Thomas Jefferson Papers
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Thomas Jefferson: an essay or introductory lecture...dialects of the English language, 1825, 1825

An Essay

or Introductory Lecture

towards facilitating instruction in the Anglo-Saxon and Modern dialects of the English Language.

for the use of the University of Virginia

Printed by order of the Board of Visitors

The importance of the Anglo-Saxon dialect towards a perfect understanding of the English language seems not to have been duly estimated by those charged with the education of youth; and yet it is unquestionably the basis of our present tongue. it was a full-formed language, it’s frame and construction, it’s declensions of nouns and verbs, and it’s syntax were peculiar to the Northern languages, and fundamentally different from those of the South. it was the language of all England, properly so called, from the Saxon possession of that country in the 6th century to the time of Henry III, in the 13th and was spoken pure and unmixed with any other, altho’ the Romans had been in possession of that country for nearly five centuries from the time of Julius Cæsar, yet it was a military possession chiefly, by their souldiery alone, and with dispositions intermutually jealous and unamicable. they seem to have aimed at no lasting settlements there, and to have had little familiar mixture with the native Britons. in this state of connection there would probably be little incorporation of the Roman into the native language, and on their subsequent evacuation of the island, it’s traces would soon be lost altogether. and, had it been otherwise, these innovations would have been carried with the Natives themselves when driven into Wales by the invasion and entire occupation of the rest of the Southern portion of the island by the Anglo-Saxons. the language of these last became that of the country, from that time forth, for nearly seven centuries; and so little attention was paid among them to the Latin, that it was known to a few individuals only, as a matter of science, and without any chance of transfusion into the vulgar language. we may safely repeat the affirmation therefore that the pure Anglo-Saxon constitutes at this day the basis of our language. that it was sufficiently copious for the purposes of society in the existing conditions of arts and manners, reason alone would satisfy us from the necessity of the case. it’s copiousness too was much favored by the latitude it allowed of combining primitive words so as to produce any modification of idea desired in this characteristic it was equal to the Greek. but it is more specially proved by the actual fact of the books they have left us in the various branches of history geography, religion, law, and poetry. and altho’, since the Norman conquest it has recieved vast additions and embellishments from the Latin, Greek, French & Italian languages, yet these are but engraftments on it’s idiomatic stem. it’s original structure & Syntax remain the same, and can be but imperfectly understood by the mere Latin scholar. hence the necessity of making the A-Saxon a regular branch of Academic education. in the 16th and 17th centuries it was assiduously cultivated by a host of learned men. the names Lambard, Parker, Spelman. Wheeloc, Wilkins, Gibson, Hickes, Thwaites, Somner, Benson, Mareschal, Elstob, deserve to be ever remembered with gratitude for the Anglo-Saxon works which they have given us through the press, the only certain means of preserving and promulgating them. for a century past this study has been too much neglected. the reason of this neglect, and it’s remedy, shall be the subject of some explanatory Observations. these will respect I. Alphabet. II. Orthography. III. Pronuntiation. IV. Grammar.

I. The Alphabet.

The Anglo-Saxon alphabet, as known to us in it’s printed forms, consists of 26. characters, about the half of which are Roman, the others of forms peculiarly Saxon. these, mixed with the others, give an aspect to the whole rugged, uncouth and appalling to an eye accustomed to the roundness and symmetry of the Roman character. this is a first discouragement to the English student. next, the task of learning a new alphabet, and the time and application necessary to render it easy and familiar to the Reader, often decides the doubting learner against an enterprise so apparently irksome.

The earliest remains extant of Saxon writing are said to be of the 7th century; and the latest of the 13th. the black letter seems to have been introduced by William the conqueror, whose laws are written in Norman French, and in that letter. the full alphabet of Roman character was first used about the beginning of the 16th century. but the expression of the same sounds by a different character did not change these sounds, nor the language which they constituted; did not make the language of Alfred a different one from that of Piers Ploughman, of Chaucer, Douglas, Spencer, and Shakespear, any more than the 2d revolution, which substituted the Roman for the English black letter made theirs a different language from that of Pope and Bolingbroke; or the writings of Shakespear, printed in black letter different from the same as now done in Roman type. the life of Alfred written in Latin, and in Roman character by Asser, was reprinted by Archbishop Parker in A-S. letters. but it is Latin still, altho’ the words are represented by characters different from those of Asser’s original. and the extracts given us by Dr Hickes from the Greek Septuagint, in A-S. characters, is Greek still, altho’ the Greek sounds are represented by other types. here then I ask, why should not this Roman character, with which we are all familiar, be substituted now for the A-S. by printing in the former the works already edited in the latter type? and also the M.S.S. still inedited? this may be done letter for letter, and would remove entirely the first discouraging obstacle to the general study of the A-Saxon.

II. Orthography

In the period during which the A-S. alphabet was in use, reading and writing were rare arts. the highest dignitaries of the church subscribed their marks, not knowing how to write their names. Alfred himself was taught to read in his 36th year only, or as some editions of Asser say, in his 39th speaking of learning in his preface to the Pastoral of Gregory, Asser says ‘swa clean hi was oth-fallen on Angalkin that swithe few wereon behinan Humber the hior thenung cuthon understandan on English, oth furthon an errand y-write of Latin on English areckon. and I ween that not many beyondan Humber nay aren; swa few hior weron that I furthon ane on lepne nay may y-thinkan be-Suthan Thames tha tha I to ric fang.’ or as literally translated into later English by Archbishop Parker, ‘so clean it was fallen amongst the English nation, that very few were on this side Humber which their service could understand in English, or else furthermore an epistle from Latin into English to declare. and I ween that not many beyond Humber were not. so few of them were, that I also one only may not remember by South Thamise when as I to reign undertook.’ in this benighted state, so profoundly illiterate, few read at all, and fewer wrote; and the writer having no examples of orthography to recur to, thinking them indeed not important, had for his guide, his own ideas only of the power of the letters, unpractised & indistinct as they might be. he brought together therefore those letters which he supposed must enter into the composition of the sound he meant to express, and was not even particular in arranging them in the order in which the sounds composing the word followed each other. thus birds were spelt brides, grass gaers, run yrnam, cart crætt, fresh fersh. they seemed to suppose too that a final vowel was necessary to give sound to the consonant preceding it, and they used for that purpose any vowel indifferently. a son, was suna, sune, sunu; mæra, mære, mæro, mæru. fines, limites; ge, ye, y, i, are various spellings of the same prefix. the final e mute in English is a remain of this, as in give, love, curse.

The vowels were used indiscriminately also for every vowel sound. thus the

comparitive ended in ar, er, ir, or, ur, yr.
the superlative in ast, est, ist, ost, ust, yst.
the participle present in and, end, ind, ond, und, ynd.
the participle past in ad, ed, id, od, ud, yd.
other examples are betweox, betwix, betwox, betwux, betwyx, for betwixt
egland, igland, ygland, for island

of this promiscuous use of the vowels we have also abundant remains still in English. for according to the powers given to our letters we often use them indifferently for the same sound as in bulwark, assert, stir, work, lurk, myrtle. the single word many, in A-S. was spelt, as Dr Hickes has observed in 20. different ways, to wit, mænigeo, mænio, mæniu, menio, meniu, mænigo, mænego, manige, menigo, manegeo, mæanegeo, menegeo, mænygeo, menigeo, manegu, mænigu, menegu, menego, menigu, manigo. to prove indeed that every one spelt according to his own notions, without regard to any standard, we have only to compare different editions of the same composition. take for example Alfred’s preface to Gregory’s Pastoral before cited, as published in different editions.

swa clæne hio wæs othfeallenu on Angelkynne thætte swithe feawe wæron behionan
heo othfeallen Angelcynne that feawa beheonan
Humbre the hiora thenunga cuthen understandan on Englise oththe furthum an ærendgewrit
hira theninga cuthon understondan Ænglix furthon ærendgewryt
of lædene on Englise areccan & ie wene thætte nauht monige begeongan Humbre næren.
ledene Ængelise areccean that noht begiondan nearon.
naht næron.

This unsettled orthography renders it necessary to swell the volume of the dictionaries by giving to each word as many places in order of the Alphabet as there are different modes of spelling it; and in proportion as this is omitted, the difficulty of finding the words increases on the student.

Since then it is apparent that the A-S. writers had established no particular standard of orthography, but each one followed arbitrarily his own mode of combining the letters, we are surely at liberty equally to adopt any mode which, establishing uniformity, may be more consonant with the power of the letters, and with the orthography of the present dialect, as established by usage. the latter attention has the advantage of exhibiting more evidently the legitimate parentage of the two dialects

III. Pronunciation.

To determine what that was among the A-S. our means are as defective as to determine the long agitated question What was the original pronunciation of the Greek & Latin languages. the presumption is certainly strong that in Greece and Italy, the countries occupied by those languages, their pronuntiation has been handed down, by tradition, more nearly that it can be known to other countries: and the rather as there has been no particular point of time at which those antient languages were changed into the modern ones occupying the same grounds. they have been gradually worn down to their present forms by time, and changes of modes and circumstances. in like manner there has been no particular point of time at which the Anglo-Saxon has been changed into it’s present English form. the languages of Europe have generally, in like manner, undergone a gradual metamorphosis, some of them in name as well as in form. we should presume therefore that in those counties of Great Britain which were occupied earliest, longest and latest by the Saxon immigrants, the pronuntiation of their language has been handed down more nearly than elsewhere; and should be searched for in the provincial dialects of those counties. but the fact is that these counties have divaricated in their dialects, so that it would be difficult to decide among them which is the most genuine. under these doubts therefore we may as well take the pronuntiation now in general use as the legitimate standard, and that from which it is most promotive of our object to infer the A-S. pronuntiation. it is indeed the forlorn hope of all aim at their probable pronuntiation; for were we to regard the powers of the letters only, no human organ could articulate their uncouth jumble. we will suppose therefore the power of the letters to have been generally the same in A-S. as now in English; and to produce the same sounds we will combine them, as nearly as may be, conformably with the present English orthography. this is indeed a most irregular and equivocal standard; but a conformity with it will bring the two dialects nearer together in sound and semblance, and facilitate the transition from the one to the other more auspiciously than a rigorous adherence to any uniform system of orthography which speculation might suggest.

I will state some instances only (referring to Dr Hickes for more) of the unskilful and inconsistent uses of the letters by the Anglo-Saxons, in proof of the necessity of changing them, to produce, to a modern reader, the very sounds which we suppose them to have intended by their confused combinations. their vowels, promiscuously used, as before observed, must all be freely changed to those used in corresponding words in English orthography.

b. sounds as v. as in ober, over.
c. as g. fic, fig.
as j ceole, jowl.
as k. tacn, token, bacen, baked. cind, kind.
as s. cedar. cedar.
as ch. ceak. cheek.
cg. as dge bricg. bridge.
d. sounds as th. worden, or worthen. mid or mith, with.
f. as v. delfan, to delve, yfel, evil.
v. as f vot, foot.
g as c. gamel, camel.
as ga. gandra, gander. garlec, garlic.
as ge. angel.
as w. laga, law. agen, own. fugel, fowl.
as y. this is it’s most general power, as ge, ye. gear, year. burigen, bury. geoc, yoke. ego, eye. ge, ye, y.
sc. as sh. as in scame, shame. scip, ship. score, shore. scyl, shall.
y. as ou. ynce, ounce.
x. as sh. fixas, fishes. axan, ashes.
as sk. axian, ask.

and finally, in the words of Dr Hickes ‘demum quomodo Anglo-Saxonicae voces factae sunt Anglicae mutando literas ejusdem organi, asperando lenes, et leniendo asperas, vocales, diphthongos, et interdum consonantes leviter mutando, auferendo initales et finales syllabas, præsertim terminationem modi infinitivi, praterea adolendo, transponendo, et interponendo literas, et voces quoque syncopando, exemplis docendum est.

IV. Grammar.

Some observations on A-S. grammar may show how much easier that also may be rendered to the English student. Dr Hickes may certainly be considered as the father of this branch of modern learning. he has been the great Restorer of the A-S. dialect from the oblivion into which it was fast falling. his labors in it were great, and his learning not less than his labors. his Grammar may be said to be the only one we yet possess: for that edited at Oxford in 1711. is but an extract from Hickes, and the principal merit of mrs Elstob’s is that it is written in English, without any thing original in it. some others have been written, taken also and almost entirely from Hickes. in his time there was too exclusive a prejudice in favor of the Greek and Latin languages. they were considered as the standards of perfection, and the endeavor generally was to force other languages to a conformity with these models. but nothing can be more radically unlike than the frames of the antient languages, Southern and Northern, of the Greek and Latin languages from those of the Gothic family. of this last are the A-S. and English; and had Dr Hickes, instead of keeping his eye fixed on the Gr. & Lat. languages, as his standard, viewed the A-S. in it’s conformity with the English only, he would greatly have enlarged the advantages for which we are already so much indebted to him. his labors however have advanced us so far on the right road, and a correct pursuit of it will be a just homage to him.

A Noun is to be considered under it’s accidents of genders, cases & numbers. the word gender is, in nature, synonimous with Sex. to all the subjects of the animal kingdom Nature has given Sex, and that is two–fold only, male or female, masculine or feminine. vegetable and mineral subjects have no distinction of sex, consequently are of no gender. words, like other inanimate things, have no sex, are of no gender. yet in the construction of the Gr. and Lat. languages, and of the modern ones of the same family, their adjectives being varied in termination, and made distinctive of animal sex, in conformity with the nouns or names of animal subjects, the two real genders, which nature has established, are distinguished in their languages. but, not stopping here, they have, by usage, thrown a number of unsexual subjects into the sexual classes, leaving the residuary mass to a 3d class, which grammarians call Neutral, that is to say, of no gender or sex; and some Latin grammarians have so far lost sight of the real and natural genders as to ascribe to that language 7. genders, the Masculine, feminine, neutral, gender common to two, common to three, the doubtful and the Epicene; than which nothing can be more arbitrary, and nothing more useless. but the languages of the Anglo-Saxons and English is based on principles totally different from those of the Gr. & Lat. and is constructed on laws peculiar and idiomatic to itself. it’s adjectives have no changes of termination on account of gender, number or case. each has a single one applicable to every noun, whether it be the name of a thing having sex, or not. to ascribe gender to nouns in such a case would be to embarras the learner with unmeaning and useless distinctions. it will be said e.g. that a priest is of one gender, and a priestess of another, a poet of one, a poetess another Etc and that therefore the words designating them must be of different genders. I say, not at all. because altho’ the thing designated may have sex, the word designating it, like other inanimate things has no sex, no gender. in Latin we well know that the thing may be of one gender and the word designating it of another. see Martial 7. Epis, 17 the ascription of gender to it is artificial and arbitrary, and, in English & A-S. absolutely useless. Lowthe therefore among the most correct of our English grammarians, has justly said that in the Nouns of the English language, there is no other distinction of gender but that of nature, it’s adjectives admitting no change but of the degrees of comparison. we must guard against the conclusion of Dr Hickes that the change of termination in the A-S. adjectives, as god, gode for example, is an indication of gender, this, like others of his examples of inflection is only an instance of unsettled orthography. in the languages acknoleged to ascribe genders to their words, as Gr. Lat, Italian, Spanish, French, their dictionaries indicate the gender of every noun; but the A-S. and English dictionaries give no such indication; a proof of the general sense that gender makes no part of the character of the noun. we may safely therefore dismiss the learning of genders from our language, whether in it’s antient or modern form.

