  } 15.87 by the hands of Jos. Dougherty
Edgar Patterson. paper23 5.
Gale for Raleigh register 5.25
Ingles. Republican advocate 4.
Mr. Gardner for Walpole Observatory24 10.  } 15.50 by Mr. Coles
Republican ledger.25 Wooster. Mr. Stedman 5.50
Gave charity 2.D.
10. Drew on bk. US. for 50.D. in favr. C. W. Peale & inclosed it to Thos. J. Randolph.
Inclosed to Baltimore for Spring rye 1.D. gave Francis Eppes .50.
12. Recd. from bk. US. 50.D.
Inclosed 50.D. to John Neilson.
16. Recd. from bk. US. 25.D.
Put the same in the hands of Genl. Dearborne to buy 2. kentals of Codfish & a keg of tongues & sounds.
Charity 2.D.
20. Pd. Polkinhorn sadlery26 6.75 Kent27 cleaning watch 1.50.
Gave James Mclachlin ord. on bk. US. for 15.D. for shoes. 6. pr.
Pd. for a print28 of Mr. Madison 2.D.
Pd. Mr. Van Allen for the Bee (newspaper) to Dec. 08. 4.D. + .25.
21. Recd. from bk. US. 25.D.
23. Inclosed to David Gelston 10.D. to pay 9.08 due him for disbursemts.29
Feb. 24. Gave in Charity 5.D.
25. Inclosed 5.D. to Collins & Perkins N. Y. for a book.30
27. Pd. Cooper for a print frame 3.D.
Pd. Henry Ingle for wire 4.50.
Mar. 2. Charity 1.
3. Recd. from bk. US. 50.D.
9. Gave Jerry .50 E. Bacon for road expences 10.D.
10. Recd. from Dr. Elzey 500.D. the price of my chariot sold him.
Lemaire’s accounts, to wit
Feb.  6.  balance as before stated 289.99
11.  amount of this week 59.41
18. 64.85
25. 55.95
Mar.  4. 64.31
10. 81.83
Servts. wages to this day 1¼ month  152.50
By ord. on bk. US. in full 768.84
Pd. Lemaire milk acct. omitted 2.42½.
Gave in charity 25.D.
Drew on bank US. as follows
in favr. of  J. Barnes 1000. delivd. him by self
I. A. Coles 140. do.
Jos. Milligan 152. 93 do. by Joseph
John Cox 22. 50 do.
Pet. Lenox 16. do. by self
Levi Lincoln 45. 6231    inclosed him
Jones & Howell 273. do.
C. W. Peale 150. do.
Joseph Dougherty   
 for  Ingle for Pechin 7. 92 newspapers
Melvin 5.
himself in full 61. 35 74. 27
Recd. from the bank cash 466.29.
Inclosed to Gibson & Jefferson 100.D.32
11. Lodged in bank a warrant for 1148.D. balance due me on my Paris acct. while M. P. there.33
Inclosed to bank of Fredsbg. 590.D. negro hire for Mrs. Sarah & Miss Mary Dangerfield, for last year.
Pd. Gannin the barber 6.D.
Pd. postage .8.
Geo. town ferrge. &c. 1.34 pd. for a bridle bit .75 toll-gate .21.
12. R. Fitzhugh’s vales .75.
Songster’s oats .45 Ewel’s store corn .25.

