George Washington Papers

[Diary entry: 4 October 1784]

4th. Notwithstanding a good deal of rain fell in the night and the continuance of it this morning (which lasted till about 10 Oclock) I breakfasted by Candlelight, and Mounted my horse soon after day break; and having Captn. Ashby for a guide thro’ the intricate part of the Road (which ought, tho’ I missed it, to have been by Prince William old Court Ho[use])1 I arrived at Colchester, 30 Miles, to Dinner; and reached home before Sun down;2 having travelled on the same horses since the first day of September by the computed distances 680 Miles.

And tho’ I was disappointed in one of the objects which induced me to undertake this journey namely to examine into the situation quality and advantages of the Land which I hold upon the Ohio and Great Kanhawa and to take measures for rescuing them from the hands of Land Jobbers & Speculators—who I had been informed regardless of my legal & equitable rights, Patents, &ca.; had enclosed them within other Surveys & were offering them for Sale at Philadelphia and in Europe. I say notwithstanding this disappointment, I am well pleased with my journey, as it has been the means of my obtaining a knowledge of facts—coming at the temper & disposition of the Western Inhabitants and making reflections thereon, which, otherwise, must have been as wild, incoher[en]t, & perhaps as foreign from the truth, as the inconsistencys of the reports which I had received even from those to whom most credit seemed due, generally were.

These reflections remain to be summed up.

The more then the Navigation of Potomack is investigated, & duely considered, the greater the advantages arising from them appear.

The South, or principal branch of Shannondoah at Mr. Lewis’s is, to traverse the river, at least 150 Miles from its mouth; all of which, except the rapids between the Bloomery and Keys’s ferry, now is, or very easily may be made navigable for inland Craft, and extended 30 Miles higher. The South Branch of Potomack is already navigated from its Mouth to Fort Pleasant; which, as the road goes, is 40 computed Miles; & the only difficulty in the way (and that a very trifling one) is just below the latter, where the River is hemmed in by the hills or Mountains on each side. From hence, in the opinion of Colo. Joseph Neville and others, it may, at the most trifling expense imaginable, be made navigable 50 Miles higher.

To say nothing then of the smaller Waters, [of the Potomac River], such as Pattersons Creek, Cacapehon [Cacapon River], Opeckon [Opequon Creek] &ca.; which are more or less Navigable; and of the branches on the Maryland side, these two alone (that is the South Branch & Shannondoah) would afford water transportation for all that fertile Country between the blew ridge and the Alligany Mountains; which is immense, but how trifling when viewed upon that immeasurable scale which is inviting our attention!

The Ohio River embraces this Commonwealth [Virginia] from its Northern, almost to its Southern limits. It is now, our western boundary & lyes nearly parallel to our exterior, & thickest settled Country.

Into this river French Creek, big bever Creek, Muskingham, Hockhocking, Scioto, and the two Miames (in its upper region) and many others (in the lower) pour themselves from the westward through one of the most fertile Country’s of the Globe; by a long inland navigation; which, in its present state, is passable for Canoes and such other small craft as has, hitherto, been made use of for the Indian trade.

French Creek, down whh. I have myself come to Venango, from a lake near its source, is 15 Miles from Prisque Isle on lake Erie; and the Country betwn. quite level.3 Both big bever Creek and Muskingham, communicate very nearly with Cayahoga; which runs into lake Erie; the portage with the latter (I mean Muskingham) as appears by the maps, is only one mile; and by many other accts. very little further; and so level between, that the Indians and Traders, as is affirmed, always drag their Canoes from one river to the other when they go to War—to hunt, or trade.4 The great Miame, which runs into the Ohio, communicates with a river of the same name, as also with Sandusky, which empty themselves into lake Erie, by short and easy Portages.5 And all of these are so many channels through which not only the produce of the New States, contemplated by Congress, but the trade of all the lakes, quite to that of the Wood,6 may be conducted according to my information, and judgment—at least by one of the routs, thro’ a shorter, easier, and less expensive communication than either of those which are now, or have been used with Canada, New Y[or]k or New Orleans.

That this may not appear an assertion, or even an opinion unsupported, I will examine matters impartially, and endeavor to state facts.

