George Washington Papers

General Orders, 19 October 1780

General Orders

Head Quarters Totowa Thursday October 19th 1780

Parole Persia, Countersigns J: T.
Watchword Peep

[Officers] For the Day Tomorrow[:] Brigadier General Glover, Colonel Tupper, Lieutenant Colonel Sill, Major Tudor, Brigade Major Ashley

Twelve waggoners to be drafted from the line and sent to the orderly office this afternoon, four ô clock.

The Honorable the Congress have been pleased to make the following promotions and Appointments:

Brigadier General Smallwood to the rank of Major General1

Colonel Daniel Morgan to the rank of Brigadier General2

Mr Abraham Skinner Commissary General of Prisoners

Doctor William Shippen junr Director General

[Doctor] John Cochran Chief Physician and Surgeon of the Army3

The Honorable the Congress have been pleased in just Abhorrence of the perfidy of his conduct to pass the following Act

In Congress October 4th 1780

Resolved, That the Board of War be and hereby are directed to erase from the Register of the Names of the Officers of the Army of the United States the name of Benedict Arnold.4

Varick transcript, DLC:GW.

2See Huntington to GW, 14 Oct., and n.1 to that document.

3The general orders then list additional appointments in the Continental army’s medical department: Drs. James Craik, Malachi Treat, and Charles McKnight as “Chief Hospital Physicians”; Thomas Bond, Jr., as “Purveyor” and Isaac Ledyard as “Assistant purveyor”; Dr. Andrew Craigie as “Apothecary” and William Johonot as “Assistant Apothecary”; Drs. James Tilton, Samuel Adams, David Townsend, Henry Latimer, Francis Hagan, Philip Turner, William Burnet, John Warren, Moses Scott, David Jackson, Bodo Otto, Moses Bloomfield, William Eustis, George Draper, and Barnabas Binney as “Hospital Physicians and Surgeons.” For reform of the medical department, see GW to John Mathews, 9 September.

William Johonot (Johonnot; d. 1782) was chief apothecary at Danbury, Conn., from July 1777 to December 1779. He became assistant apothecary for the medical department in January 1780.

Moses Scott (1738–1821) of New Brunswick, N.J., studied medicine after serving in the French and Indian War. He became a Continental hospital surgeon and began in 1777 as senior physician and surgeon of Continental army hospitals and assistant director general of those hospitals. Scott resigned in December 1780.

David Jackson (1747–1801) obtained a medical degree from the College of Philadelphia in 1768. He became a Continental army hospital physician in 1777 and sought leave to resign in December 1780 (see JCC description begins Worthington Chauncey Ford et al., eds. Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789. 34 vols. Washington, D.C., 1904–37. description ends , 18:1120–21). Jackson represented Pennsylvania in Congress after the war.

Bodo Otto (1711–1787) was a German immigrant and doctor who eventually settled in Reading, Pa., in 1773. He became a surgeon in 1776 for the Continental army, which he left in January 1782. For a biography, see Gibson, Dr. Bodo Otto. description begins James E. Gibson. Dr. Bodo Otto and the Medical Background of the American Revolution. Springfield, Ill., and Baltimore, 1937. description ends

4See Huntington to GW, 6 Oct., and n.1 to that document.

Index Entries