Barnet’s  supper, lodging &c. 2.25.
vales .45.
Fauqr. C. H. breakfast &c. 1.75 horshoe .25.
Mar. 14. Culpeper C. H. barber .50 supper, lodgg. &c. 4.43.
Orange C. H. oats .35.
15. Gordon’s dinner, lodging &c. 4.50 whole expences = 17.14.
Arrived at Monticello.
17. Recd. back from E. Bacon 5.D. of the 10.D. ante Mar. 9.
Pd. Shorter wages & expences back to Washn. 25.D.
Recd. of Eli Alexander 200.D. on acct. of rent.35
18. Paid the same to Higginbotham viz. 200.D.
Gave E. Bacon 10.D. to pay 60 galls. cyder from Mr. Terril.
Paid for Small expences 20.D.
28. Recd. of John H. Craven on acct. of rent 700.D. Balance remaining due to me pr. settlemt. £78–6.
Pd. Garner repairing clocks 2.D.
30. Recd. of Wm. Brown thro’ Presid. Madison 500.D. to be delivered to Mrs. Trist senr. & delivd. it accordingly.36
Gave Mr. Divers’s horseler 1.D.
31. Inclosed to John Taggert of Philada. 70.D. for oil and paint.
Gave to Thos. J. Randolph 50.D. for his expences to Philadelphia, out of which he is to pay 2.D. to J. Taggert whose bill is 72.D. and 6.50 to McMahon for seeds.37
Pd. Robert Burruss for 52. barls. corn @ 9/9 84.5.
Paid David Higginbotham 600.D. & gave him an order on J. H. Craven for £78–6 = 261.D. ante Mar. 28.
April 3. Horseler at Charlottesville .25.
7. Pd. Mr. Julien for his trip here 75.D.38
Pd. do. a small acct. of Lemaire’s 3.75.
Sent Catlett for butter 1.D.
9. Paid for a plough 2.D.
12. Houshold exp. Patsy 2.D.39
15. Purchased a beef of    . The 4. quarters weighed 637. ℔ & allowing the average for the 5th. to wit 159¼ makes the whole 796¼ ℔ @ 5d. comes 55.28 of which E. Bacon paid 27.D. out of the monies formerly sent him, & I paid 10.D. so there remains 18.28.
16. Settled with John Nielson, and the balance of 435.75 D. agreed to be due him, & to bear interest from this date.
Patsy for small exp. 3.D.
17. Settled with James Dinsmore & the balance of 618.40 D. agreed to be due him & to bear interest from this date.
Pd. Critta40 on his order 1.25.
19. Inclosed to Prest. Madison a note41 of the articles he bought on my leaving Washington, amounting to 743.015 to be pd. into the bank US. in Washington to the credit of my note there, which was for 3706.72.
23. Pd. Bowles for fish 2.D. Patsy small exp. 2.
24. Recd. of Geo. Divers the 69.18 paid for him ante Feb. 6.
<29.> <E. Bacon to pay for cotton seed42 8.D.> returned.
30. Patsy for sm. exp. 4.D.
May 1. Pd. Bowles for fish 2.33.
Pd.    for the beef ante Apr. 15. in full 18.25.
Pd. J. Kelly his acct. in full 14.19.
Pd. David Isaacs his acct. in full 3.68. Note these three paiments were sent by the hands of E. Bacon.
8. Pd. Bowles for 6 shads 1.75.
20. Pd. do. for do. 1.50.
23. Gave Isham Lewis43 an order on D. Higginbotham for 50.D. as a gift to bear his expences back to Tennissee.
25. Hhd. exp. 2.75.
June 4. Gave for bringing home a pea-hen .25.
11. Hhd. exp. 3.D.
18. Do. 2.D.
20. Recd. of E. Bacon 4.25 nail money.
26. Hhd. exp. 2.19.
30. Sent to Catlett for butter 1.
July 1. Mrs. Tabb having notified Mr. Venable that she must recieve her money lent me ante Jan. 23. I have this day signed & sent to G. Jefferson two notes for 4000.D. each, paiable to Abraham B. Venable at the bank of Virga. The dates are to be filled up by him; to be renewed from time to time till paid.
3. Charity 1.D. houshold exp. 4.D.
16. Gave Moses44 (of Bedford) to pay his ferriage at Lynchburg .625.
Patsy hhd. exp. 4.D.
22. Recd. of Colo. Monroe through E. Bacon for nails (on acct.) 10.D.
G. Jefferson informing me that it is believed Mrs. Tabb will suffer the 8000.D. of Jan. 23. to remain 6. months longer, I this day renewed the note for the sd. 8000.D.
Pd. Nat. Burnley for J. Peyton my post office bill at Milton 10.D.
28. Recd. from E. Bacon 5.25 for nails bought by Barnet.
30. Mrs. R. small exp. 6.D.
Aug. 5. Mrs. R. sm. exp. 2.25.
6. Recd. inclosed from Jonathan Shoemaker 490.D. on account of rent for the mill.45
7. Pd. David Higginbotham on acct. 490.D.
Recd. from E. Bacon 4.D.
11. Chisolm begins to work.46
16. Patsy sm. xp. 2.D.
18. Recd. from E. Bacon 2.60 nailmoney.
20. Patsy sm. exp. 2.50.
Recd. from Jonathan Shoemaker on acct. of rent 300.D.
21. Pd. Dav. Higginbotham (by  Thomas) the 50.D. ante May 23.
22. Remitted to G. Jefferson 100.D.
D c
Inclosed to J. Barnes 50.D. to remit  49. 055  to Charles W.
 Peale balance due him on acct. of Th: J. Randolph.
25. Gave Davy for expences to Washington 2.D.47
27. Wrote to G. Jefferson to pay 11.40 D. to W. Dawson agent for the fire insurance company, fee on valuan. of my mill.48
Small exp. 3.75.
Sep. 4. Do. 1.75.
Recd. from E. Bacon nail money from Colo. Monroe 10.D.
5. Pd. Benj. Brown for the fire insurance co. 63.55 being a requisition on the former insurance of Monto. house.49
6. H. Chisolm’s brother begins to work.
10. Patsy small exp. 5.D.
Sep. 11.
Pd.  Beck for bringing up groceries &c.    5.
E. Bacon credits him (for which I answer E. B.) 3.43
 amount in full for the whole 8.43
12. Sent Catlett for butter 1.D.
18. Patsy sm. exp. 4.D.
22. Sent to Catlett’s for butter 1.
24. Vales Montpelier 1.D.
Pd. for finding papers at Mr. Lindsay’s 1.D.
25. Vales at do. 1.25 D. borrowed of Burwell .25.
29. Small exp. 1.D.
Oct. 1. Mrs. Randolph small exp. 4.D. repd. Burwell .25.
2. Pd. midwife 2. fees Fanny &  4.D.
4. Catlett for butter 1.D.
5. Charity 1.D.
7. Patsy for Mrs. Watkins for weaving .75.
8. Patsy small exp. 1.D.
My taxes for this year are in  St. Anne’s 59.20
Fredericksville   10.47
Gave order on Gibson & Jefferson for 69.67
 in favr. of Micajah Woods.
10. Pd. Ben cleaning sewers .50.
Borrowed of D. Higginbotham cash   88.D.
 also his ord. on Brown & co.  60.