Detroit is a point, thro which the Trade of the Lakes Huron, & all those above it, must pass, if it centres in any State of the Union; or goes to Canada; unless it should pass by the River Outawais, which disgorge’s itself into the St. Lawrence at Montreal and which necessity only can compel; as it is, from all accts., longer and of more difficult Navigation than the St. Lawrence itself.7

To do this, the Waters which empty into the Ohio on the East side, & which communicate nearest & best with those which run into the Atlantic, must also be delineated.

These are Monongahela and its branches, viz., Yohiogany & Cheat and the little and great Kanhawas; and Greenbrier which emptys into the latter.

The first (unfortunately for us)8 is within the jurisdiction of Pensylvania from its mouth to the fork of Cheat indeed 2 Miles higher—as (which is more to be regreted) the Yohiogany also is, till it crosses the line of Maryland; these Rivers, I am perswaded, afford much the shortest routs from the Lakes to the tide water of the Atlantic but are not under our controul; being subject to a power whose interest is opposed to the extension of their navigation, as it would be the inevitable means of withdrawing from Philadelphia all the trade of that part of its western territory, which lyes beyond the Laurel hill—Though any attempt of that Government to restrain it I am equally well perswaded, w[oul]d cause a seperation of their territory; there being sensible men among them who have it in contemplation at this moment—but this by the by. The little Kanhawa, which stands next in order, & by Hutchins’s table of distances (between Fort Pit and the Mouth of the River Ohio)9 is 184½ Miles below the Monongahela, is navigable between 40 and 50 Miles up, to a place called Bulls Town. Thence there is a Portage of 9½ Miles to the West fork of Monongahela. Thence along the same to the Mouth of Cheat River, and up it to the Dunker bottom; from whence a portage may be had to the No. branch of Potomack.

Next to the little is the great Kanhawa; which by the above Table is 98½ Miles still lower down the Ohio. This is a fine Navigable river to the Falls; the practicability of opening which, seems to be little understood; but most assuredly ought to be investigated.

These then are the ways by which the produce of that Country; & the peltry & fur trade of the Lakes may be introduced into this State [Virginia]; & into Maryld.; which stands upon similar ground. There are ways, more difficult & expenceve indeed by which they can also be carried to Philadelphia—all of which, with the rout to Albany, & Montreal, and the distances by Land, and Water, from place to place, as far as can be ascertained by the best Maps now extant—by actual Surveys made since the publication of them and the information of intelligent persons—will appear as follow—from Detroit—which is a point as has been observed as unfavorable for us to compute from (being upon the North Western extremity of the United [States] territory) as any beyond Lake Erie can be:


From Detroit to Alexandria is
To Cayahoga River 125 Miles
 Up the same to the Portage 60
  Portage to Bever C[ree]k 8
 Down Bever C[ree]k to the Ohio 85
 Up the Ohio to Fort Pitt  25
 The Mouth of Yohiogany 15
 Falls of Ditto10 50
  Portage 1
 Three forks or Turkey foot 8
 Fort Cumberld. or Wills Creek 30
 Alexandria 200
   Total 607
To Fort Pitt—as above 303
 The Mouth of Cheat River 75
 Up it, to the Dunker bottom 25
 North branch of Potomack 20
 Fort Cumberland 40
 Alexandria 200
To Alexanda. by this Rout 663
From Detroit to Alexandria avoiding Pensylvania11
To the Mo[uth] of Cayahoga 125 Miles
 The Carrying place with Muskingham river 54
  Portage 1
 The Mo[uth] of Muskingham 192
 The little Kanhawa  12
 Up the same 40
  Portage to the West Bra.12  10
 Down Monongahela to Cheat 80
 Up Cheat to the Dunker Bottm. 25
 Portage to the No. bra. Potomk. 20
 Fort Cumberland 40
 Alexandria 200
   Total by this Rout 799
From Detroit to Richmond Miles
To the Mouth of the little Kanhawa as above 384
 The Great Kanhawa by Hutchns’s Table of distances 98 1/2
 The Falls of the Kanhawa from information  90
  A portage (suppe.) 10
 The Mouth of Green brier & up in to the Portage 50
  Portage to James R[ive]r  33
 Richmond 175
   Total 840

Note—This rout may be more incorrect than either of the foregoing as I had only the Maps, and vague information for the Portages and for the distances from the Mouth of the Kanhawa to the Carrying place with Jacksons (that is James) river and the length of that River from the Carrying place to Richmond. The length of the carrying place above is also taken from the Map tho’ from Information one would have called it not more than 20 Miles.