2. our law of Cases is different. they exist in nature, according to the difference of accident they announce. no language can be without them, & it is an error to say that the Greek is without an ablative. it’s ablative indeed is always like it’s dative; but were that sufficient to deny it’s existence, we might equally say that the Latins had no ablative plural, because in all nouns, of every declension, their ablative plural is the same with the dative. it would be to say that to go to a place, or from a place, means the same thing. the grammarians of Port-Royal therefore have justly restored the Ablative to Greek Nouns. our Cases are generally distinguished by the aid of the prepositions of, to, by, from or with, but sometimes also by change of termination. but these changes are not so general or difficult as to require, or to be capable of a distribution into declensions. yet Dr Hickes, having in view the 5. declensions of the Latin, and 10. of the Greek languages, has given 6. and Thwaytes 7. to the A-S. the whole of them however are comprehended under the 3. single Canons following.

1. the datives and ablatives plural of all nouns end in um.

2. of the other cases, some nouns inflect their Genitive singular only, and some their Nominative, accusative and Vocative plural also in s, as in English

3. Others, preserving the primitive form in their Nom. and Voc. singular, inflect all the other cases & numbers in en.

3. Numbers.

Every language, as I presume, has so formed it’s Nouns and Verbs as to distinguish the action of a single and a plurality of subjects, and all, as far as I know, have been * p. 17 contented with the simple distinction of singular and plural, except the Greeks, who have interposed between them a Dual number, so distinctly formed by actual changes of termination and inflection, as to leave no doubt of it’s real distinction from the other numbers. but they do not uniformly use their dual for it’s appropriate purpose. the number 2. is often expressed plurally, and sometimes by a dual noun and plural verb. Dr Hickes supposes that A-S. to have a dual number also, not going thro’ the whole vocabulary of nouns and verbs, as in Greek, but confined to two particular pronouns, i.e. wit, and yit, which he translates we two, and ye two. but Benson renders wit by nos, and does not give yit at all. and is it worth while to embarras grammar with an extra distinction for two or three, or half a dozen words? and why may not wit, we two, & yit, ye two, by considered plural, as well as we three, or we four? as duo, ambo, with the Latins? we may surely say then that neither the A-S. nor English has a dual number.

4. Verbs, moods.

To the verbs in A-S. Dr Hickes gives 6. moods. the Greeks, besides the 4. general moods, Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative and Infinitive have really an Optative mood, distinguished from the others by actual differences of termination. and some Latin grammarians, besides the optative, have added, in that language, a Potential mood; neither of them distinguished by differences of termination or inflection. they have therefore been disallowed by later and sounder grammarians; and we may, in like manner, disembarras our A-S. and English from the Optatives and Potentials of Dr Hickes.

Supines and Gerunds.

He thinks too that the A-S. verb has supines & gerunds, among it’s variations; accidents certainly peculiar to Latin verbs only. he considers lufian, to love, as the infinitive, and to lufian, a supine. the exclusion therefore of the preposition to, makes with him the infinitive, while we have ever considered it as the essential sign of that mood. and what all grammarians have hitherto called the infinitive, he considers as a supine or gerund. his examples are given in A-S. and Latin, but I will add the equivalent Greek and English for illustration.

1. Mark. 24. Come thu us to for-spillan?
Venisti nos perditum?
Ηλϑες απoλεςαι ἡμας;
Comest thou to destroy us?
1. Luke 9. and and he him an-wield sealed untrimness to healan, & devil-sickness ut to a-drivan.
potestatem curandi infirmitates, et ejiciendi dæmonia.
εξoυςιαν επι παντα τα δαιμoνια και νoςoυς ϑεραπευειν.
authority over all dæmons, and to cure diseases.
2. Mat. 13. Herod seeketh that child to for-spillan.
Herodes quærit puerum ad perdendum eum.
Ἡρoδης ζητει τo παιδιoν τoυ απoλεςαι αυτoν
Herod seeketh the child to destroy him.
1. Luke 77. to sellen his floc hæle y-wit.
ad dandam scientiam salustis plebi suæ.
τoυ δoυναι γνωςιν ςωτεριας τω λαω αυτoυ
to give knolege of salvation to his people.

I ask then if απoλεςαι, ϑεραπευειν, δoυναι, are supines or gerunds? why then should to for-spillan, to healan, to a-drivan, to sellen, or, to destroy, to heal, to cure, to drive, to give, be necessarily supines or gerunds? the fact is only that the Latins express by these inflections, peculiar to themselves, what other languages do by their infinitives.

From these aberrations, into which our great Anglo-Saxon leader Dr Hickes has been seduced by too much regard to the structure of the Greek & Latin languages and too little to their radical difference from that of the Gothic family, we have to recall our footsteps into the right way, and we shall find our path rendered smoother, plainer, and more direct to the object of profiting of the light which each dialect throws on the other. and this even as to the English language, appears to have been the opinion of Waltus the best of our English Grammarians who, in the preface to his English grammar, says ‘omnes ad Latinæ linguæ normam [. . .]ne nostram Anglicanam nimium exigentes multa inutilia præcepta de nominum casitus, generibus et declinationibus, [. . .] verborum temporibus, modis et conjugationibus, de nominum item et verborum regimine, a lüsque similibus tradiderunt, qu[. . .] lingua nostra sunt prorsus aliena, adeoque confusionem potius et obscuritatem periunt, quam explicationi inservient.

Having removed then this cumbrous scaffolding, erected by too much learning, and obscuring, instead of enlightening our Anglo-Saxon structure, I will proceed to give a Specimen of the manner in which I think might be advantageously edited any future republications of the A-S. writings which we already possess in print, or any MSS. which may hereafter be given to us through the medium of the press.

I take my Specimen from Thwaite’s Heptateuch, beginning with 1st chapter of Genesis. I give in one column the A-S. text, in the Roman character, preserving letter for letter the orthography of the Saxon original. in another column the same text in the Roman character also, spelt with a combined regard to the power of the letters, to English orthography, and English pronunciation. I interline a version verbally exact, placing every English word under it’s A-S. root, without regard to the change of acceptation it has undergone in time. as e.g. ‘the earth was idle and empty’ 1. Gen. 2. instead of the modern words ‘without form and void’ and the ‘αορατος και ακαταςκευαςος’ of the LXX. leaving to the ingenuity of the reader to trace the history of the change. in rendering the A-S. into the corresponding English word, I have considered as English not only what is found in the oldest English writers, in glossaries and dictionaries, but in the Provincial dialects also, and in common parlance of unlettered people, who have preserved more of the antient language than those whose style has been polished by education. Grammar too is disregarded, my principal object being to manifest the identity of the two languages. this version is rendered more uncouth by the circumstances that 1. the ordo verborum of the A-S. is not exactly the same as the English. 2. they used much oftener the noun without the article. 3. they frequently use their oblique cases without a preposition prefixed, the English very rarely. in this verbal versions these omissions are to be understood.

The A-S. writings, in this familiar form are evidently nothing but old English; and we may join conscientiously in the exhortation of Archbishop Parker, in his preface to Asser ‘omnes qui in regni institutis addiscendis elaboraverint, cohortabor ut exiguo labore, seu pene nullo, hujus sibi linquæ cognitionem acquirant.

As we are possessed in America of the printed editions of A-S. writings, they furnish a fit occasion for this country to make some return to the older nations for the science for which we are indebted to them. and in this task I hope an honorable part will in time be borne by our University, for which, at an hour of life too late for any thing elaborate, I hazard these imperfect hints, for consideration chiefly on a subject on which I pretend not to be profound. the publication of the inedited MSS. which exist in the libraries of G. Britain only, must depend on the learned of that nation. their means of science are great. they have done much, and much is yet expected from them. nor will they disappoint us. our means are as yet small. but the widow’s mite was piously given, and kindly accepted. how much would contribute to the happiness of these two nations a brotherly emulation in doing good to each other, rather than the mutual vituperations so unwisely and unjustifiably sometimes indulged in by both. and this too by men on both sides of the water, who think themselves of a superior order of understanding, and some of whom are truly of an elevation far above the ordinary stature of the human mind. no two people on earth can so much help, or hurt each other. let us then yoke ourselves jointly to the same car of mutual happiness, and vie in common efforts to do each other all the good we can. to reflect on each other the lights of mutual science particularly, and the kind affections of kindred blood. be it our task, in the case under consideration, to reform and republish, in forms more advantageous, what we already possess, and theirs to add to the common stock the inedited treasures which have been too long buried in their despositories.

P.S. January 1825. In the year 1818. by authority of the legislature of Virginia, a plan for the establishment of an University was prepared and proposed to them. in that plan the Anglo-Saxon language was comprehended as a part of the circle of instruction to be given to the Students; and the preceding pages were then committed to writing for the use of the University. I pretend not to be an Anglo-Saxon scholar. from an early period of my studies indeed, I have been sensible of the importance of making it a part of the regular education of our youth; and at different times, as leisure permitted, I applied myself to the study of it, with some degree of attention. but my life has been too busy in pursuits of another character to have made much proficiency in this. the leading idea which very soon impressed itself on my mind, and which has continued to prevail through the whole of my observations on the language, was, that it was nothing more than the old English of a period of some ages earlier than that of Piers Ploughman, and under this view my cultivation of it has been continued. it was apparent to me that the labors of Dr Hickes, and other very learned men, have been employed in a very unfortunate direction, in endeavors to give it the complicated structure of the Greek and Latin languages. I have just now recieved a copy of a new work, by mr Bosworth on the Elements of Anglo-Saxon grammar, & it quotes two other works, by Turner and Jamieson, both of great erudition, but not yet known here. mr Bosworth’s is indeed a treasure of that venerable learning. it proves the assiduity with which he has cultivated it, the profound knolege in it which he has attained, and that he has advanced far beyond all former grammarians in the science of it’s structure. yet, I own, I was disappointed on finding that in proportion as he has advanced on, and beyond, the footsteps of his predecessors, he has the more embarrassed the language with rules and distinctions in imitation of the grammars of Greek and Latin, has led it still further from it’s genuine type of old English, and increased it’s difficulties by the multitude and variety of new and minute rules with which he has charged it. I had the less expected this from observations made early in the work, on ‘th total disregard of the A-Saxons of any settled rules of orthography, their confounding the letters, using them indifferently for each other, and especially the vowels and diphthongs [pa. 46.] on the frequent transpositions of their letters, and the variety of ways of writing the same word by different A-S. authors,’ giving, as examples, six ways of spelling the word ‘youth,’ and the twenty ways of spelling ‘many;’ observing that, in the Comparative degree, the last syllable er, was spelt with all the vowels indifferently, so also the syllable est, of the Superlative degree, and so the Participial terminations of end, and ed, [pa.54.] adding many other examples of an use entirely promiscuous of the vowels, and much so of the consonants. and in pa. 249. he says ‘it must be evident that learning was not so common in the Saxon æra as at the present time. our ancestors, having few opportunities of literary acquirements, could not have determined upon fixed rules for orthography, any more than illiterate persons in the present day, who, having been employed in manual labor, could avail themselves of the facilities which were offered. hence arose the differences observable in spelling the same words in Saxon.’ and again in a note, pa. 253. he says ‘those changes in Saxon, which are denominated dialects, appear in reality only to be the alterations observed in the progress of the language, as it gradually flowed from the Saxon, varying, or casting off many of it’s inflections, till it settled in the form of the present English. this progressive transformation of the Anglo Saxon into our present form of speech will be evident by the following examples, taken from the translations of the most learned men of the age to which they are referred.’ and he proceeds to give specimens of the Pater nosters of the years 890. 930. 1130. 1160. 1180. 1250. 1260. 1380. 1430. 1500. 1526. 1537. 1541. 1556. 1611. that is, from the time of Alfred to that of Shakespear. these obviously prove the gradual changes of the language from the A-S. form, to that of the present English, and that there was no particular point of time at which the A-S. was superceded by the English dialect; for dialects we may truly call them, of the same language, separated by lines of time instead of space. and these specimens prove also that the language of Alfred was, no more than that of Piers Ploughman, a different one from that we now speak. in like manner the language of France, cotemporary with our Anglo-Saxon, was as different from modern French, as the A-S. from modern English; and their Romanumrusticum, or Romain-rustique, as it was called, has changed insensibly, as our A-S. to the form now spoken. yet so much of the fundamental idiom remains the same in both, that to read and understand the elder dialect, they need but a Glossary for words lost by disuse. I will make one more quotation from mr Bosworth. because it confirms what I have said of the scholastic bias of our early authors to place our old language in the line of Latin and Greek. ‘Hickes, says he, page 213. note 2. indisputably one of the most learned of those who can be said to have examined, with a critical eye, our Saxon literature, influenced by the desire of reducing everything to some classical standard, a prejudice not uncommon in the age in which he wrote, endeavors, with greater zeal than success, to shew that the writers whom he was recommending to the world [the A-S. poets] observed the legitimate rules of Latin prosody, and measured their feet by syllabic quantity.’ Notwithstanding these proofs that our Author was fully aware of the unsettled and uncertain orthography of the A-Saxons, and his particular observations, pa. 53. 54. that ‘the final letters of words are often omitted,’ and ‘that the different letters suffer very frequent changes of position,’ he proceeds, in conformity with preceding authorities, which indeed support him, to make genders, cases, and declensions of nouns to depend on their terminating vowel, pa. 80. 81. 82. 83. 94. the formations of different parts of verbs to depend on the collocation of the letters [pa. 143.] and other formations [pa. 181.] and even regimen [pa. 202.] to depend on the final syllable. and this leads to such an infinitude of minute rules and observances, as are beyond the power of any human memory to retain. if indeed this be the true genius of the A-S. language, then it’s difficulties go beyond it’s worth, and render a knolege of it no longer a compensation for the time and labor it’s acquisition will require: and in that case, I would recommend it’s abandonment in our University, as an unattainable and unprofitable pursuit. but if, as I believe, we may consider it as merely an antiquated form of our present language, if we may throw aside the learned difficulties which mask it’s real character, liberate it from these foreign shackles, and proceed to apply ourselves to it with little more preparation than to Piers Ploughman, Douglas, or Chaucer, then I am persuaded it’s acquisition will require little time or labor, and will richly repay us by the intimate insight it will give us into the genuine structure powers, and meanings of the language we now read and speak. we shall then read Shakespear and Milton with a superior degree of intelligence and delight, heightened by the new and delicate shades of meaning developed to us by a knolege of the original sense of the same words. this rejection of the learned labors of our A-S. Doctors may be considered perhaps as a rebellion against science. my hope however is that it may prove a revolution. two great works indeed will be wanting to effect all it’s advantages. 1. a Grammar on the simple principles of the English grammar, analogising the idiom, the rules and principles of the one and the other, eliciting their common origin, the identity of their structure, laws and composition, and their total unlikeness to the genius of the Greek and Latin. 2. a Dictionary, on the plan of Stephens or Scapula, in which the A-S. roots should be arranged alphabetically, and the derivatives from each root, Saxon and English, entered under it in their proper order and connection. such works as these, with new editions of the Saxon writings, on the plan I venture to propose, would shew that the A-S. is really old English, little more difficult to understand than works we possess, and read & still call English. they would recruit and renovate the vigour of the English language, too much impaired by the neglect of it’s antient constitution and dialects, & would remove, for the Student, the principal difficulties of ascending to the source of the English language, the main object of what has been here proposed.