Gave  Th:J. Randolph for his expences to Richmd.50 20.D.
Mrs. Randolph for  small exp. 10.D.       
do. do.  .80
do. for Mrs. Bacon weaving 3.20
15. Carysbrook51 vales 1.D.
Clifton52 shoeing horse .25.
vales .50.
19. Eppington vales 1.D.
Chestfd. C. H. oats .50 Expences 4.D.
Richmd.53 pontage .50.
20. Recd. of Presidt. Madison in full, check on Norfolk bank 743.15 D.
21. Delivered to G. Jefferson on acct. the same check for 743.15 D.
Gave Burwell 5.D. pd. for knives .75.
22. Gave a servt. .25 pd. washing .75.
Inclosed to D. Higginbotham an ord. on Jefferson & Gibson for 180 D. to repay the 88.D. ante Oct. 11. & in part of 66½ Bar. corn @ 10/. Also returned him his ord. on Brown & co. unused.
Recd. of Geo. Jefferson 50.D. Repairs Phaeton 4.D.
23. Pd. Moss, at the Swan54 entertt. 23.16 vales 2.D. pontage .42.
Springhill. Moody’s. oats .50.
26. Eppington. vales 1.D.
27. Wigwam55 Mr. Giles’s do. 1.D.
29. Clifton do. .50 Columbia ferriage .50.
30. Carysbrook vales 1.D. guide .25.
Nov. 1. Ellen hhd. exp. 2.D.
2. Drew on Gibson & Jefferson for 24.D. in favr. of Dr. Chas. Everett his acct. from 08. Jan. 25. to Nov. 21. 08.
3. Inclosed to John Crookes of N. Y. 10.D. for the Mercantile Advertiser56 for the year 1808. in full of all demands for that paper. See my letter to him of this date.
Nov. 5. Ellen small exp. 1.D.
Inclosed .50 to Majr. Archer at Powhatan C. H. for oats furnishd. Oct. 17.
6. Pd. int. on Gabr. Lilly’s note to Wm. Brown & co. for negro hire 9/3 & took in note.
Assumed to Jos. Bishop on the ord. of Wm. McCoy £28–9–6 paiable Jan. 1. in part for corn purchased of him = 94.915.
7. Assumed to Edmd. Bacon on the ord. of Elisha Watkins57 17.D. paiable Dec. 25.
8. Enniscorthy vales 1.D.
9. Warren do. 1. ferriage .69.
Noah Fludd’s oats .50.
10. Henry Fludd’s entt. &c. 2.50.
Hunter’s breakft. &c. 1.75.
Poplar forest.  chickens &c. 1.
do. 1.33.
vales 3.D.
Hunter’s oats .37.
20. H. Fludd’s lodging &c. 2.50 Prior’s vales .25.