From Detroit to Philadelphia is Miles
To Presqu’ Isle 245
  Portage to Le beauf 15
 Down french Creek to Venan[go] 75
 Along the Ohio to Toby’s Creek13  25
 To the head spring of Do. 45
 By a Strait line to the nearest Water of Susque[hanna]14 15
 Down the same to the West branch 50
 Fort Augusta at the Fork15 125
 Mackees (or MacKoneys) C[ree]k16 12
 Up this 25
 By a strait line to Schuylkl. 15
 Reading 32
 Philadelphia  62
   Total 741
By another rout—
 To Fort Pitt as before 303
 Up the Ohio to Tobys C[ree]k  95
 Thence to Phila. as above 381
   Total 779

Note—The distances of places from the Mouth of Tobys Creek to Philada. are taken wholly from a comparitive view of Evans’s and Sculls Maps.17 The number, and length of the Portages, are not attempted to be given with greater exactness than these and for want of more competent knowledge, they are taken by a strait line between the sources of the different waters which by the Maps have the nearest communication with each other. Consequently, these Routs, if there is any truth in the Maps, must be longer than the given distances—particularly in the Portages, or Land part of the Transportation, because no road among Mountns. can be strait or waters navigable to their fountain heads.

From Detroit to Albany is
To Fort Erie, at the No. end of Lake Erie 350
 Fort Niagara—18 Miles of wch. is Land transpn.18  30
 Oswego19 175
 Fall of Onondaga River20 12
  Portage 1
 Oneida Lake—by Water21 40
 Length of Do. to Wood C[ree]k22 18
 Wood C[ree]k very small and Crooked 25
  Portage to Mohawk   1
 Down it to the Portage 60
  Portage23 1
 Schenectady 55
  Portage to Albany24 15
   In all 783
 To the City of New York 160
   Total 943
From Detroit to Montreal is
To Fort Niagara as above 380
 North end of Lake Ontario 225
 Oswegatche25 60
 Montreal—very rapid 110
   In all 775
To Quebec 180
   Total 955

Admitting the preceding Statement, which as has been observed is given from the best and most authentic Maps and papers in my possession—from information and partly from observation, to be tolerably just, it would be nugatory to go about to prove that the Country within, and bordering upon the Lakes Erie, Huron, & Michigan would be more convenient when they come to be settled—or that they would embrace with avidity our Markets, if we should remove the obstructions which are at present in the way to them.

It may be said, because it has been said, & because there are some examples of it in proof, that the Country of Kentucke, about the Falls, and even much higher up the Ohio, have carried flour and other Articles to New Orleans—but from whence has it proceeded? Will any one who has ever calculated the difference between Water & Land transportation wonder at this? Especially in an infant settlement where the people are poor and weak handed and pay more regard to their ease than to loss of time, or any other circumstance?

Hitherto, the people of the Western Country having had no excitements to Industry, labour very little; the luxuriency of the Soil, with very little culture, produces provisions in abundance. These supplies the wants of the encreasing population and the Spaniards, when pressed by want have given high prices for flour. Other articles they reject: & at times (contrary I think to sound policy) shut their ports against them altogether—but let us open a good communication with the Settlemts. west of us—extend the inland Navigation as far as it can be done with convenience and shew them by this means, how easy it is to bring the produce of their Lands to our Markets, and see how astonishingly our exports will be encreased; and these States benefitted in a commercial point of view—wch. alone, is an object of such Magnitude as to claim our closest attention—but when the subject is considered in a political point of view, it appears of much greater importance.

No well informed Mind need be told, that the flanks and rear of the United territory are possessed by other powers, and formidable ones too—nor how necessary it is to apply the cement of interest to bind all parts of it together, by one indissolvable band—particularly the Middle States with the Country immediately back of them. For what ties let me ask, should we have upon those people; and how entirely unconnected shod. we be with them if the Spaniards on their right, or Great Britain on their left, instead of throwing stumbling blocks in their way as they now do, should envite their trade and seek alliances with them? What, when they get strength which will be sooner than is generally imagined (from the emigration of Foreigners who can have no predeliction for us, as well as from the removal of our own Citizens) may be the consequence of their having formed such connections and alliances, requires no uncommon foresight to predict.