Observations on Anglo-Saxon grammar

Pronuntiation. Different nations use different alphabets for expressing the sounds of their languages; and nations which use the same alphabet assign very different powers to the same characters. hence, to enable persons to learn the language of other countries, grammars are composed explaining to what letters and combinations of them, in their own language, the letters and combinations of them in another are equivalent. the pronuntiation of the living languages is deposited in records of this kind, as doubtless was that of the Greek and Latin languages, now considered as dead. these evidences of their pronuntiation however being lost, we resort to the countries in which these languages were once spoken, and where they have been insensibly altered to what is now spoken there; and we presume that, the same alphabetical characters being still preserved there, the powers assigned to them are those handed down by tradition, with some changes no doubt, but yet tolerably correct in the main: and that the present pronunciation of those characters by the inhabitants of the same country is better evidence of their antient power than any other to be obtained at this day. hence it is presumed that the pronuntiation of the Greek and Roman characters, now practised by the modern Greeks & Italians, is nearer probably to that of the antient Greeks and Romans than the sounds assigned to the same characters by any other nation.  The Anglo-Saxon is also become a dead language. it’s alphabet is preserved; but if any written evidences exist of the powers assigned to it’s different characters, it is unknown to me. on the contrary I believe that the expressions of the sounds of their language by alphabetical characters had not been long and generally enough practised to settle an uniform power in each letter or combination of letters. this I infer from their infinitely diversified modes of spelling the same word. for example the word many is found spelt in 20. different manners. to supply evidence therefore of the pronuntiation of their words, we should, I think, resort to the pronuntiation of the corresponding words in Modern English. for as the Anglo-Saxon was insensibly changed into the present English language, it is probable the English have the pronuntiation, as well as the words, by tradition. indeed I consider the actual pronunciation of a word by the English as better evidence of it’s pronuntiation by their Anglo-Saxon ancestors than the multiform representation of it by letters which they have left us. the following examples will give an idea of the appeal I make to English pronunciation for the power of the Saxon letters, and sound of the Saxon words.

the Anglo-Saxon c. in cy.   cynpic was probably sounded as k in the correspondg Eng. words kine. kingric.
ci. in cierze. = ch. in chest.
eo. in eop, eopep = yo. in you, your.
in ppeo. reopon. = e. in three. seven.
in peoper. = o. in four.
ea. in anfeald, zpyfeald. = a. or o. in onefold, twofold.
ze. prefix = y. in yclept. or a. in adown., along, aside, among, about Etc
io. in rioc. riolc. riolfop. = i. in sick, silk, silver.
rc in birceop, ludeirc, rcomleare = sh. in bishop, Jewish, shameless.
p in hipe (house) = v. in hive.

those, I think, who have leisure and knolege of the subject, could not render it a greater service than by new editions of the Saxon writings still extant digested under four columns, whereof the 1st should present the text in the Saxon character and original loose orthography; the 2d the same text in Saxon characters reformed to Modern English orthography as nearly as allowable; the 3d the same text in the English character and orthography; the 4th an English version, as literally expressed, both as to words and their arrangement as any indulgences of grammar, or of obsolete, or provincial terms, would tolerate. I will exhibit the following passage from Alfred’s Orosius. L. 1. pa. 23. as a specimen.

1. Saxon orthography 2. Saxon Orthogr. reformed 3. Eng. charact. & orthography 4. Eng. literal verison.  
he he he (Other) was mid them firstum mannum in them land. nhaved he tho ma then twenty hryther, & twenty sheep, & twenty swine. & that little that he eared, he eared mith horsen, ac hir ar is most in them gavel tha the Fins him yieldeth. that gavel beeth in deer fellum, & in fowl—featherum, & whalesbone, & in them shipropum tha beeth of whales hide ywrought, & of seals: ay-while yield by his y-birthum. se birthest shall yield fifteen marts fell, & five rains, & an bearenfell, & ten hampera feathera, & bearen kirtle oth otteren, & twain shipropes, either si sixty ellen long. other si of whales hide ywrought, other of seals. he (Ohtere) was with the first men in the land, nor had he tho’ more then twenty cattle, and twenty sheep, & twenty swine. and that little that he*eared, he eared with horses, but their rent is most in the gavel that the Fins them yield. that gavel by in deer fells, and in fowl feathers, and whale’s bone, and in the ship-ropes that be of whale’s hide wrought, & of seals: aye-while [every one] yields by his birth [state] the birthest [stateliest] shall yield fifteen martin’s fells, & five raindeer, & an bear’s fell, and ten hampers of feathers, & bear’s kirtle or otter’s, and twain ship ropes, either is sixty ells long. other is of whale’s hide wrought, other of seals.  *ploughed

the dissimilitude between Saxon and English is more in appearance than reality. it consists chiefly in the difference of character and orthography. suppress that, (as is done in the 3d column,) represent the sounds by the English character and orthography, and it is immediately seen to be, not a different language, but the same in an earlier stage of it’s progression. and such editions of the Saxon writers, by removing the obstructions of character and false spelling, enabling us to give habitual and true, instead of uncouth and false sounds to words, would promote the study of the English language, by facilitating it’s examination in it’s mother state, and making us sensible of delicacies and beauties in it unfelt but by the few who have had the courage, through piles of rubbish, to seek a radical acquaintance with it.

Declensions of Nouns.

One of the simplifications of the study of the Anglo-Saxon which would result from a reformation of it’s orthography to the present English standard, would be a reduction in the number of the declensions of nouns heretofore assigned to it. the Anglo-Saxons seem to have thought some vowel final necessary to give sound to the preceding consonant, altho’ that vowel was not itself to be sounded; and nothing being less fixed than the power of their vowels and diphthongs, they have used all the vowels indiscriminately for this purpose. thus

the word Son, in modern English, was spelt by them runa, rune, runu.
free was spelt fpeah. fpeo. fpeoh. fpiz.
meal = mela. mele. melu.
man = man. mon.
milk = meolc. meoloc. meoluc. mile.
mickle. = micel. mucel. mycel. mycle. myccle.
pepper. = peopep. peppon. pipon.

notwithstanding these various orthographies, all, I presume, represent the same sound and probably that still retained by the English. for I can more easily suppose that an unlettered people used various modes of spelling the same word, than that they had so many different words to express the same thing. the e final of the English is a relique of the Anglo-Saxon practice of ending a word with a final vowel. a difference of orthography therefore, and still less a mere difference of final vowel is not sufficient to characterise a different declension of nouns. I should deem an unequivocal change in the sound necessary to constitute an inflexion; and a difference in the inflections necessary to form a class of nouns into a different declension. on these principles I should reduce Thwaite’s seven declensions to four, as follows.

Ist declension, being Thwaite’s 5th and 6th

Sing. Nom. } piln } = piln   Sing. Nom. } runu } run
Acc. Voc.
Voc. Abl.
Gen. } pilne Gen. } runa
Dat. Plur. Nom.
Abl. Gen.
Plur. Nom. pilna-e-o.u. Acc.
Gen. } pilna Voc.
Acc. Sing. Dat } runa.u.
Voc. Acc.
Dat. } pilnum. pilnum. Plur. Dat. } runum. runum.
Abl. Abl.

IId declension, comprehending Thwaite’s 3d and 4th

Sing. Nom. } andziz } = andziz.   Sing. Nom. } pond } pond.
Acc. Voc.
Voc. Abl.
Dat. } andzize-a Plur. Acc
Abl. Voc.
Plur. Gen. andziza. Nom. ponde.-a.
Acc. } andzizu. Gen. ponda.
Voc. Sing. Dat. } ponde
Nom. andzizu-a.o. Acc.
Sing. Gen. andzizer = andzizr Gen. pondr pondr
Dat. } andzizum. andzizum. Plur. Dat. } pondum pondum.
Abl. Abl.

IIId declension comprehending Thwaite’s 1st and 7th

Sing. Nom. } rmid } rmid   Sing Nom. } fpeo-oh } fpe
Acc. Acc.
Voc. Dat. } fpeo.
Dat. } rmide Abl.
Abl. Voc. fpeoh
Plur. Gen. rmida Plur. Gen. fpea
Sing. Gen. rmider } rmidr Nom. } fpeor = fper
Plur. Nom. } rmidar Acc.
Acc. Voc.
Voc. Sing. Gen.
Dat. } rmidum rmidum. Plur. Dat. } fpeum fpeum.
Abl. Abl.

IVth declension, being Thwaite’s 2d

Sing. Nom. } pizeza = pizez
Gen. } pizezan } pizezen
Plur. Nom.
Gen. pizezana
Dat. } pizezum. pizezum.

In stating the declensions here the 1st column presents the Anglo-Saxon orthography, the varieties of which have been deemed sufficient to constitute inflections & declensions. the 2d column presents a reformed orthography, supposed equivalent to the other as to sound, and consequently shewing that a variety in spelling where there is a sameness of sound, does not constitute an inflection, or change of declination.

the four declensions, reformed to an uniform orthography, would stand thus.

I. Sing. Nom. } piln. run. II. Sing. Nom. } andziz. pond. III. Sing. Nom. } rmid fpe IV. Sing. Nom. } pitez
Gen. Dat. Dat. Voc.
Dat. Acc. Acc. Gen. } pitezen
Acc. Voc. Voc. Dat.
Voc. Abl. Abl. Acc.
Abl. Plur. Nom. Plur. Gen. Abl.
Plur. Nom. Gen. Sing. Gen. } rmidr fper. Plur. Nom.
Gen. Acc. Plur. Nom. Gen.
Acc. Voc. Acc. Acc.
Voc. Sing. Gen. andzizr. pondr. Voc. Voc.
Dat. } pilnum. runum. Plur. Dat. } andzizum. pondum. Dat. } rmidum. fpeum. Dat. } pitezum.
Abl. Abl. Abl. Abl.

In this scheme then

The Ist declension has no inflection, but for the Dat. & Abl. plurals, which end in um.
the IId inflects it’s Gen. Sing. in r. and Dat. and Abl. plur. in um.
the IIId inflects it’s Gen. Sing. Nom. Acc. & Voc. Plural in r. & Dat. & Abl. plur. in um.
the IVth preserving it’s radical form in the Nom. & Voc. Sing. inflects all it’s other cases in en. Except the Dat. & Abl. plur. which, in all the declensions end invariably in um.

It may be said that this is a bold proposition, amounting to a change of the language. but not so at all. what constitutes a language is a system of articulated sounds, to each of which and idea is attached. the artificial representation of these sounds on paper is a distinct thing. surely there were languages before the invention of letters; and there are now languages never yet expressed in letters. to express the sounds of a language perfectly, every letter of it’s alphabet should have but a single power, and those letters only should be used whose powers successively pronounced would produce the sound required. the Italian orthography is more nearly in this state than any other with which I am acquainted; the French & English the farthest from it. would a reformation of the orthography of the latter languages change them? if the French word aimoient, for example, were spelt émé, according to the French, or ama, according to the English power of those letters, would the word be changed? or if the English word cough were spelt cof, would that change the word? and how much more reasonable is it to reform the orthography of an illiterate people, among whom the use of letters was so rare that no particular mode of spelling had yet been settled, no uniform power given to their letters, every one being left free to express the words of the language by such combinations of letters as seemed to him to come near their sound. how little they were agreed as to the powers of their own letters, & how differently & awkwardly they combined them to produce the same sound needs no better example than that furnished by Doctor Hickes of the short and simple sound of many being endeavored to be represented by 20. different combinations of letters; to wit, in English characters, maenigo, maenio, mæniu, menio, meniu, mænigo, mænego, manige, menigo, manegeo, mænegeo, menegeo, mænygeo, menigeo, manegu, mænigu, menegu, menego, menigu, manigo. now would it change the word to banish all these, and give it, in their books, the orthography of many, in which they have all ended? and their correction in type is no more than every reader is obliged to make in his mind as he reads along; for it is impracticable for our organs to pronounce all the letters which their bungling spellers have huddled together. no one would attempt to give to each of these 20. methods of spelling many the distinct and different sounds which their different combinations of letters would call for. this would be to make 20. words where these surely was but one. he would probably reduce them all, wherever he met with them, to the single and simple sound of many, which all of them aimed to produce. this then is what I would wish to have done to the reader’s hand, in order to facilitate and encourage his undertaking. for remove the obstacles of uncouth spelling & unfamiliar characters, and there would be little more difficulty in understanding an Anglo-Saxon writer, than Burn’s poems. so as to the form of the characters of their Alphabet. that may be changed without affecting the language. it is not very long since the forms of the English and French characters were changed from the black letter to the Roman; yet the languages were not affected. nor are they by the difference between the printed and written characters now in use. the followings note written by Aelfric is not the less Latin because expressed in Anglo-Saxon characters. ‘Ezo Ælfpicur renipri hunc Libnum in monarzenio Bapdonio ex dedi Bnihzpoldo Pneporizo.’ Hickes. Gram. Island. 158. we may say truly then that the Anglo-Saxon language would still be the same, were it written in the characters now used in English, and it’s orthography conformed to that of the English; & certainly the acquisition of it to the English student would be greatly facilitated by such an operation.