Warren.  ferriage .50.
vales 1.D.
23. Sent Catlett for butter 1.D.
25. Recd. of Jonathan Shoemaker for rent 70.D.
26. Gave John Pernier to carry him to Washington 10.D.58
30. Ellen small exp. 4.D. Mrs. Kennedy to buy butter 10.D.
Dec. 2. Paid Youen Cardin, the millar 25.D. on account.59
4. Lodged 10.D. with Mary to buy butter 10.D.
Paid Price for 6 geese 2.50 (owe him for 12. Muscovy ducks).
5. Hhd. exp. 2.D.
6. Do. 1.125. 7. Catlett for butter 1.D.
9. Inclosed 10.D. to Reuben Perry on account.
10. Pd. for bringing home one of the wild geese .25.
Pd. Davy for a coalkiln yielding 30. bush. to the cord 1.50.
15. Gave James Salmon60 an ord. on Jonathan Shoemaker for 25.D. on account of mason work done here @ 3/ pr. perch.
Sent Catlett for butter 1.
16. Pd. R. Grady on acct. for coal 3.D.
17. Patsy sm. exp. 2.D.
19. Gave ord. on Gibson & Jefferson for 107.17 in favor of Joseph Brand in paiment of his acct. for lime & hay from 06. Nov. 12 to 09. May 17.
21. Recd. from Jonathan Shoemaker for rent 100.D.
Pd. for a tin kettle 1.D.
22. Gave Jonathan Brunt in charity 2.D.
Sent Catlett for butter 1.D.
25. Recd. from Jonathan Shoemaker on acct. of rent 50.D.
This day  McGehee &  Goodman come into my service as overseers.61
Frederick, Tom Lee, Tom Buck & Nancy, hired negroes begin at £50. the year paiable to Genl. Wm. Chamberlayne.
All the hired negroes of the Dangerfields are discharged except Tom & Edmund, @ 74. + 70 D. = 144.D. See 1806. July 26.
28. Patsy for Kennedy for butter 1.D. See ante Nov. 30.
Note about Oct. 2. E. Bacon recd. from Milton Inspectors by ord. of Craven Peyton 50.D. to be credited to him as part of dues from the Warehouse. Bacon pd. the money to Wm. Bacon & George Jones for beef.

9Correctly $.956 (see MB 27 Oct. 1807, note 33).

10 James Lewis had acquired by deed of trust John Henderson’s landholdings in and around Milton. For $750 Craven Peyton had purchased for TJ Lewis’ rights, which included the disputed mill sites (AlCDB, xv, 536-8, xvi, 545 description begins Albemarle County Deed Books, Albemarle County Courthouse, Charlottesville, Va. description ends ).

11These five and one half yards of “narrow superfine black cloth,” of merino wool, were made in the Connecticut mill belonging to TJ’s old associate David Humphreys. In ordering the cloth through Republican Abraham Bishop (1763-1844), collector of the port of New Haven, TJ wrote that “homespun is become the spirit of the times” and “it is a duty to encourage it by example.” He had the cloth made into the coat he wore at the New Year’s Day reception (Bishop to TJ, 14 Dec. 1808; TJ to Bishop, 13 Nov., 8 Dec. 1808; TJ to Humphreys, 20 Jan. 1809; Malone, Jefferson, v, 629 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends ).

12TJ paid Peter Kuhn, Jr., in Genoa for the worthless shipment of Nebbiolo wine received in 1806 and for three kegs, which furnished 134 bottles, received in Dec. 1807 (MB 5 Nov. 1806; TJ wine list, MB end 1803; Kuhn to TJ, 9 Dec. 1808).