The Western Settlers—from my own observation—stand as it were on a pivet—the touch of a feather would almost incline them any way. They looked down the Mississipi until the Spaniards (very impoliticly I think for themselves) threw difficulties in the way, and for no other reason that I can conceive than because they glided gently down the stream, without considering perhaps the tedeousness of the voyage back, & the time necessary to perform it in; and because they have no other means of coming to us but by a long land transportation, & unimproved roads.

A combination of circumstances make the present conjuncture more favorable than any other to fix the trade of the Western Country to our Markets. The jealous & untoward disposition of the Spaniards on one side, and the private views of some individuals, coinciding with the policy of the Court of G. Britain on the other, to retain the Posts of Oswego, Niagara, Detroit &ca. (which tho’ done under the letter of the treaty is certainly an infraction of the Spirit of it, & injurious to the Union) may be improved to the greatest advantage by this State [Virginia] if she would open her Arms, & embrace the means which are necessary to establish it. The way is plain & the expence, comparitively speaking deserves not a thought, so great would be the prize. The Western Inhabitants would do their part towards accomplishing it. Weak as they now are, they would, I am perswaded, meet us half way rather than be driven into the arms of, or be in any wise dependent upon, foreigners; the consequence of which would be, a seperation, or a War.

The way to avoid both, happily for us, is easy, and dictated by our clearest interests. It is to open a wide door, and make a smooth way for the produce of that Country to pass to our Markets before the trade may get into another channel. This, in my judgment, would dry up the other sources; or, if any part should flow down the Mississipi, from the Falls of the Ohio, in Vessels which may be built—fitted, for Sea & sold with their cargoes the proceeds I have no manner of doubt, will return this way; & that it is better to prevent an evil than to rectify a mistake none can deny; commercial connections, of all others, are most difficult to dissolve—if we wanted proof of this look to the avidity with which we are renewing, after a total suspension of Eight years our corrispondence with Great Britain; So, if we [Virginians] are supine; and suffer without a struggle the Settlers of the Western Country to form commercial connections with the Spaniards, Britons, or with any of the States in the Union we shall find it a difficult matter to dissolve them altho a better communication should, thereafter, be presented to them. Time only could effect it; such is the force of habit!

Rumseys discovery of working Boats against stream by mechanical powers principally, may not only be considered as a fortunate invention for these States in general but as one of those circumstances which have combined to render the present epocha favorable above all others for securing (if we are disposed to avail ourselves of them) a large portion of the produce of the Western Settlements, and of the Fur and Peltry of the Lakes, also—the importance of which alone, if there were no political considerations in the way, is immense.

It may be said perhaps, that as the most direct routs from the Lakes to the Navigation of Potomack are through the State of Pensylvania and the inter[es]t of that State opposed to the extension of the Waters of Monongahela, that a communication cannot be had either by the Yohiogany or Cheat River; but herein I differ. An application to this purpose would, in my opinion, place the Legislature of that Commonwealth in a very delicate situation. That it would not be pleasing I can readily conceive, but that they would refuse their assent, I am by no means clear in. There is, in that State, at least 100,000 Souls West of the Laurel hill, who are groaning under the inconveniences of a long land transportation. They are wishing, indeed looking, for the extension of inland navigation; and if this can not be made easy for them to Philadelphia—at any rate it must be lengthy—they will seek a mart elsewhere; and none is so convenient as that which offers itself through Yohiogany or Cheat River. The certain consequence therefore of an attempt to restrain the extension of the navigation of these rivers (so consonant with the interest of these people) or to impose any extra duties upon the exports, or imports, to, or from another State, would be a seperation of the Western Settlers from the old & more interior government; towards which there is not wanting a disposition at this moment in the former.

1This Prince William County courthouse, which served the county from c.1743 to c.1760, stood near a branch of Cedar Run about three miles southwest of present-day Independent Hill, Va. The court moved to this site because the creation in 1742 of Fairfax County from northern Prince William left the county’s first courthouse, which was located near the mouth of Occoquan Creek, at one edge of the county and a more central location was desired. However, with the 1759 formation of Fauquier County from western Prince William, the county’s center of population was again shifted, and the court moved east to the then rapidly growing port of Dumfries, where it remained until 1822 (HARRISON [1] description begins Fairfax Harrison. Landmarks of Old Prince William: A Study of Origins in Northern Virginia. Berryville, Va., 1964. description ends , 314–17; W.P.A. [1] description begins W.P.A. Writers’ Project. Prince William: The Story of Its People and Its Places. American Guide Series. Manassas, Va., 1941. description ends , 76, 110).