A Specimen

of the form in which the Anglo-Saxon writings still extant might be advantageously published, for facilitating to the English student the knolege of the Anglo-Saxon Dialect.

Genesis Chap. I.

1. On angin y- shope God hevenan and earthan.
  [In beginning shaped God heaven and earth.

1. On anginne gesceop, God heofenan and earthan.

2. se earth sothelic was idle and empty, and thestre weron over there newelness
  [the earth forsooth was idle and empty and darkness were over the abyss’s
  broadness; and God’s gost was 1.y- fared over water.
[broadness; and God’s ghost was fared over water.

2. seo corthe sothlice wæs ydel & æmtig, & thoestru wæron ofer thære niwelnisse bradnisse & Godes gast wæs geferod ofer wæteru.

1. the prefixes ge, ye, y, i. being equivalent, I shall use the y- for them all.

3. God cwoth tha, y- werth liht, and liht werth y- wrought.
  [God quoth then were light, and light were wrought.

3. God cwæth the ge-weorthe lesht; & leoht wearth ge-worht.

4. God y- saw tha that it good was, and he to- dealed that liht from tham thestrum.
  [God saw then that it good was, and he dealed that liht from the darkness.

4. God geseah tha thæt hit god wæs, & he to-dælde that leoht fram tham theostrum.

5. and het that liht day, and the thestre right. tha was y- worden even and morowon an day.
  [and hight that light day, and the darkness right. then was wrought even and morrow, an day.

5. and het that leoht dæg, & tha theostra niht. tha wæs ge-worden æfen & morgen an dæg.

6. God cwoth tha aft, y- werth nu fastness to-mids them waterum, & to-2 tweme
  [God quoth then after, were now fastness a-midst the waters & twain
  the water from them waterum.
[the waters from the waters.

6. God cwæth tha eft, gewurthe nu fæstnis tomiddes tham wæterum, and totwæme tha wæteru fram tham wæterum.

2 twam signifies twain

7. and God y- wroht the fastness, and to- twemed the water the weron under
  [and God wrought the fastness, and twained the waters that were under
  there fastness from them the weron boven there fastness; it was tha swa y- done.
[the fastness from them that were above there fastness; it was then so done.

7. and God geworhte tha fæstnisse, & totwæmde tha wæteru the wæron under thære fæstnisse fram tham the wæron bufan thære fæstnisse; hit wæs tha swa gedon.

8. and God het tha fastness heavenan, and was tha y- wroden even & morowen other day.
  [and God hight the fastness heaven, and was then wrought even & morn other day.

8. and God het tha fæstnisse heofenan, and was tha geworden æfen & morgen other dæg.

9. God tha soothlic cwoth been y- gathered tha water the sind under there
  [God then forsooth quoth, be gathered the waters that are under the
  heavenan, and atewy dryness; it was tha swa y- done.
[heavens, and shew dryness; it was then so done.

9. God tha sothlice cwæth, beon gegaderode tha wæteru the sind under theare heofenan, and æteowigedrignis; hit wæs tha swa gedon.

10. and God y-kyed the dryness earthan, and the water y.- gathering he het seas:
  [and God called the dryness earth, and the water gathering he hight seas:
  God y- saw tha that it good was.
[god saw then that it good was.

10. and God gecigde tha drignisse eorthan and thæra wætera gegaderunga he het sæs. God geseah tha that hit god wæs.

11. and cwoth, sprute se earth growend gras & seed workend, and apple bear tree
  [and quoth, sprout the earth growing grass & seed working, and apple bear tree
  wæstm workend after his kin, these seed sy on him selfum over earthan; it was tha swa y- done
[fruit working after his kin, the seed be in him self over earth; it was then so done.

11. and cwæth, spritte seo eorthe growende gærs and sæd wircende, and æppelbære treow wæstm wircende æfter his cinne; thæs sæd sig on him silfum ofer eorthan. hit wæs tha swa ge-don.

12. and se earth fortha-teah growend wort & seed bearing by hire kin; & tree westm
  [and the earth3 forth-brought growing wort & seed bearing by their kin; & tree fruit
  workend, and y- while seed havend after his hue. god y- saw tha that it good was;
[working, and ilc seed having after it’s hue. god saw then that it good was;

12. and seo eorthe fortha-teah growende wirte and sæd berende be hire cinne, and treow westm wireende & gehwile sæd hæbbende æfter his hiwe. god geseah tha that hit god wæs.

3 teon producere. fortha-teon. forth-bring. see post v.20. teon forth also II.9. fortha-teah.

13. and was y- wroden even and morwen the third day.
  [and was wrought even and morn the third day.

13. and wæs geuroden æfen & mergen the thridda dæg.

14. God cwath tha sothlic, be nu liht on there heavenan fastness, and to- dealon day and
  [God quoth then forsooth, be now light in the heaven-4 fastness, and deal day and
  niht, & been to- toknum & to- tidum, & to- dayum & to- yearum.
[night, & be tokens & tides & days & years.

14. God cwæth tha sothlice, beo nu leoht on thære heofenan fæstnisse, and todælon dæg & nihte, & beon to tacnum & to tidum & to dagum & to gearum.

4 fastness. firmament

15. and hi shinon on there heavenon fastness, and a-lihton tha earthan; it was tha swa y-wroden.
  [and they shine in the heaven fastness, and a-lighten the earth; it was then so wrought.

15. and hig scinon on thære heofenan fæstnisse and alihton tha eorthan. hit wæs tha swa geworden.

16. and God y-wroht twa mickle lihts, that mair liht to these days lihting, & that less liht
  [and God wrought twa mickle lights, the more light to the days lighting, & the less light
  to the niht lihting; and starran he y- wroht.
[to the night lighting; and stars he wrought.

16. and God geworhte twa micele leoht, that mare leoht to thæs dæges lihtinge, and that læsse leoht to thære nihte lihtings; & steorran he geworhte.

17. and y- set hi on there heavenon that hi shinon over earthan,
  [and set them in the heavens that they shine over earth,

17. and gesette hig on thære heofenan that hig scinon over eorthan.

18. and gimdon these days and these niht, and to- dealdon liht and thester. god y-saw tha that it good was.
  [and govern the days and the nights, and deal light and darkness. god saw then that it good was.

18. and gimdon thæs dæges thære nihte, & todældon leoht and theostra. God geseah tha that hit god wæs.

19. and was y- wroden even and morwen, the fourth day.
  [and was wrought even and morn the fourth day.

19. and wæs geworden æfen & mergen se feortha dæg.

20. God cwoth eke swile, teon nu that water forth swimmend kin cuic in life, & flying kin
  [God quoth 5. eke swile, bring now tha water forth swimming kind, quick in life, & flying kind
  over earthan under there heavenan fastness.
[over earth under the heaven- fastness.

20. God cwæth eac swilce, teon nu tha wæteru forth swimmede cynn cucu on life, & fleogende cinn ofer eorthan under thære heofenan fæstnisse.

5. eac-swilc. also.

21. and God y- shope tha the mickelan whales, and all livend fishen, and stirrendlic the
  [and God 5.b. shope then the mickle whales, and all living fishes, and stirring that
  tha water tugon forth on heor hiwum, and all flyend kin after heor kin; God y- saw
[the water 6. tows forth in their 7. hue, and all flying kind after their kind; God saw
  tha that it good was;
[then that is good was;

21. and God gesceop tha tha micelan hwalas, & eall libbende fiscinn & stirrigendlice, the tha wæteru tugon forth on heora hiwum, and eall fleogende cinn æfter heora cinne. God geseah tha that hit good wæs.

5.b. shope. Bailey. for shaped.

6. Verstegan. tuge. to draw out, to lead. toga. ductor. Ben.

7. hiwe. colour. Versteg. Benson. it means also a hive, house, family.

22. and bletsed hi thus quothend, waxath and beeth y- manifold, & y- fillath the sea-water
  [and blessed them thus quothing, wax and be manifold & fill the sea-water
  and tha foweles been y- manifold over earthan
[and the fowls be manifold over earth.

22. and bletsode hig thus cwethende, weaxath & beoth gemenigfilde, & gefillath thære sæ wæteru, and tha fugelas beon gemenigfilde ofer eorthan.

23. and tha was y- wroughten even and morwen the fift day.
  [and then was wrought even and morn the fifth day.

23. and tha wæs geworden æfen and mergen se fifta dæg.

24. God cwoth eke-swilc, lead se earth forth cuic niten on heor kin, & creepend kin and deer
  [God quoth eke-swilc, lead the earth forth quick 8 neats in heor kin, & creeping kind and9 deer
  after heor hiwum. it was tha swa y- wroden.
[after their hue. it was then sa wrought.

24. God cwæth eacswilc, læde seo eorthe forth cuce nitena on heora cinne, and creopende cinn, and deor æfter heora hiwum. hit wæs tha swa geworden.

8 nitena, neat cattle.

9 deer. probably this was then the generic name for all the ferae, or wild quadrupeds.

25. and God y- wroht there earthen deer after hir hiwum, and tha neaten, and all
  [and God wrought the earthen deer after their hue, and the neats, and all
  crepend kin on hior kin. god y- saw the that it good was.
[creeping kind in their kind. god saw then that it good was.

25. and God geworhte thære eorthan deor æfter hira hiwum, & tha nitenu and eall creopende cynn on heora cynne. God geseah tha that hit god wæs.

26. and cwoth, 10. Uton, workan man to and- likeness, and to our y- likeness, and he sy over
  [and quoth, Come, work man to likeness, and to our likeness, and he be over
  tha fishes, and over the fowels, and over the deer, and over all y-shaft & over all the
[the fishes, and over the fowls, and over the deer, and over all creatures, & over all the
  crepend the stirreth on earthan.
[creeping that stirreth on earth.

26. and cwæth, Uton, wircean man to andlicnisse, and to ure gelicnisse, and he sig ofer tha fixas, & ofer tha fugelas, & ofer tha deor, and ofer ealle gesceafte, and ofer ealle tha creopende se stirath on eorthan.

10. Uton,

27. God y- shope tha man to his and- likeness, to Godes and- likeness he y- shope hine wir-hoods
  [God shope then man to his likeness, to God’s likeness he shope him, man-hoods
and wife-hoods he y- shope hy.
  [and wife-hoods he shope them.

27. God gesceop tha man to his andlicnisse, to Godes andlicnisse he gesceop hine, werhades & wifhades he gesceop hig.

28. and God ty bletsed and cwath, waxeth and beeth y- manifold, & y- filleth the earthan.
  [and God them blessed and quoth, wax and be manifold, & fill the earth.
and y- wieldeth hy, and haveth on yourum y- wield there sea-fishes and there lyft- fowels
  [and wield them. and have in your wield the sea-fishes and the air fowls
and all Neaten that stirreth over earthan.
  and all Neats that stirreth over earth.

28. and God hig bletsode and cwæth, wexath and beoth gemenigfilde, and gefillath tha eorthan and gewildath hig, & habbath on eowrum gewealde thære sæ fixas and thære lyfte fugelas & ealle nytenu the stiriath ofer eorthan.

29. God cwoth tha, 11 Even. I for- give you all grass and wort seed-bearend over earthan,
  [God quoth then, Even I give you all grass and wort seed-bearing over earth,
and all treewa tha the haveth seed on him selfon heor owens kins, that hy been you to meat.
  [and all trees that haveth seed in him self their own kinds, that they be you to meat.

29. God cwæth tha, Efne, Ie for-geaf eow eall gærs & wyrta sæd berende ofer eorthan, and ealle treowa tha the habbath sæd on him silfon heora agenes cynnes, that hig beon eow to mete.

11 efne, verily. adv. Bailey. lo!

30. and allum neatum and all fowelkin and allum tham the stirreth on earthan, on tham the is livend
  [and all neats and all fowl-kind, and all them that stirreth on earth, on them that is living
life, and hi havon him to y reordien. it was the swa y- done.
  [life, and they have them to feed. it was then so done.

30.and eallum nytenum & eallum fugelcynne and eallum tham the stiriath on eorthan, on tham the us libbende lif. that hig habbon him to gereordienne. it wæs tha swa gedon.

31. and god y- saw all the thing tha he y- wroht, & hi weron good. was tha y- wroughten even
  [and god saw all the things that he wrought & they were good. was then wrought even
and & morwen se sixt day.
  [and & mor the sixth day.

31. and God y-saw ealle tha thing the he geworhte, and hig wæron swithe gode. was tha geworden æfen and mergen se sixta dæg.

Chapter. II.

1. 1. Earnestlie tha weron fullframed heavenes & earth & all heor fretwing.
  Earnestly then were fullframed heavens & earth & all their freighting.

1. Eornostlice tha wæron fullfremode heofenas and eorthe, and all heora frætewung.

1. earnestly, industriously. Bailey.

2. and God tha y- filled on thone sevethen day his work the he y- wroht & he y- rest
  [and God then filled on that seventh day his work that he wrought & he rest
hine on thone seventhen day from allon them work the he y- framed.
  [him on that seventh day from all the work that he framed.

2. and God tha gefilde on thone seofethan dæg hys weore the he geworhte. and he gereste hine on thone seofethan dæg fram eallon tham weorce the he gefremode.

3. and God y- bletsed thone sevethan day, & hine y- halwode, for thon the he on thone
  [and God blessed that seventh day, & him hallowed, for then that he on that
day y- swac his works the he y- shope to workan.
  [day ceased his works that he shope to work.

3. and God gebletsode thone seofethan dæg, and hine gehalgode, for thon the he on thone dæg geswac his weorcas the he gesceop to wirceanne.

4. these sind there heavenan and there earthan cnearness tha tha hy y- shapen
  [these are the heaven and the earth’s 2. nearness then that they shapen
weron, on them day the God y- wroht heavenan & earthan
  [were, on the day that God wrought heaven & earth.

4. thas sind thære heofenan & thære earthan cneornisse tha tha hig gesceopene wæron, on tham dæge the God geworhte heofenan & eorthan.

2. cneornisse, generation. cneoresse. family. kin

5. and ilkan 3 tilgor on earthan ere tham the he upsprung on earthan, & all grass and
  [and ilk plant on earth ere then that they upsprung on earth & all grass and
wort alles 4 eardes ere than the hy upsprouten. God soothlic nay send none rain over
  [wort all herbs ere then that they upsprout. God forsooth nay sent none rain over
earthan then yet, and man naes the tha earthan wroht.
  [earth then yet, and man nay is that then earth wrought.

5. and ælcne telgor on eorthan ær tham the he uppa-sprunge on eorthan, and eall gærs & wyrta ealles eardes ær than the hig uppa-spritton. God sothlice ne sende nanne ren ofer eorthan tha git: and man næs the tha eorthan worhte.