13On 24 Dec. 1808 TJ had written to George Jefferson for aid in transferring his financial obligations from the Washington banks to that at Richmond. Much to TJ’s relief Abraham Venable (1758-1811), president of the Bank of Virginia, arranged this private loan, which TJ much preferred to a bank loan. Mrs. Tabb, however, called for her money after a year and the loan was transferred to the Bank of Virginia. TJ was unable to begin repayment until Apr. 1810 (MB 5 Feb., 10 Apr. 1810; TJ to Jefferson, 7 Jan., 1 and 22 July 1809; Jefferson to TJ, 27 Dec. 1808, 14 June, 18 Aug. 1809; TJ to Patrick Gibson, 23 Jan. 1809; Gibson & Jefferson to TJ, 20 Jan. 1809; TJ to Venable, 23 Jan. 1809). When settling his financial affairs in Washington TJ apparently had his first shocked realization of the extent to which he had been living beyond his income (TJ to MJR and to TMR, 17 Jan. 1809).

14 John Cox’s account for purchases in 1807 and 1808 included fabrics and a hat, gloves, and stockings (Cox receipted invoice, 23 Jan. 1809, MHi).

15One item provided by Dr. Worthington was “a scab of vaccine” which TJ sent to MJR so her younger children could be vaccinated against smallpox (TJ to MJR, 29 Nov. 1808; MJR to TJ, 1 Jan. 1809; Worthington receipted invoice, 3 Jan. 1809, MHi).

16The Savannah newspapers were the Georgia Republican, its successor, the Republican, and the Public Intelligencer. TJ cancelled both subscriptions (TJ to John Milledge, 6 Feb. 1809; Brigham, History, i, 128-31 description begins Clarence S. Brigham, A History and Bibliography of American Newspapers, 1690-1820, Worcester, Mass., 1920, 2 vols. description ends ).

17The books were some Unitarian pamphlets and a new Unitarian version of William Newcome’s translation of the New Testament, bought from the Philadelphia bookseller Thomas Dobson (TJ to Dobson, 18 Nov. 1807; Dobson to TJ, 20 Jan. 1809; Sowerby, Nos. 1489, 1698 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

18In the spring of 1808 TJ had bought almost 1,000 panes of glass from the superfluous stock of the Capitol and President’s House (B. H. Latrobe to TJ, 31 Jan. 1809; TJ to Thomas Munroe, 6 Feb. 1809).

19 Charles A. Burnett had made for TJ eighteen dessert spoons and a silver pudding dish at a cost of about eighty dollars. TJ received a forty dollar credit because he gave Burnett four gravy spoons and a soup ladle from Monticello. Six of the spoons are presently at Monticello, as is a covered bowl by Burnett (possibly the “pudding dish”), which TJ presented in 1808 to Camilla Franzoni, wife of one of the Italian sculptors working on the Capitol (TJ memorandum on silver prices, undated, MHi; James A. Bear, Jr., “Thomas Jefferson’s Silver,” The Magazine Antiques [Sep. 1958], p. 233-6).

20TJ had ordered a coverlet of crimson mantua silk with a crimson fringe. He planned to line it with furs (TJ to John Rea, 17 Oct. 1808, 6 Feb. 1809).

21Correctly $.989 (see MB 27 Oct. 1807, note 33).

22Perhaps A Perpetual Kalendar, by Which to Find the Day of the Month, Week, &c. for Any Time, Past or to Come (Baltimore, 1809; Shaw-Shoemaker, No. 18363).

23One half ream of cartridge paper (Patterson receipted invoice, 23 Jan. 1809, MHi).

24The Political Observatory was a weekly newspaper published in Walpole, N.H., from 1803 to 1809 (Brigham, History, i, 489-90 description begins Clarence S. Brigham, A History and Bibliography of American Newspapers, 1690-1820, Worcester, Mass., 1920, 2 vols. description ends ). Francis Gardner (1771-1835) was a New Hampshire congressman (Directory Congress, p. 985 description begins Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1971, Washington, D.C., 1971 description ends ).

25There is no known Republican Ledger from Worcester, Mass. This payment made through Massachusetts congressman William Stedman (1765-1831) may have been for the Worcester National Aegis, to which TJ was a subscriber (MB 31 Mch. 1804; Directory Congress, p. 1746 description begins Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1971, Washington, D.C., 1971 description ends ).

26A gig bridle, a martingale, and a rein (Henry Polkinhorn receipted invoice, 11 Feb. 1809, MHi).

27 Luke Kent was a clock and watchmaker near the corner of F and Thirteenth streets, N.W. (Washington National Intelligencer, 20 Jan. 1809).