2Dr. Craik had been at Mount Vernon with GW’s baggage two days earlier and had apparently proceeded with little delay to his home in Maryland. However, before leaving Mount Vernon, he had written a brief report for GW on the transportation between the Youghiogheny and Potomac rivers. The Little Youghiogheny (now Casselman) River, he thought, would be of little use in helping to link the two main rivers, because a long difficult navigation on it would save only a few overland miles. A total land route by Braddock’s Road or Turkey Foot Road was preferable, and of the two, Craik tended to favor the latter: “It is infinitely better and above two miles shorter. Indeed I found the whole Turkey foot Road across the mountains much better & nearer than Braddocks Road, that if there were good entertainment no one could hesitate in the choice” (Craik to GW, 2 Oct. 1784, MnHi).

3GW traveled down French Creek from Fort Le Boeuf (now Waterford, Pa.) to Venango (now Franklin, Pa.) 16–22 Dec. 1753. Lake Le Boeuf, near which the fort stood, lay south of Presque Isle (now Erie, Pa.).

4The headwaters of the Cuyahoga River, the Tuscarawas River (a major branch of the Muskingum River), and the Mahoning River (a major branch of the Beaver River) all lie near one another in the vicinity of present-day Akron, Ohio. The mouth of the Cuyahoga is at present-day Cleveland, Ohio.

5The Miami River flowing into Lake Erie is now called the Maumee, a corruption of its earlier name. It is the Auglaize River, one of the Maumee’s main branches, that runs close to the Great Miami River, the two rivers having headwaters near one another in the area southeast of present-day Lima, Ohio.

The Sandusky River comes within about 35 miles of the source of the Great Miami near present-day Upper Sandusky, Ohio, but it lies much closer there to the headwaters of the Scioto River, another tributary of the Ohio.

6The Lake of the Woods lies on the border between the United States and Canada west of the Great Lakes.

7The Ottawa (Outauais) River flows for most of its length along the border between the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario, entering the St. Lawrence River a few miles west of Montreal.


9This table is an appendix to Thomas Hutchins, A Topographical Description of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland and North Carolina (London, 1778).

10The falls are at present-day Ohiopyle, Pa. GW visited them in May 1754 (GW to Joshua Fry, 23 May 1754, WRITINGS description begins John C. Fitzpatrick, ed. The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745–1799. 39 vols. Washington, D.C., 1931–44. description ends , 1:52–53; VAUGHAN description begins Samuel Vaughan. “Minutes Made by S. V. from Stage to Stage on a Tour to Fort Pitt or Pittsburgh in Company with Mr. Michl. Morgan Obrian, from Thence by S. V. Only through Virginia, Maryland, & Pensylvania (18 June to 4 Sept. 1787).” Manuscript diary in the collection of the descendants of Samuel Vaughan. description ends , 24–25).

11In the manuscript an asterisk at the end of this line refers to a marginal note that states: “the mouth of Cheat River & 2 Miles up it is in Pensyla.”

12West Fork River.

13The Clarion River, a branch of the Allegheny River, was known as Toby’s or Stump Creek until the early part of the nineteenth century (ESPENSHADE description begins A. Howry Espenshade. Pennsylvania Place Names. State College, Pa., 1925. description ends , 146–47).

14The headwaters of the Clarion River (near present-day Johnsonburg, Pa.) lie several miles west of the headwaters of the Driftwood Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek. Sinnemahoning Creek enters the West Branch of the Susquehanna River near present-day Keating, Pa.

15Fort Augusta, built in 1756, stood near present-day Sunbury, Pa., just below the junction of the west and main branches of the Susquehanna River (FRONTIER FORTS description begins Report of the Commission to Locate the Site of the Frontier Forts of Pennsylvania. 2 vols. [Harrisburg], Pa., 1896. description ends , 1:354–58).

16Mahanoy Creek flows into the Susquehanna River about 12 miles below the site of Fort Augusta. The upper reaches of the creek extend east to present-day Mahanoy City, Pa., a few miles north of the headwaters of the Schuylkill River.

17GW was using Lewis Evans’s A General Map of the Middle British Colonies, in America (Philadelphia, 1755) and William Scull’s Map of the Province of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1770).