3 tilia, tiligea, agricola. a tiller.

4 eard, earth. earban, herb. qu. d. forb?

6. Ac an well sprang of thære earthan watriend alre thære earthan broadness.
  [but a well sprang of the earth watering all the earth’s broadness.

6. Ac an wyll a-sprang of thære eorthan wætriende ealre thære eorthan brodnysse.

7. God y- shope earnestlic man of thære earthen lome and onblew on his ansine lifes
  [God shope earnestly man of the earthen loam and blew on his face life’s
5. orthing, and se man was y- wroht on livend soul.
  [breath, and the man was wroht ane living soul.

7. God gesceop eornostlice man of thære eorthan lame, and onableow on hys ansine lifes orthunge; & se man wæs geworht on libbendre sawle.

5. orth. breath.

8. God tha y- planted winsomness orchard from 7 frymthe, on tham he y- loged thone man
  [God then planted 6 winsome orchard from beginning, in that he lodged the man

6 winsum, pleasant. Benson. wynsum, winning. Verstegan.

7 from. a, ab. from. frum, beginning. frymthe beginning

the he y- wroht.
  [that he wroht.

8. God tha aplantode wynsumnisse orcerd fram frimthe. on tham he gelogode thone man the he geworhte.

9. God tha fortha-teah of thære mouldan ilkes kins trees fair on y- sight, and to breeken
  [God then forth-brought of the mould ilk kinds trees fair on sight, and to eat
winsome, eke-swile lifes tree amiddan neorxena-wang and tree in-y-hides goodes & eviles.
  [winsome, eke-swile life’s tree amid paradise-8wang, and tree in-hides good & evil.

9. God tha fortha-teah of thære moldan ælces cynnes treow fæger on gesihthe, and to brucenne winsum, eke-swilie lifes treow o-middan neorxena wange, and treow ingehydes godes & yfeles.

8 wang. a field. Bailey.

10. and that flood yode of 9. stow thære winsomeness to watrian neorxena-wang. that
  [ and a flood yode of stow thence winsomeness to water paradise-wang. that
flood is thenon to- dealed on four ean.
  [flood is then dealed into four rivers.

10. and that flood eode of stowe thære winsumnisse to wætrienne neorxena-wang, that flod ys thanon to-dæled on feower ean.

9. the syntax of this is not obvious.

11. an ea of them hight Fison, se goeth on- boutan that land se is y- highten Evilath:
  [one river of them hight Fison. it goeth a- bout that land that is hight Evilath.
there there gold waxt.
  [there where gold waxeth.

11. an ea of tham hatte Fifon. se gæth on-butan that land the is ge-haten Evilath, thærthær gold wixt.

12. and this landes gold is gold selost; there beeth eke y- met the gem-stones, dellium & onixinus.
  [and this land’s gold is gold best; there be eke met the gemstones, bdellium, & onyx.

12. and thæs landes gold is golda selost thar beoth eac gemette tha gimstanas, dellium & honychinus.

13. there other ea name is Gion; it is eke y- highten Nilus. se imb- goeth all there Silherwena land.
  [the other river name is Gion; it is eke hight Nilus. it about- goeth all the Ethiopian land.

13. thære othre ea nama ys Gion. seo ys eac gehaten Nylus. seo imbæth eall thæra Silhearwena land.

14. there thirda ea name is Tygris; se goeth on-yon Assyrishan. the fourth ea is y- highten Eufrates.
  [the third river name is Tygris; it goeth a-yond Assyria. the fourth river is hight Euphrates.

14. thære thriddan ea nama ys Tigris. seo gæth on-gean tha Assirisean. sefeorthe ea ys gehaten Eufrates.

15. God y- nam then the man, & y- loged him on neorxen-land; that he there worken should,
  [God nam then the man, & lodged him in paradise-land; that he there work should
and there y- giman.
  [and there care.

15. God ge-nam tha thone man, & ge-logode hine on neorxena-wange, that he thær wircean sceolde and thær begiman.

16. and be- bade him thus, cwothend, of ilkum trees thises orchardes thu mayst eatan;
  [and bade him thus quothing, of ilk trees this’s orchard thou mayest eat;

16. and bebead him thuss cwethende, of ælcum treowe thises orcerdes thu most etan.

17. Soothlic of tham tree in-y-hides goodes & eviles nay eat thu; on swa whilcum day swa thu
  [forsooth of the tree in-hides good & evil nay eat thou; on swa whilc day swa thou
eats of tham tree, thou shalt death sweltan.
  [eats of that tree, thou shalt death 10. swelter.

17. sothlice of tham treowe in-ge-hides godes & yfeles ne et thu. on swa whilcum dæge swa thu ets of tham treowe, thu scealt death sweltan.

10. swelter.

18. God cwoth eke-whilc; Nis na good thissum man ane to wunian: Uton. workan him
  [God quoth eke-whilc, Nay is nay good this man ane to 11. wun; Come work him
some fultum to his likeness.
  [some help to his likeness.

18. God cwæth eacswilce, nis na god thisum men ana to wunienne. Uton. wircean him sumne fultum to his gelicnisse.

11. to wun, to dwell. Bailey. Verstegan.

19. God soothlic y- led tha neaten the he of earthan y- shope, and there lift-fowels to
  [God forsoothly led the neats that he of earth shope, and the airfowls to
Adam, that he foreshowed hu he y-cyed. soothlic ilk livend neaten swa swa Adam
  [Adam, that he foreshow how he called. forsoothly ilk living neat so as Adam
it y-cyed, swa is his name.
  [it called, so is his name.

19. God sothlice gelædde tha nitenu the he of eorthan gesceop & thære lyftefugolas to Adam, that he fore-sceawode hu he hig ge-cigde. Sothlice æle libbende nyten swa swæ Adam hit gecigde swa ys hys nama.

20. And Adam tha y- named all neaten heir namum; and all fowels & all wild-deer;
  [And Adam then named all neats their name; and all fowls & all wild-deer;
Adam soothlic nay y- met tha yet nane fultum his y- lican.
  [Adam forsooth nay met then yet none help his like.

20. and Adam tha genamode ealle nytenu heora namum, and ealle fugelas, and ealle wild-deor. Adam sothlice ne gemette tha git nanne fultum his gelican.

21. Tha sent God sleep on Adam; and tha tha he slep, tha y- nam he an rib of his sidan,
  [Then sent God sleep on Adam; and then that he slept, then 12. nam he an rib of his side
and y- filled mid flesh there there that rib was.
  [and filled with flesh. there where that rib was.

21. tha sende God slæp on Adam, and tha tha he slep, tha genam he an ribb of his sidan, and gefilde mid flæsce thær thær that ribb wæs.

12. nam. Bailey. Verst.

22. and y- wroht that rib the he y- nam of Adam to anum wife-man, and y- led hi to Adam.
  [and wrought that rib that he took of Adam to anum wife-man and led her to Adam.

22. and geworhte that ribb the he genam of Adame to anum wifemen, and gelædde hig to Adame.

23. Adam tha cwath, this is nu bone of minum bonum, and flesh of minum flesh: this beeth
  [Adam then quoth, this is now bone of mine bone, and flesh of mine flesh: this beeth
y-cyed femne, for tham the he is of wer y- namen.
  [called woman. for that that she is of man namen

23. Adam tha cwæth, this ys nu ban of minum banum and flæsc of minum flæsc. theos bith geciged fæmne for tham the heo ys of were genumen.

24. for tham forlet se man father & mother, and y- theod hine to his wife; and hi beoth botu-on anum flesh.
  [for her for-let the man father & mother, and cleave him to his wife; and they be both ane flesh.

24. for tham for-læt se man fæder and moder, & getheot hine to his wife, and hig beoth butu on anum flæsce.

25. hi weron tha butu naked; Adam & his wife, and him tha is na shamed.
  [they were then both naked; Adam & his wife, and they then is nay a-shamed.

25. he wæron tha butu nacode, Adam and his wif; and him thæs ne sccamode.

Chap. III.

1. Ekeswilc se nadder was geaper thon all tha other neaten tha god y- wroht over earthan;
  [Eke-swilk the adder was cunninger than all the other neats that god wrought over earth;
and se nadder cwoth to tham wife, why forbade god you that ye nay eaton of ilkum tree binnan paradisum?
  [and the adder quoth to the wife, why forbade god you that ye nay eat of ilk tree be-in paradise?

1. Eacswilce seo Næddre wæs geappre thonne ealle tha othre nytenu the God geworhte ofer eorthan; and se næddre cwæth to tham wife, hwi forbead God eow that ge ne æton of ælcum treowe binnan paradisum?

2. that wife andwerd, of there tree-wæstm the sind amiddan neorxen-wang,
  [that wife answered, of the tree-fruit that is amid paradise-wang.

2. that wif andwirde, of thæra treowa wæstme the synd o-middan neorxena wange.

3. god be- bade us that we nay eaton, nay we that tree na repodon, the lest the we swelton.
  [god bade us that we nay eat, nay we that tree nay 13 reap, the-lest that we swelter.

3. God be-bead us that we ne æton, ne we that treow ne hrepodon, thy læs the we swulton.

13 ripan, repan, to reap. repodon, repedon, reaped.

4. tha cwoth the nadder aft to them wife, na be ye nots when dead, tho the ye of them tree eaton.
  [then quoth the adder aft to the wife, nay be ye not then dead, tho that ye of the tree eat.

4. tha cwæth se næddre eft to tham wife, ne beo ge nates-whon deade theah the ge of tham treowe eton.

5. Ac God wot soothlic that your eyen beeth opened on swa-whilkum day swa ye
  [and God wot forsooth that your eyes be opened on so-whilk day as ye
eateth of tham tree, and ye beeth thon Angelum-like, writtend either y- good y- evil.
  [eateth of that tree, and ye be then Angel-like, witting 2. either good evil.

5. ac God wat sothlice that eowre eagan beoth geopenode on swa hwilcum dæge swa ge etath of tham treowe; and ge beoth thonne Englum-gelice witende ægther ge god ge yfel.

2. ægther, uterque, both.

6. tha y-saw that wife that that tree was good to eatan, 3 be than the hire thuhte.
  [then saw that wife that that tree was good to eat, by that which her thought
and wlity on eyum. and lust-bear on y- sight, and y- nam tha of this trees wæstm,
  [and pleasant on eye. and lust-bearing on sight, and nam then of this trees fruit,
and y- eat, and seald hir were; he æt tha.
  [and eat, and seald her were; he ate then.

6. tha geseah that wif that thæt treow wæs god to etanne be than the hire thuhte, and wlitig on eagum, and lustbære on gesihthe, and genam tha of thæs treowes fæstme, and geæt and sealde hire were.

7. and heor beyra eyen werdon y- opened; hi on- knewon tha that hi naked weron
  [and their both eyes were opened; they knew then that they naked were,
and sewedon fig-leaf and wrohten him weed-breech.
  [and sewed fig leaves and wrought them 4 weed-breech.

7. and heora begra eagan wurdon geopenode, hig on-eneowon tha that hig nacode wæron, & siwodon ficleaf and worhton him wædbrec.

4 weed-breech. breech-weeds. wede, vestes, garments. we still say ‘widow’s weeds. Bail.

8. Aft tha tha God come, hi y- heardon his stemn there he yode on neorxen-wang
  [aft that that God come, they heard his voice where he 5. yode on neorxen-wang
over mid-day: be- hid Adam hine, and his wife eke-swa did from Godes
  [over mid-day: hid Adam him, and his wife eke-swa did from God’s
sight on- midden them tree neorxen-wanges.
  [sight a- mid the tree paradise-wang’s.

8. eft tha tha God com, hig gehirdon hys stemne thær he 5.eode on neorxena wange ofer mid-dæg. tha be-hidde Adam hyne and his wif eacswa dide fram Godes gesihthe on middan tham treowe neorxena-wanges.

5. eode, yode, went. Bailey.

9. God cleped tha Adam and cwoth, Adam where art thou?
  [God 6 cleped then Adam and quoth, Adam where art thou?

9. God clipode tha Adam and cwæth, Adam hwar eart thu?

6 cleped, called. Bail.

10. He cwoth, thine stemn I y- heard, 7. love, on neorxen-wang, and I on- dread me,
  [He quoth, thine voice I heard, love, in paradise-wang, and I dread me,
for tham the I am naked; and I be- hid me.
  [for that the I am naked; and I hid me.

10. he cwæth, thine stemne ic gehirde, 7.leof, on neorxena wange, and ic on-dred me for tham the ic eom nacod, and ic be-hidde me.

7. leof, dilectus, beloved.

11. God cwoth, wha said thee that thu naked were? if thu na æte of tham tree tha I be- bade
  [God quoth. who said thee that thou naked were? if thou nay ate of the tree that I bade
that thu of nay eat?
  [that thou of nay eat?

11. God cwæth, hwa sæde the that thu nacod wære, gif thu ne æte of tham treowe the ic bebead that thu of ne æte?

12. Adam cwoth, that wife that thu me for- gave to y- faren seald me of them tree and I ate.
  [Adam quoth, that wife that thou me gave to fare gave me of the tree and I ate.

12. Adam cwæth, thæt wif that thu me for-geofe to geferan sealde me of tham treowe, & ic æte.

13. God cwoth to them wife, why didest thu that? he cwoth the nadder bepæthe me & I ate.
  [God quoth to the wife, why didst thou that? she qouth the adder be-guiled me & I ate.

13. God cwæth to tham wife, hwi didest thu that? heo cwæth, seo næddre bepæhte me and ic æt.

14. God quoth to there nadder, for then that thu this didest, thou beest awiryed betwix allum
  [God quoth to the adder, for then that thou this didst, thou beest 8 worried betwixt all
neatenum and wild-deerum. thu goest on thinum breast and eatest tha earthen allum
  [neats and wild-deer. thou goest on thine breast and eatest the earth all
dayum thines lifes.
  [days thines life.

14. God cwæth to thære næddron, for than the thu this dydest thy byst awinged betwix eallum nitenum and wild-deorum. thu gæst on thinum breoste and etst tha eorthan eallum dagum thines lifes.

8 werian, lacessere. worry. Bailey. also execrare, curse.

15. I set fiend-rede betwix thee and them wife, and thinum offspring, & her offspring;
  [I set 9 fiend-rede betwixt thee and the wife, and thine offspring. & her offspring;
he to bright thine heafod, thu syrwst on-gain her ho.
  [she to bruise thine head, thou 10 sorrowest again her heel.

15. Ic sette feond rædene betweox the and tham wife, and thinum of springe and hire of springe. heo to-bryt thin heafod, and thu syrwst ongean hyre ho.

9 feond, inimicus. ræd, consilium.
9. feond-ræden, enmity.