28This is probably the David Edwin engraving after Gilbert Stuart’s portrait of James Madison. It was published by C. Boyle and advertised for sale by R. C. Weightman in the Washington National Intelligencer, 17 Feb. 1809.

29These disbursements were for freight and duties on a plough sent to TJ in 1807 by the Société d’Agriculture du Département de la Seine. It had been judged to give the least resistance of any plough in Europe. Confident that an American plough mounted with his own moldboard would prove superior, TJ soon arranged to borrow a dynamometer to make the comparison (Baron de Silvestre to TJ, 19 Sep. 1807; TJ to Robert Fulton, 8 Mch. 1813; Betts, Farm Book, p. 58-61 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Farm Book, ed. Edwin M. Betts, Princeton, N.J., 1953 description ends ).

30TJ ordered John Augustine Smith’s abridgement of John Bell, Principles of Surgery. Collins and Perkins at New York did not publish it until 1810 (Sowerby, No. 858 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

31TJ paid Levi Lincoln for his subscriptions to various Massachusetts newspapers, all of which he cancelled at this time (TJ to Lincoln, 11 Mch. 1809).

32Part of this money was for three dozen bow-back Windsor chairs, painted black with gold rings, to be made in Richmond and sent to Poplar Forest (TJ to George Jefferson, 10 Mch. 1809; Jefferson to TJ, 19 June 1809).

33This warrant was the result of the discovery, as early as 1796, that TJ’s letter of credit of 21 Oct. 1789 for 2,800 florins had never been presented for payment. By 1809 it was presumed lost and Richard Harrison, auditor of the U.S., decided to reimburse TJ for its value, which TJ had credited to the U.S. in his account as minister to France submitted in 1792. Because of the loss of the bill and because he had received cash for it in France, TJ actually now owed its value to Ferdinand Grand & Cie., but his final settlement with them has not been found (MB 21 Oct. 1789; Harrison to TJ, 24 Jan., 10 Mch. 1809; TJ to Harrison, 8 Mch. 1796, 31 May 1822; TJ to J. A. Gautier, 17 Mch. 1796). This reimbursement by the government, which was completely just and received without the payment of interest, was the cause of recurring accusations of peculation which surfaced toward the end of TJ’s life. His elaborate public defense can be read in his letters to Ritchie & Gooch, 13 May and 10 June 1822.

34After remaining in Washington to attend the inauguration of James Madison and to settle his affairs, TJ crossed the Potomac for the last time. This long-awaited final journey to Monticello was a fatiguing one, made over snow-covered roads in the phaeton and on horseback with two attendant servants. At Benjamin Shackelford’s tavern at Culpeper Courthouse TJ overtook the convoy of wagons and servants under the charge of Edmund Bacon and he reached home on 15 Mch. ahead of his personal effects. For accounts of TJ’s final days in Washington and his journey home, see Smith, Washington Society, p. 410-12 description begins Margaret B. Smith, The First Forty Years of Washington Society, ed. Gaillard Hunt, New York, 1906 description ends , Bear, Jefferson at Monticello, p. 104-8 description begins Jefferson at Monticello, ed. James A. Bear, Jr., Charlottesville, Va., 1967 description ends , and TJ to James Madison, 17 Mch. 1809.

35From 1805 to 1812 TJ’s former overseer Eli Alexander was the rather troublesome tenant of 320 acres of Shadwell and a portion of Lego at one dollar per acre. The leases and correspondence concerning their interpretation are printed in Betts, Farm Book, p. 171-83 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Farm Book, ed. Edwin M. Betts, Princeton, N.J., 1953 description ends .

36TJ placed a bracket around this entry, evidently to indicate that it was not part of his own financial dealings. Eliza House Trist was living at Farmington with George and Martha Divers (Mrs. Trist to TJ, 31 Mch. 1809).

37For the flower and vegetable seeds TJ bought from the Philadelphia seedsman and botanist Bernard McMahon (d. 1816), see TJ to McMahon, 8 Feb. 1809, and McMahon to TJ, 13 and 28 Feb. 1809. In his continuous effort to introduce useful plants TJ had confided to McMahon’s care the plant material from the Lewis and Clark expedition and later did the same with seeds he received from Europe. TJ and McMahon carried on an extensive correspondence, printed in Betts, Garden Book description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Garden Book, ed. Edwin M. Betts, Philadelphia, 1944 description ends , and McMahon’s American Gardener’s Calendar , first published in 1806, became a horticultural bible at Monticello.