Lewis Evans (c.1700–1756), a Pennsylvania surveyor, published two maps. His first one, A Map of Pensilvania, New-Jersey, New-York, And the Three Delaware Counties, appeared in 1749 and was a work of fairly limited scope, showing principally the Delaware, Susquehanna, Hudson, and Mohawk valleys. His 1755 map of the middle colonies, issued with a 32–page explanatory Analysis, was much more comprehensive, covering the area from Virginia north to Montreal and from Rhode Island west to the falls of the Ohio River. It was also more popular, being one of the first maps to show the region west of the Appalachians with much detail and accuracy. In the half century following publication of the map, it went through many editions, both authorized and unauthorized (STEVENS [5] description begins Henry N. Stevens. Lewis Evans: His Map of the Middle British Colonies in America. 1920. Reprint. New York, 1971. description ends ; GIPSON description begins Lawrence Henry Gipson. Lewis Evans. Philadelphia, 1939. description ends ). GW probably owned a copy of the first edition, for he was using the map as early as Aug. 1756 to help conduct his French and Indian War military operations (GW to Adam Stephen, 5 Aug. 1756, DLC:GW). Over the years he retained a good opinion of it. Writing to Benjamin Harrison 10 Oct. 1784, he remarked that Evans’s map and Analysis “(considering the early period at which they were given to the public) are done with amazing exactness” (DLC:GW).

William Scull, another Pennsylvania surveyor, owned land in Northumberland County near Fort Augusta. He was sheriff of Northumberland in 1775 and later became a captain in the 11th Pennsylvania Regiment. From Jan. to Sept. 1778 he was an assistant to the geographer and surveyor general of the Continental Army. However, ill health forced him to resign from the service, and he sought a position in the newly created Pennsylvania land office (William Scull to Joseph Reed, 26 Jan. 1780, PA. ARCH. description begins Samuel Hazard et al., eds. Pennsylvania Archives. 9 ser., 138 vols. Philadelphia and Harrisburg, 1852–1949. description ends , 1st ser., 8:94). Scull’s map of Pennsylvania, which covered the state from Philadelphia west to Fort Pitt, was based on his own work and on that of other surveyors, including his grandfather Nicholas Scull (1687–1761), who was surveyor general of Pennsylvania from 1748 to his death (GARRISON description begins Hazel Shields Garrison. “Cartography of Pennsylvania before 1800.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 59 (1935): 255–83. description ends , 277–79).

18These two forts were at opposite ends of the Niagara River. Fort Erie, built in 1764 and destroyed in 1779, lay in ruins at the head of the river, the southern end where it flowed out of Lake Erie. Fort Niagara, built in 1726, stood at the mouth of the river, the northern end where it entered Lake Ontario. The 18–mile portage was required to bypass Niagara Falls.

19Oswego, N.Y., located on Lake Ontario at the mouth of the Oswego River, had been an important Indian trading center and military post since the 1720s.

20Oswego Falls are at present-day Fulton, N.Y., about 12 miles above the mouth of the Oswego River. On Evans’s map the Oswego River and its northern branch, the Oneida River, appear to be one river called the Onondaga.

21The Oneida River flows from the western end of Oneida Lake and joins downstream with the Senaca River to form the Oswego.

22Wood Creek, which flows into Oneida Lake from the east, runs close to the headwaters of the Mohawk River in the vicinity of present-day Rome, N.Y.

23This portage was around the Little Falls of the Mohawk River.

24The 70–foot high Cohoes Falls at the mouth of the Mohawk River made this portage necessary in order to reach the Hudson River (SHAW description begins Ronald E. Shaw. Erie Water West: A History of the Erie Canal, 1792–1854. Lexington, Ky., 1966. description ends , 9; W.P.A. [7] description begins W.P.A. Writers’ Project. New York: A Guide to the Empire State. American Guide Series. New York, 1940. description ends , 627). Schenectady on the Mohawk is about 21 miles above the falls; Albany on the Hudson is about 11 miles below them.

25Oswegatchie (now Ogdensburg, N.Y.) was a military outpost on the St. Lawrence River. The British army held it until 1796 (W.P.A. [7] description begins W.P.A. Writers’ Project. New York: A Guide to the Empire State. American Guide Series. New York, 1940. description ends , 533–34).

Index Entries