10 sorge, sorrow. sorgian, to sorrow. g. for w.

16. to tham wife cwoth God eke-swilk, I y- manyfold thine yrmth and thine y-pacnung
  [to the wife quoth God eke-swilk I manyfold thine misery and thine conception
on soreness thu a-cinst child, and thu beest under weres an- wield, & he y- wield thee.
  [in soreness thou bearest child, and thou beest under 11. were’s wield, & he wield thee.

16. to tham wife cwæth God eacswilce, Ic gemenigfilde thine yrmtha and thine ge-eacnunga. on sarnysse thu a-cents cild, and thu bist under 11.weres anwealde. and he ge-wild thee.

11. were, man. Bailey.

17. to Adam he cwoth, for than the thu y- heardest thines wifes stemn, and thu ate of tham
  [to Adam he quoth for then that thou heardest thine’s wife’s voice, and thou ate of the
tree the I thee be- bade that thu nay eat, is se earth a- worried on thinum worke.
  [tree that I thee bade that thou nay eat, is the earth worried on thine work.
on y- swinkum thu eatst of there earthen allum dayum thines lifes.
  [in 12. swink thou eatest of the earth. all days thine’s life.

17. to Adame he cwæth, for than the thu ge-hirdest thines wifes sterane, and thu æte of tham treowe the ic the bebead that thu he æte, ys seo eorthe awirged on thinum weorce. on geswincum thy ætst of thære eorthan eallum dagum thines lifes.

12. swink, labor. Bailey. Chaucer. Spencer.

18. thorns and brambles he a- sprout thee, & thu ytst there earthen wort.
  [thorns and brambles it sprout thee & thou eatst the earthen wort.

18. thornas and bremelas he asprit the, & thu ytst thære earthan wyrta.

19. On sweat thines andwlitan thu breakst thines loaf, oth that thu y- wend to earthen
  [in sweat thine’s face thou breakest thine loaf till that thou wend to earth
of there the thu y- namen were, for than the thu art dust and to dust wyrst.
  [of that that thou namen were, for then that thou art dust and to dust 13 werth.

19. on swate thines and wlitan thu briest thines hlafes, oth that thu ge-wende to eorthan of thære the thu genumen wære, for than the thu eart dust, and to duste wyrst.

13 weorthan, esse, fieri. Thwaite’s gram.14.

20. tha y- shope Adam naman his wife Eve, that is life, for than the he is aller livender mother.
  [then shope Adam name his wife Eve, that is life, for that that she is all living’s mother.

20. tha ge-sceop Adam naman his wife Eva, that is life, for than the heo is ealra libbendra modor.

21. God wrought eke Adam and his wife fellen-reeve, and y- shrouded hi,
  [God wrought eke Adam and his wife 14 felt-reeve, and shrouded them,

21. God worhte eac Adame and his wife fellen e-reaf, and ge-scridde hi.

14 reaf, spoils. felt reeve, felt-spoils skin-spoils. garments.

22. and cwoth, nu Adam ken evil and good swa swa ure sum. the lest he a- stretch his hand.
  [and quoth, now Adam kens evil and good so as us. who lest he stretch his hand.
nam eke swilc of lifes tree and eat and live on ekeness.
  [nam eke-swilc of life’s tree and eat and live in 15 everness

22. and cwæth. nu Adam can yfel and god swa swa ure sum. the leas he a-strecce his hand. nime eacswilce of lifes treowe, and ete and libbe on ecnisse.

15 everness. Bailey.

23. a- driveth him then off neorxen-wang, that he tha earthen wrought, & him thereon
  [ driveth him then off paradise-wang, that he the earth wrought, & him thereon
tilled of there he y- namen was.
  [tilled of that he namen was.

23. a-dræfde hine tha of neorzena-wange, that he tha eorthan worhte, and him theron tilode of thære he ge-numan wæs.

24. tha tha he a- drived was off neorxen-wanges mirth. tha y- sett God at tham in-fare
  [then he driven was off paradise-wang’s mirth. then set God at the in-fare
Angel 16 herd-rede. and firen sword to y- holden thone way to tham life’s tree.
  [Angel guardian, and fiery sword to hold the way to the life’s tree.

24. tha the he adræfed wæs of Neorxena-wanges myrthe tha ge-sette God æt tham in-fære Engla hyrd-rædene and fyren swurd, to ge-hældenne thone weg to tham lifes treowe.

16 hyrde, custos, guard. ræden, regimen governor. hyrd: ræden, guardian.

Chap. IV.

1. Sothelic Adam y- strened Cain be Evan his y- mæcan and thus cwoth, thisten man me sealed Drihten
  [Forsoothly Adam 1. strained Cain by Eve his 2. make, and thus quoth this man me gave the Lord.

1. Sothelice Adam ge-strynde Cain be Evan his gemæccan, and thus cwæth, thisne man me seald Drihten.

1. ge-streona, to beget. strain. Anglice a bread. Bailey. Chauc. Spenc. y-strained begat, or bred. 2. make, a wife, Chaucer. a match, a consort. Spenc. Bailey.

2. Aft he y- strained Abel; Abel was sheep-herd, & Cain earth-tiller.
  [Aft he strained Abel; Abel was shepherd, & Cain earth-tiller.

2. Eft he ge-strynde Abel. Abel wæs sceop-hyrde, and Cain eortha-tilia.

3. tha was it y- wroden after manyum dayum, that Cain brought Drihten laye of earthen tillinum.
  [then was it wrought after many days, that Cain brought the Lord 3. lay of earthen till.

3. tha wæs hit geworden æfter manegum dagum that Cain brohte Drihtne lac of eorthan tilingum.

3. lac. lace, lacum. a lay in common parlance means a fixthire.

4. and Abel brought to lage tha 4 from-kinnedan of his herd. tha be- saw Drihten to Abel and to his layum.
  [and Abel brought to lay the first-born of his herd. then saw the Lord to Abel and to his lay.

4. and Abel brohte to lace tha frum-cennedan of his heorde. tha be-seah Drihten to Abele and to his lacum.

5. and nay be- saw to Cain, nay to his layum; tha werth Cain un-y- metelic yr.
  [and nay saw to Cain, nay to his lay; then wert Cain un- metely ire.5

5. and ne be-seah to Caine ne to his lacum. tha wæreth Cain un-ge-metlice yrre.

5 ire, is not from ira Lat. as our Dictionaries say, but is the A-S. yr, or yrre. at the date of this translation Latin was known to few, & no derivations recieved from it.

6. and Drihten cwoth to him, why art thu yr?
  [and Lord quoth to him, why art thou ire?

6. and Drihten cwæth to him, hwi eart thu yrre?

7. if thu good dost, soon it be-eth thee mith good forgeld; if thu thon evil dost, soon it
  [if thou good dost, soon it be-eth thee with good 6 geld; if thou then evil dost, soon it
beeth mith evil for- geld.
  [beeth with evil geld.

7. gif thu goddest, sona hit bith the mid gode for-golden; Gif thu thonne yfel dest, sona hit bith the mid yfele for-golden.

6 geld, paid. Spelm. Gloss. compensatio. Benson.

8. tha cwoth Cain to Abel his brother, Uton gang out; tha hi outgone were; tha y-rosed Cain
  [then quoth Cain to Abel his brother, come, gang out; when they outgone were; then arose Cain
with his brother Abel and of- slew him.
  [with his brother Abel and slew him.

8. tha cwæth Cain to Abele his brether. Uton, gan ut; tha hi utagane wæron, tha yrsode Cain with his brother Abel and ofsloh hine.

9. tha cwoth Drihten to Cain, where is Abel thine brother? tha answered he and cwoth,
  [then quoth the Lord to Cain, where is Abel thine brother? then answered he and quoth,
I na wit. sayst thu should I mine brother holden?
  [I na wit. sayst thou should I mine brother hold?

9. tha cwæth Drihten to Caine, hwær is Abel thine brothor? tha answarode he and cwæth, Ic nat. segst thu sceolde ic minne brothor healdon?

10. tha cwoth Drihten to Cain, what didest thu? thines brother blood clepeth up to me of earthen.
  [then quoth the Lord to Cain, what didst thou? thine brother blood clepeth up to me of earth.

10. tha cwæth Drihten to Caine. whæt dydest thu? thines brother blod clypath up to me of eorthan.

11. witodlic thu be-est a- worried over earthan, for than that se earth on- fang thines
  [verily thou be-est worried over earth. for than that the earth fangs thine
brother bloods, that thu mith thinum handum agote.
  [brother’s blood, that thou with thine hand spilled.

11. witodlice thu byst a-wyrged ofer earthan, for than the seo eorthe on-feng thines brother blodes, the thu mid thinum handum agute.

12. then thu tillest thine on earthan, nay sealeth he thee none wæstms; thu farest
  [when thou tillest thine earth nay giveth he thee none fruit; thou farest
worriend, and be-est flyman yond all earthan
  [worried, and be-est flyman yond all earth.

12. thonne thu tilast thin on eorthan, ne sylth heo the nane wæstmas. thy færsth worigende and bist flyma geond ealle eorthan.

13. witodlie Cain cwoth to Drihten, mine unrightwiseness is more than I forgiveness worth sy.
  [verily Cain quoth to the Lord, mine unright-wiseness is more than I forgiveness worthy be

13. witodlice Cain cwæth to Drihtne, min unriht-wisnysse is mare thonne ic forgifenysse wyrthe sy.

14. now to-day thou me a-flymst, and I me be- hide from thiner ansine, and I worry
  [now to-day thou me a-flyest, and I me hide from thine face, and I worry
and be a-flymed, yond all earthan; alc there the me y- meet me of- slayeth.
  [and be a-fled yond all earth; ilc there that me meet me slayeth.

14. nu to dæg thu me a-flymst, and ic me be-hyde fram thinre ansine, and ic worige and beo aflymed geond ealle eorthan; eale thæra the me ge-mett me of-slyth.

15. tha cwoth Drihten to Cain, na be-eth it na swa; ac alc there the of- slayeth Cain
  [then quoth the Lord to Cain, nay be-eth it nay swa; & ilc there that slayeth Cain
7.on-fehth sevenfolde wite, and god him seald token, that none there the hine y- met
  [payeth sevenfold 8 wite. and god him gave token, that none there that him met
hine na of- slay.
  [him nay slay.

15. tha cwæth Drihten to Caine, ne byth hit na swa, ac ælc thæra the of-slith Cain, on-fehth seofon-feald wite. and God him sealde tacn, thæt nan thæra the hine ge-mette, hine ne of-sloge.

7. on-fehth. payeth. Wilkins’ Glossary

8 wite, punishment, penalty. Bailey.

16. Cain yode from Drihtenes ansyne, and he wuned flyman on them East deal
  [Cain yode from the Lord’s face, and he wuned fly-man on the East deal
these landes the is y- named Eden
  [the lands that is named Eden.

16. Cain eode fram Drihtnes ansyne, and he wunode flyma on tham eastdeale thæs landes the is ge-nemned Eden.

17. Witodlic Cain nam wife; by there he y- strained Enoch; and he y- timbered
  [verily Cain nam wife; by her he strained Enoch; and he timbered
9chester, and named it by his son name, Enoch.
  [chester, and named it by his son name Enoch.

17. witodlice Cain nam wif. be thære he ge-strynde Enoch; and he ge-timbrode ceastre, and nemned hi be his suna naman Enoch.

9 Ceastre, chester. oppidum, castrum, Bede’s Sax. Chron. Verstegan.

18. Soothlic Enoch y strained Irad, and Irad y strained Mehujael, & Mehujael y- strained
  [forsooth Enoch strained Irad, and Irad strained Mehujael, & Mehujael strained
Mehusael, and Methusael y- strained Lamech.
  [Mehusael, and Methusael strained Lamech.

18. sothlice Enoch ge-strynde Irad, and Irad ge-strynde Mauiahel and Mauiahel ge-strynde Matusael, and Matusael ge-strynde Lamech.

19. Witodlic Lamech nam twa wife, other was y- named Adeh, and other Zella.
  [Verily Lamech nam twa wife, other was named Adah. and other Zella.

19. witodlice Lamech nam twa wif. other wæs genemned Ada, and other Sella.

20. tha a-kenned Ada Jabel; the was father there the wuned on y- teldum and herd.
  [then bore Ada Jabel; he was father those that wuned on tent and herds.
wuned on y- teldum and herd.
  [wuned on tent and herd.

20. tha a-cende Ada Jabal; the wæs fæder thare the wunodon on ge-teldum and hirda.

21. his brother hat Jubal, the was father harper and thære the organen makedan.
  [his brother hight Jubal, he was father harper and those that organs maked.

21. his brothor hatte Jubal; the wæs fæder herpera thæra the organan macodan.

22. be Zillan he y- strained Tubalcain; se was either y- gold-smith, y- iron-smith and
  [by Zillan he strained Tubalcain; he was either gold-smith, iron-smith and
ane daughter, se hat Noema.
  [one daughter, the hight Noema.

22. be Sellan he ge-strynde Tubalcain; se wæs egther ge-goldsmith, ge-irensmith, and ane dohtor, seo hatte Noema.

23. Lamech cwoth tha to his wivum, Adah & Zillah, y- hear mine stemn, Lamech wif;
  [Lamech quoth then to his wives, Adah & Zillah, hear mine voice, Lamech wife;
listeth mine speech, for than the I of- slew wer on mine wound, and youngling on mine hand.
  [listen mine speech, for then that I slew were to mine wound, and youngling on mine hand.

23. Lamech cwæth tha to his wivum, Ada & Sella, ge-hyrath myne stemne, Lamech wife, hlystath mine spæce; for than the ic of-sloh weron min wunde, & iungling on minum handam;

24. sevenfold wreak be-eth y- seald for Cain, & seventy seven fold for Lamech.
  [sevenfold wreak be-eth seald for Cain, & seventy seven fold for Lamech.

24. seofonfeald wracu ge-sealde for Cain. and hund seofontig seofonfeald for Lamech.

25. Aft Adam y- strained son, thone he named Seth, and thus cwoth. Drihten me
  [Aft Adam strained son. then he named Seth, and thus quoth, the Lord me
seald thisn son for Abel the Cain of- slew.
  [gave this son for Abel that Cain slew.

25. Eft Adam ge-strynde sunu, thone he nemde Seth, and thus cwæth Drihten me sealde thisne sunu for Abel the Cain of-sloh.

26. Seth y- strained son, and named hine Enos; se Enos on-gan erst on- clepen Drihten naman.
  [Seth strained son and named him Enos; the Enos began erst clepe the Lord’s name.

26. Seth ge-strynde sunu and nemde hine Enos; se Enos ærest on-clypian Drihtnes naman.

Chap. V.