38 Honoré Julien, TJ’s chef de cuisine at the President’s House, had spent about two weeks at Monticello instructing some of the servants in the art of French cookery (TJ to Étienne Lemaire, 25 Apr. 1809).

39TMR and MJR and their family had now moved permanently from Edgehill to Monticello, where MJR took charge of the domestic operation of the house. When the name of TJ’s sister Anna J. Marks was mentioned as a possible housekeeper, MJR was quick to oppose her candidacy: “As to Aunt Marks it would not be desirable to have her if it was proper. I had full proof of her being totally incompetent to the business the last summer. . . . She is an excellent creature and a neat manager in a little way, but she has neither head nor a sufficient weight of character to manage so large an establishment as yours will be. I shall devote my self to it and with feelings which I never could have in my own affairs” (TJ to MJR, 27 Feb. 1809; MJR to TJ, 2 Mch. 1809).

40This is probably TJ’s slave Critta (b. 1769), a daughter of Betty Hemings. She was a house servant at Monticello.

41This “note” (DLC) lists coal, wine, ice, a horse for $200, and the remaining six years of John Freeman’s term of service for $231.81. Madison did not pay the bank but paid TJ directly (MB 20 Oct. 1809; TJ to Madison, 16 June 1809).

42The scarcity of manufactured cloth, this time because of the Embargo Act of 1807, had again stimulated textile production at Monticello. TJ, who had wished to plant a two-acre patch of cotton, had to continue purchasing raw cotton for his spinners because cotton seed was unavailable in Virginia, where the cultivation of cotton had been abandoned for more than twenty years (Anne C. Randolph to TJ, 18 Mch. 1808; TJ to Edmund Bacon, 26 Dec. 1808; TJ to George Jefferson, 19 Apr. 1809; TJ to George Logan, 24 Nov. 1816).

43 Isham Lewis, son of Charles Lilburne Lewis. For more details on TJ’s generous treatment of this nephew, who was later involved in a grisly murder in Kentucky, see Merrill, Jefferson’s Nephews, p. 182-6 description begins Boynton Merrill, Jr., Jefferson’s Nephews: A Frontier Tragedy, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends .

44 Moses (b. 1792), son of Dick (b. 1767) and Dinah (b. 1766), was born on TJ’s Bedford County plantation and about 1811 was moved to the Lego farm in Albemarle County. He was leased to TJR in 1817, after which his name disappears from the Farm Book description begins Thomas Jefferson’s “Farm Book,” 1774-1826. Reproduced in facsimile in Betts, Farm Book. MHi description ends .

45This was TJ’s first income from the Shadwell manufacturing mill, which had been operating for over two years. The agreement with the Shoemakers was for a rent of $1,250 per year, with quarterly payments. On TJ’s difficulties in collecting the rent, see Betts, Farm Book, p. 369-76 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Farm Book, ed. Edwin M. Betts, Princeton, N.J., 1953 description ends .

46 Hugh Chisholm and his brother John began the construction of Monticello’s four brick cisterns, which were intended to supplement the unreliable water supply on the mountaintop. Completed in 1810, they proved almost impossible to make watertight and probably never provided the supply TJ envisioned (Betts, Garden Book, p. 630-1 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Garden Book, ed. Edwin M. Betts, Philadelphia, 1944 description ends ).

47 Davy and his cart brought back to Monticello from Washington a pair of broad-tailed sheep given to TJ by William Thornton (TJ to Thornton, 24 Aug., 11 Oct. 1809).

48 William Dawson’s invoice, dated 23 May 1809, for valuation fees for the Shadwell toll and manufacturing mills, worth $3,700 and $8,000, is in MHi.

49In 1806 the Mutual Assurance Society had levied a second surcharge, two-thirds the original quota, to offset losses from the Norfolk fire of 1804. TJ had failed to pay it at that time and thus Monticello had been uninsured for almost three years (W. F. Ast to TJ, 5 May 1807; Benjamin Brown to TJ, 3 July 1809; TJ to Brown, 8 July 1809; MB 11 Aug. 1804).