1. This is se book Adames mage-race, on thone day the God y- shope man; to Godes
  [This is the book Adam’s 1 maye-race, on the day that God shope man; to God’s

1. this is seo boc Adames mægrace. on thone dæg the God ge-sceop man, to Godes ge-licnesse he ge-worhte hine.

1 mage-race, kin-race. mage, kin. Mag. bote, fine for killing a relation. Verst. Bailey. Spelman Gloss.

y- likeness he y- wrought him.
  [ likeness he wrought him.
2. wer and wife he y- shope hii, and y- bletsed hi, and het his naman Adam on tham
  [were and wife he shope them, and blessed them, and hight his name Adam on the
day the hi y- shapen were.
  [day that he shapen were.

2. wer and wif he gesceop hii, and ge-bletsode hi, and het his naman Adam on tham dæge the hi ge-sceopene wæron.

3. Adam soothlic lived hun-tenty year and thirty year; and y- strained son to his
  [Adam forsooth lived hundred year and thirty year, and strained son to his
y- likeness, and an- likeness, and het hine Seth.
  likeness, and own- likeness, and hight him Seth.

3. Adam sothlice leofode honteonti geare and thritte geare and gestrinde sunu to his ge-licnesse, and anlycnisse, and het hine Seth.

4. tha weron Adames days sithen he y- strained Seth viii hund year, and he y- strained sons and daughters.
  [then were Adam’s days sithen he strained Seth viii. hundred year, and he strained sons and daughters.

4. tha wæron Adames dages siththen he ge-strind Seth viii. hund yeara, and he ge-strinde sunu and dohtra.

5. was tha y- wroden all the time the Adam lived nine hund and xxx. year,
  [was then wrought all the time that Adam lived nine hundred and xxx. year,
and he tha forth-fared
  [and he then forth-fared.

5. wæs tha ge-worden eal the time the Adam leofode nigon hund geara and xxx geare, and he tha forthferde.

6. Seth was hund wintere and five, tha he y- strained Enos.
  [Seth was hundred winters and five, when he strained Enos.

6. Seth wæs hund wintre and five, tha he ge-strynde Enos.

7. he lived sithen he y- strained Enos viii. hund year & seven year, & y- strained sons & daughters.
  [he lived sithen he strained Enos viii. hundred year & seven year, & strained sons & daughters.

7. he lyfed siththan he ge-strinde Enos viii hund geare and seofon geare, and gestrynde sunu and dohtra

8. weron tha y- wroden all Sethes dayes ix. hund year and xii. year, and he forthfared.
  [were then wrought all Seth’s days ix. hundred years and xii. year, and he forthfared.

8. wæron tha gewordene ealle Sethes dagas, ix hund geare and xii geare and he forthferde.

9. Enos soothlic lived 2. hund ninety year and he y- strained Cainan.
  [Enos forsooth lived ninety year and he strained Cainan.

9. Enos sothlice leofode hund nygontyg geare, and he ge-strynde Cainan.

2. to the numbers 70. 80. 90. 100. 120. the A-S. prefixed the syllable hund without any meaning

10. after this up- spring he lived viii. hund year & xv. year, & y- strained sons and daughters.
  [after this off- spring he lived viii. hundred year & xv. year. & strained sons and daughters.

10. Æfter thes up-springe he leofode viii. hund geare and xv. geare, and gestrinde suna and dohtra.

11. weron tha y- wroden all Enoses days ix. hund year, and V. year, and he forthfared.
  [were then wrought all Enos’s days ix. hundred year, and V. year, and he forthfared.

11. wæron tha ge-wordene ealle Enoses dagas ix hund geare and V. geare, and he forthferde.

12. Cainan lived hund- seventy year and y- strained Malaleel.
  [Cainan lived seventy year and strained Malaleel.

12. Cainan lyfode hund-seofontig geare, and ge-strinde Malaleel.

13. he lived sithen he y- strained Malaleel viii. hund winter, and after them he y- strained
  [he lived sithen he strained Malaleel viii. hundred winter, and after them he strained
son and daughters.
  [son and daughters

13. he lefeode siththan he ge-strinde Malaleel viii. hund wintre, and æfter tham he ge-strinde suna and dohtra.

14. and he forthfared tha he was nine hund winter and ten winter.
  [and he forthfared when he was nine hundred winter and ten winter.

14. and he forthferde tha he wæs nigon hund wintre and tyn wintre.

15. witodlic Malaleel y- strained Jared tha he was five and sixty winter.
  [verily Malaleel strained Jared when he was five and sixty winter.

15. witodlice Malelehel ge-strinde Jared tha he wæs fif and sixtig wintre.

16. and sithen he y- strained sons and daughters.
  [and sithen he strained sons and daughters.

16. and siththan he ge-strinde suna & dohtra.

17. and he forthfared tha he was eight hund winter and five hund- ninety winter.
  [and he forthfared when he was eight hundred winter and five ninety winter.

17. and he forthferde tha he was eahta hund wintre and fif hund-nigontig wintre.

18. Jared y- strained Enoch tha he was five and sixty winter.
  [Jared strained Enoch when he was five and sixty winter.

18. Jared ge-strinde Enoch tha he wæs fif and sixtig wintre.

19. and after tham the he y- strained sons and daughters.
  [and after him then he strained sons and daughters.

19. and æfter tham the he ge-strinde suna and dohtra.

20. and he forthfared tha he was nine hund winter and five and sixty winter.
  [and he forthfared when he was nine hundred winter and five and sixty winter.

20. and he forthferde tha he wæs nigon hund wintre and fif and sixtig wintre.

21. Enoch y- strained Mathusalem tha he was five and sixty winter.
  [Enoch strained Mathusalem when he was five and sixty winter.

21. Enoch ge-strinde Mathusalem tha he wæs fif and sixtig wintre.

22. and sithen he y- strained sons and daughters.
  [and sithen he strained sons and daughters.

22. and siththan he ge-strinde suna & dohtra.

23. and he was on thisum life three hund winter and five and sixty winter.
  [and he was in this life three hundred winter & five and sixty winters.

23. and he wæs on thisum life threo hund wintre and fif and sixtig wintre.

24. and he fared mith God, and him nan man sithen nay saw; for tham the Drihten
  [and he fared with God, and him none man sithen nay saw; for that the Lord
hin nam with soul and mith lichaman.
  [him nam with soul and mith body.

24. and he ferde mid Gode; and hine nan man siththan ne ge-seah; for tham the Drihten hine nam mid sawle and mid lichaman.

25. witodlic Mathusalem y- strained Lamech tha he was seven and hund- eighty winter.
  [verily Mathusalem strained Lamech when he was seven and hundred eighty winter.

25. witodlice Matusalam ge-strinde Lamech, tha he wæs seofon and hund-eahtatig wintre.

26. and after tham he y- strained sons and daughters.
  [and after him he strained sons and daughters.

26. and æfter tham he gestrinde suna and dohtra.

27. and he forth fared tha he was nine hund winter and nine and sixty winter.
  [and he forth fared when he was nine hundred winter & nine and sixty winter.

27. and he forthferde tha he wæs nigon hund wintre and nigon and sixtig wintre.

28. Lamech y- strained son tha he was an hund winter and two and hund eighty winter.
  [Lamech strained son when he was an hundred winter & two and eighty winter.

28. Lamech ge-strinde sunu tha he wæs an hund wintra, & two and hund-eahtatig wintre.

29. and named hine Noah, and thus cwoth be- him; this man us aferfrath from ourum workum
  [and named him Noah, and thus quoth him; this man us comforteth from our work
and from ourum y- swink on them land the Drihten worried.
  [and from our swink on the land the Lord worried.

29. and nemde hine Noe and thus cwæth be-him. thes man us afrefrath fram urum weorcum, and fram urum ge-swince on tham lande the Drihten wirigde.

30. after them the he y- strained sons and daughters.
  [after them then he strained sons and daughters.

30. æfter tham the he ge-strinde suna & dohtra.

31. and he forthfared tha he was seven hund winter, and seven and hund- seventy winter.
  [and he forthfared when he was seven hundred winter, and seven and seventy winter.

31. and he forthferde tha he wæs seofon hund wintre and seofon and hund-seofontig wintre.

32. Noah soothlic tha tha he was five hun year tha y- strained he three sons, Sem, and Ham & Jafeth.
  [Noah forsooth then when he was five hundred year then strained he three sons Shem and Ham & Japhet.

32. Noe sothlice tha tha he wæs fif hund geara tha ge-strinde he thri suna, Sem, and Cham and Jafeth.

Chap. VI.

1. Men werdon tha y- manifold over earthan, & daughtera y- strained.
  [Men were then manifold over earth, & daughters strained.

1. Men wurdon tha ge-menigfilde ofer eorthan, and dohtra ge-strindon.

2. then y-sawon Godes bairen that weron good men manna daughtra that hi weron
  [then saw God’s 1. bairn that were good men man’s daughters that they were
hlity, and namon him wife of allum them tha the hi y- 2. churon.
  [beautiful, and named him wife of all them that they them chuse.

2. tha ge-sawon Godes bearn that wæron gode men manna dohtra, that hig wæron wlitige, and namon him wif of eallum tham tha the hig ge-curon.

1. bairn. children. Scotch

2. ye-curon. qu. ge-ceosan. chuse.

3. and God cwoth tha, na thoro-wuneth nay mine ghost on men on ekeness, for
  [and God quoth then, not 3 thoro-wuneth not mine ghost on men on ekeness, for
than the he is flesh.
  [then that he is flesh.

3. and God cwæth tha ne thurh-wunath na min gast on menn on ec-nisse, for than the he is flæsc

3 thoro-wuneth, thoro-dwelleth.

4. Entas weron eke-swilc over earthan on them dayum. after tham the Godes
  [Giants quoth eke-swilc over earthan in them days. after them the God’s
bairn 4 teamdon with manna daughtra and hi kindon. tha sind mighty from
  [bairn teamed with man’s daughters, and they 5. kindled. they were mighty from
world and listful weres.
  [world and 6. listful weres.

4. Entas wæron eacswilce ofer eorthan on tham dagun. æfter them the Godes bearn tymdon with manna dohtra and hig cendon. tha sindemihtige fram worulde and hlisfulleweras.

4 teamed, paired as teams of oxen.

5. kindle, to breed. Bailey.

6. hlisa, fama. hlist. auditus. listful, from to listen, listened, heard of, famous.

5. tha y- saw God that mickle evilness manna was over earthan, and all y- think
  [then saw God that mickle evilness man’s was over earth, and all 7. think
manna hearton was y- wend on evil on allum timan.
  [man’s hearts was went on evil in all times.

5. tha ge-seah God that micel yfelnys manna wæs over eorthan, and eall ge-thanc manna heortena wæs ge-wendon on yfel on eallum timan.

7. ie. thoughts of man’s hearts.

6. God tha off-thought that he man y- wrought over earthan. 8 he would tha warnian
  [God then off-thought that he man wrought over earth.
onær, and was y- reped mith hearten soreness withinnan.
  [ and was reped with heart soreness within.

6. Gode tha of-thuhte that he man ge-worhte ofer eorthan. he wolde tha warnian onær; and wæs gehrepod mid heortan sarnisse withinnan

8 these words are not in the original text. their meaning is not obvious.

7. and cwoth, I a- dilige thone mannan the I y- shope from there earthan ansine,
  [and quoth I destroy the men that I shope from the earth’s face,
from them men oth tha neaten, from them slinkendum oth tha foweles. me
  [from the men unto the neat from the 10 slinking unto the fowls. me
off-thinketh soothlic that I hi wrought.
  [off-think forsooth that I them wrought.

7. and cwæth, Ic a-dilige thone mannan the ic ge-sceop fram thære eorthan ansine, from tham men oth tha nytenu, fram tham slincendum oth tha fugelas. me of-thincth sothlice that Ic hig worthe.

10 slincan to creep. to sneak. Johnson’s dict.

8. Noah soothlic was God y- queme, and give at-foran him met.
  [Noah forsooth was God 11 queme, and 12 gift be-fore him met.

11 to queme, to please, to favor. Ch. Spenc. Bailey

12 giftan, to give, favor.

9. these sind Noahs nearness. Noah was right-wise were, and full-framed on his
  [these are Noah’s 13.a. nearness. Noah was right wise were, and 13.b. full-framed in his
mayth. mith God he fared.
  [14.mate. with God he fared.

9. thas sind Noes cneornissa. Noe wæs riht-wis wer, and ful-fremed on his mægthum. mid God he ferde.

13.a. nearness, family, kin, relation

13.b. full-framed, strong, perfect.

14. mæg, meagth, mata. kin, generation. Verstegan mægbote, penalty for killing a relation. Lambert.

10. and y- strained three son, Sem, and Cham and Jafeth.
  [and strained three son, Sem, and Ham and Japhet.

10. and ge-strinde thri suna, Sem, and Cham, and Jafetth.

11. tha was all se earth y- wemed at-foran God, and a- filled mith un-right-wiseness.
  [then was all the earth 15. wemed be-fore God, and filled with unright wiseness

11. tha wæs eall seo eorthe ge-wemmed æt-foran Gode, and a-fylled mid un-riht-wisnysse.

15. wem, blemish, fault. Chaucer. Bail. Johnson.

12. tha y- saw God that se earth was y- wemed, for than the ilk flesh wemed his way over earth.
  [then saw God that the earth was wemed, for that the ilk flesh wemed his way over earth.

12. tha ge-seah God that seo eorthe wæs ge-wemmed, for than the ælc flæsc ge-wemde his weg ofer eorthan.

13. and God cwoth tha to Noah, y- ending alles fleshes come at-foran me. se earth is
  [and God quoth then to Noah, ending of all flesh come before me. the earth is
a- filled mith unrightwiseness from her ansine, and I 16 for-do hi mith thære earthe 17. samed.
  [ filled with unrightwiseness from her face, and I for-do them with the earth same-wise.

13. and God cwæth tha to Noe, ge-endung ealles flæsces com ætforan me. seo eorthe ys a-fylled mid unrihtwisnysse fram heora ansine, and ic for-do hig mid thære eorthan samod.

16 for-do. for is here. a prefix, as in for-bid for-fet Etc. meaning to undo, destroy.

17. same. self. itself.

14. work thee now an ark of a- hewenum boardum; and thou workest wuning be- innan
  [work thee now an ark of hewn boards; and thou workest 18. wuning in
them ark, & clammest withinnan and withouten mith tarian.
  [them ark, & 19 clammest within and without with tar.

14. wirc the nu ænne arc of a-heawenum bordum, and thu wircst wununge binnan tham arce, and clæmst withinnan and withutan mid tyrwan.