50From Nov. 1809 to the summer of 1810 TJR was enrolled at the Richmond academy operated by Louis Hue Girardin, John Wood, and David Doyle. He studied mathematics and natural philosophy. TJ, through George Jefferson, paid all expenses of TJR’s board and tuition, which was $77 per year (TJ to George Jefferson, 13 Sep., 31 Oct. 1809; Girardin invoice, 14-16 Nov. 1809, MHi; TJ to TJR, 30 Dec. 1809).

51 Wilson Jefferson Cary (1784-1823), grandson of Wilson Miles Cary, was living at Carysbrook at this time. He had married TMR’s sister Virginia at Monticello in 1805 (Fairfax Harrison, The Virginia Carys [New York, 1919], p. 112-13).

52At this time Randolph Harrison (1768-1839), son of Carter Henry Harrison, lived at Clifton, which is in Cumberland County at the confluence of the James and Willis rivers, just east of present Cartersville (Robert I. Randolph, The Randolphs of Virginia [n.p., n.d.], p. 182).

53TJ went to Richmond to attend, at the office of commissioner in chancery Thomas Ladd, the 20 Oct. meeting of interested parties in the chancery suit of Bathurst Skelton’s representatives against the executors of John Wayles’ estate (MB 18 Sep. 1801; TJ to Henry Skipwith, 24 July 1809; TJ to William Fleming, 24 July 1809; TJ to John Austin, 20 Oct. 1809). While in town TJ attended two banquets hastily organized in his honor, one at the armory on 20 Oct. and the second at the Eagle tavern the following evening (Malone, Jefferson, vi, 14 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends ).

54 John Moss was proprietor of Richmond’s best tavern, the Swan near the corner of Ninth and Broad streets (David John Mays, ed., The Letters and Papers of Edmund Pendleton [Charlottesville, Va., 1967], ii, 633).

55The Wigwam, William Branch Giles’ Amelia County residence, was located near the Appomattox River about twelve miles north of present Amelia.

56The Mercantile Advertiser was a New York City daily newspaper published by John Crookes and Amos Butler (Brigham, History, i, 661 description begins Clarence S. Brigham, A History and Bibliography of American Newspapers, 1690-1820, Worcester, Mass., 1920, 2 vols. description ends ).

57 Elisha Watkins worked throughout 1809 superintending TJ’s slave carpenters in work for the Albemarle County plantations, including the paling fence for the Monticello vegetable garden (“Directions for Mr. Watkins,” 27 Sep. 1808, MHi; TJ to Jesse Perry, 20 Jan. 1810).

58After Meriwether Lewis’ death in Tennessee in October, his servant John Pernier had come directly to Albemarle County to see TJ and Lewis’ mother (James Neelly to TJ, 18 Oct. 1809; TJ to James Madison, 26 Nov. 1809).

59 Youen Carden (b. c. 1758) was miller at TJ’s Shadwell toll mill, except for the period of TMR’s tenancy, from Nov. 1808 to Mch. 1824. He was paid $40 per year and he and his wife and four children lived at the Shadwell mills (TJ to Carden, 29 Nov. 1809; Edmund Bacon “Census 1820,” MHi).

60The stonemason James Sammons worked for TJ from 1809 to 1813 on various structures, including the Milton tobacco warehouse, the pierhead for the canal, and the Shadwell toll mill (TJ to Hugh Chisholm, 18 June 1811).

61With the termination of John H. Craven’s lease of Tufton, TJ took this farm adjoining Monticello back into his own hands. He considered it his “main dependence” and wished “to make it adequate, with my other Albemarle resources, to support all expences” (TJ to MJR, 27 Feb. 1809). In this he relied heavily on his son-in-law TMR, who undertook the supervision of Tufton and hired its overseer, William McGehee, at an annual wage of £50. McGehee, whose unappealing character is revealed in one of TJ’s remarkable pen portraits, worked for the years 1810 and 1811 (Agreement with McGehee, 8 Aug. 1809, MHi; TJ to James Madison, 16 Aug. 1810). Jeremiah Goodman (d. 1857) was overseer in 1810 and 1811 at TJ’s Lego farm and in 1812 moved to Bedford County, where he served as overseer at Poplar Forest until 1815 (Woods, Albemarle, p. 210 description begins Edgar Woods, Albemarle County in Virginia, 1901, repr. Bridgewater, Va., n.d. description ends ).

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