18. wuning. dwelling.

19 clæmst, clammiest, make clammy. daub. Bailey. Johnson.

15. and thou workest hine thus. three hund fathom beeth se on long; and fifty
  [and thou workest it thus. three hundred fathom be the on long; and fifty
fathom on board, and thirty on highness.
  [fathom on board, and thirty in highness.

15. and thu wircst hine thus. threo hund fæthma bith se are on lenge, and fiftig fæthma on bræde, and thrittig on heahnisse.

16. thou workest thereon eh- thirl, and thou gettest his highness together on over-wardum
  [thou workest therein 20 thirl, and thou gettest it’s highness together on over-ward

20 thirle. a hole. Bail-Johns. [. . .]insw. Chaucer.

to ane fathom. door thou settest by there sidan with- neathan, and thou makest
  [to ane fathom. door thou settest by the side be- neath, and thou makest
three flooring be-innan them ark,
  [three floorings be-in them ark.

16. thu wircst thæreon eh-thirl, and thu ge-tihst his heahnisse to gædere on useweardum to anre fæthme duru thu setst be thære sidan with-neothan and thu macast threo fleringa binna tham arce.

17.   Even, I y- bring floods water over earth, that I off-slay all flesh on them the is lifes
  [21. Even, I bring floods water over earth, that I off-slay all flesh on them that is life’s
ghost under heavenum, and all tha thing the on earthan sind beeth for- naman.
  [ghost under heaven. and all the things that on earth are beeth for- 22. namen.

17. efne, Ic ge-bringe flodes wæteru ofer earthan, that Ic of-sled eall flæsc on tham the ys lifes gast under heofenum, and ealle tha thing the on eorthan synd, beoth for-numene.

21. verily. B.S.

22. numene, name, taken. for is a prefix.

18. I set mine wed to thee, and thou goest into tham ark, and thine sona, thine
  [I set mine 23 wed to thee, and thou goest into them ark. and thine sons thine
wife and thinre suna wife mith thee.
  [wife and thine sons’ wife with thee.

18. Ic sette min wedd to the, and thu gæst into tham arce, and thine suna, thin wif and thinra sunuwif mid the.

23 wedd a covenant, a pledge. Ch. Benson. hence to wed

19. and of all neatenum, alles fleshes, twain y- 24 macen thou lettest into them ark mith thee,
  [and of all neats, all flesh, twain make thou lettest into them ark with thee.
that they live may
  [that they live may.

19. and of eallum nyterum, ealles flæsces, twegen ye-macan thy lætst into tham arce mid the, that hig libban magon.

24 qu? macan to make. maca. par, socius, conjux Benson. make, a mate, husband, wife. Chauc.

20. eke of fowlum be her kin, and of allum orf-kine, and of allum creepindum kine,
  [eke of fowls by their kind, and of all 25 orf-kind and of all creeping kind.
twam and twam faren in mith thee, that hi mayon liven.
  [twain and twain fare in with thee, that they may live.

20. eac, of fugelum be heora cinne, and of eallum orf-cinne, and of eallum creopendum cinne, twam and twam faran in mid the that hi magon libban.

25 orf-cattle. orf-gild. Bailey Spelm. Gloss.

21. thou 26. nimest witodlic of all meatum the to meat may into thee, that hi been either
  [thou nimest, to wit, of all meat that to 27. meat my unto thee, that it be either
y- thee, y- him to be- liven.
  [ thee him to live.

21. thu nimst witodlice of eallum metlum the to mete magon into the, that hig beon æghther ge-the ge-him to big-leofan.

26. thu nimest, i.e. nimest thu, take [. . .]

27. as a verb, to eat.

22. Noah soothlic did all the thing the him God be- bade.
  [Noah forsooth did all the things that him God bade.

22. Noe sothlice dide ealle tha thing the him God be-bead.

Chap. VII.

1. And God cwoth to him, gang into tham ark and all thine hive-reden. thee I y- saw
  [And God quoth to him, gang into the ark and all thine 1. hive-rede. thee I saw
soothlic rightwisen at-foran me on thisser mæthe.
  [forsooth rightwise before me in this 2. mæthe.

1. and God cwæth to him, gang into tham arce, and eall thin hiwræden. the ic ge-seah sothlice rihtwisne æt-foran meon thissere mægthe.

1. hive, a house. rede, council or family. house council, house family. house hold.

2. mæthe, generation. Verst. tribe.

2. nim into thee of allum cleanum neatenum seven and seven either y- kinds, and of
  [nim unto thee of all clean neats seven and seven either kind, and of
then uncleanum twam and twam.
  [the unclean twain and twain.

2. nim into the of eallum clænum nitenum seofen and seofen ægthres ge-cyndes, and of tham unclænum twam and twam.

3. and of fowl-kin seven and seven, either y- kinds, that seed si y- holden over all
  [and of fowl-kind seven and seven, either kinds, that seed be holden over all
earthen broadness.
  [earth’s broadness.

3. and of fugel-cinne seofen and seofen ægthres ge-cindes, that sæd si ge-healden ofer ealre eorthan bradnisse.

4. I soothlic send rain now ymb seven night over earthan forty day and forty night
  [I forsooth send rain now about seven nights over earth forty days and forty nights
together, and I a- deligie all tha 4 edwist the I y- wrought over earthen broadness.
  together, and I 3 deluge all the substance that I wrought over earth’s broadness.

4. Ic sothelice sende ren nu ymbe seofon niht over eorthan feowertig daga and feowertig nihta togædere, and ic a-dilegie ealle the e-dwiste the ic ge-worhte ofer eorthan bradnisse.

3 adilgean, abolere. Bens. but deluge is certainly of that root.

4 e-dwiste. qu. dust, dirt, earth?

5. Noah tha did all tha thing the him God be- bade.
  [Noah then did all the things that him God bade.

5. Noe tha dide ealle tha thing the him God be-bead.

6. and he was tha six hun year on old tha tha this floodes water ythedon over earthan
  [and he was then six hundred year on old then when this flood’s water flowed over earth.

6. and he wæs tha six hund geara on ylde tha tha thæs flodes wæteru ythedon ofer eorthan.

7. what tha Noah 5. yode into them ark, and his three sona, and his wife, and his sona wife,
  [what then Noah yode into the ark, and his three sons, and his wife, and his son’s wife
for these floodes waterum.
  [for these floods waters.

7. hwæt tha Noe eode into tham arce, and his thri suna and his wif, and his suna wif, for thæs flodes wæterum.

5. eode, yode, went.

8. eke-swilc tha neaten of allum kin, and of allum fowlkin,
  [eke-swilc the neats of all kinds, and of all fowlkind

8. eac swilce tha nitenu of eallum cinne, and of eallum fufelcynne,

9. comen to Noah into them ark swa swa God be- bade.
  [come to Noah into the ark so as God bade.

9. comon to Noe into tham arce, swa swa God be-bead.

10. tha on them eightowan day tha tha he in weren, 6. and God hi be- locken haved
  [then on the eighth day when that he in were, and God them locked had
withoutan, tha y- thode that flood over earthan.
  [without, then flowed that flood over earth.

10. tha on tham eahtogan dæge, tha tha hig inne wæron, and God hig be-locen hæfde withutan. tha y-thode that flod ofer eorthan.

6. see verse 16 ‘and the Lord shut him in.’

11. on tham othrum month, on thone seventeenthan day these months, tha a-springan
  [on the other month, on the seventeenth day this month. then springed
all well-springs their mickelen niwelness, and there heavenen water-thotan
  [all 7 well-springs their mickel abyss, and the heaven’s water-channels
weren y- opened.
  [were opened.

11. on tham othrum monthe, on thone seofenteothan dæg thæs monthes, tha a-sprungon ealle wyll-springas thære micelan niwelnisse, and thære heofenan wæter-theotan wæron ge-openode.

7 well then signified a fountain. missing from this draft, was on previous draft

12. and it rained tha over earthen forty daya and forty nighta on an.
  [and it rained then over earth forty days and forty nights 8 in one

8 in one. i.e. together.

17.9 was tha y- worden mickle flood, and the wateru weron y- manifold, & a- heavedon
  [was then wrought mickle flood, and the waters were manifold & heaved

9 in the A-S. the 13th to the 16th verses are omitted being repetitions of the 7th to the 9th

up thone ark.
  [up the ark.
18. and y- thedon 10 swithe, and y- filledon there earthan broadness. wittodlic se ark
  [and flowed swithe, and filled the earth’s broadness. verily the ark

10 swithe greatly. Bailey, and swither v19. being the verb of swithe, we might say in English, swithered swithe, enlarged greatly.

was y- fared over tha wateru.
  [was fared over the water.

18. and y-thedon swythe, and y-fyldon thære eorthan bradnisse. witodlice se arc wæs ge-ferud ofer tha wæteru.

19. and that water swithered swithe over the earthen. werthon tha be-heled all
  [and that water abounded swithe over the earth. were then covered all
the highesten downa under aller heavenan.
  [the highest downs under all heaven.

19. and that wæter swithrode swithe ofer tha eorthan. wurdon tha behelede ealle tha hehstan duna under ealre heofenan.

20. and that water was fifteen fathom deep over the highestan downa.
  [and that water was fifteen fathom deep over the highest downs.

20. and that wæter wæs fiftyne fæthma deop ofer tha hehstan duna.

21. werth tha for numen all flesh the over earthan stirred.
  [were then 11 for- nimmed all flesh that over earth stirred.

21. wearth tha for-numen eall flæsc the ofer eorthan styrode.

11 niman, numan, nyman, to take. for-numan, for-taken, over-taken, destroyed.

22. is omitted in A-S. as being repeated in v.23.
23. man and fowla, neatena and creependra, and ilk thing the life haved were a-died
  [man and fowls, neats and creepers, and ilk thing that life had were died
on tham deepan flood, buton them anum the b-innan them ark weron.
  [in them deep flood, but them ones that in the ark were.

23. manna and fugela nytena & creopendra, and ælc thing the lif hæfde wearth a-dyd on tham deopan flode, buton tham anum the binnan tham arc wæron.

24. that flood stood tha swa an hund daya and fifty daya.
  [that flood stood then so an hundred days and fifty days.

24. thæt flod stod tha swa an hund daga and fiftig daga.

Chap. VIII.

1. and God tha y- minde Noah’s fare, and there neatena the him mith weron,
  [and God then minded Noah’s fare. and the neaten that him with were,
and sent tha wind over earthan, and tha watera werdon y- waned.
  [and sent the wind over earth, and the waters were waned.

1. and God tha ge-munde Noes fare, and thæra nyfena the him mid wæron, and asende tha winde ofer eorthan, and tha wætera wurdon gewanode.

2. and the well springes their micklan niwelness wordon for-dyte, and there
  [and the well-springs their mickle abyss were for-shut, and the
heavenan water-thetan, and se tha rain werth for-bidden.
  [heaven’s water-flow, and the the rain were for-bidden.

2. and tha wil-springas thære miclan niwelnisse wurdon for-dytte, and thære heofenan wæter-theotan, and se ren wearth for-boden.

3. tha watera tha y-cirdon of there earthan ongain farend, and begunnon to
  [the waters then averted off the earth again faring, and begun to
wanien after other half hund daya.
  [wane after 1 other half hundred days.

3. tha wætera tha ge-cirdon of thære eorthan on-gean-farende, and begunnon to wanigenne æfter other healf-hund daga.

1 i.e. a hundred and a half. or 150.

4. tha a- stood se ark on them seventhan month over the mountes Armenia’s lands.
  [then stood the ark on the seventh month over the mounts Armenia’s lands.

4. tha ætstod se arc on tham seofethan monthe, ofer tha muntas Armenies landes.

5. and the watera to- yoden & wanedon oth thene tenthan month, and on tham
  [and the waters yode & waned till the tenth month, and on the
tenthan month at- eowedon their mounta cnolles.
  [tenth month shewed the mounts knolls.

5. and tha wætera to-eodon and wanedon oth thæne teothan month, and on tham teothan monthe ateowodon thæra munta cnollas.

6. tha after fortyum dayum undid Noah his 2 eh-thirl the he on them ark y- maked.
  [then after forty days undid Noah his opening that he in the ark maked.

6. tha æfter feowertigum dagum undyde Noe his ehthirl the he on tham arce ge-macode.

7. and a- send out ane 3 ravn; the ravn flew tha out, and nold aft on-gain cirran, ere
  [and sent out a raven; the raven flew then out, and nold after again return, ere
than the tha wateru a- driedon over earthan.
  [then that the waters dried over earth.

7. and a-sende ut ænne 3. hremn; se hrem fleah tha ut, and nolde eft ongean-cirran, ær than the tha wæteru adruwedon ofer eorthan.

3 hrem, hremn, hrefn, corvus, a raven.

8. he a- sent tha aft out a 4. culvran, that he shewed if tha wateru tha yet 5 y-swicon over
  [he sent then aft out a culver, that he shewed if the waters then yet assuaged over

4. culver, a pigeon. Bai. Johnson.

there earthen broadness.
  [the earth’s broadness.

8. he a-sende tha eft ut ane culfran, that heo sceowode gif tha wætera tha git geswicon ofer thære eorthan bradnisse.

5 ge-swican, asswicen, swican. ge. & a. are here prefixes, and c sounds ch, as in civic, church. a-swichan, asswage abate. Bailey derives asswage from ad. & suadere. but in Aelfric’s time there were no Latin derivations. that language being them known to very few in England. there is no relation of meaning between asswage and suadere; nor are d. and g. convertible letters in derivations. Johnson derives assuage from A-S. swæs, suavis. but the derivation aswichan, cessare, desistere, is much more probable.

9. he tha flew out and nay might findan where he her foot a- set, for than the tha
  [he then flew out and nay might find where he her foot set, for then that the
watera weron over all earthan, and he y-cirred on-gain to Noah, and he y- nam hi
  [waters were over all earth, and he returned again to Noah. and he y- nam him
into tham ark.
  [into the ark.

9. heo tha fleah ut, and ne mihte findan hwær heo hire fot a-sette, for than the tha wætera wæron ofer ealle eorthan; and he ge-cirde on-gean to Noe and he ge-nam hig into tham arce.

10. he abode tha yet other seven dayes and a- sent out aft culvran.
  [he abode then yet other seven days and sent out aft culver.

10. he abad tha git othre seofon dagas, and a-sende ut eft culfran.

11. he come tha on evening aft to Noah and brought ane twig of anum oil-beam, mith
  [he come then on evening aft to Noah and brought a twig of an oil-beam, with
greenum leafum on his mouth; tha underwat Noah that the watera weron
  [ green leaf in his mouth; then 6. underwot Noah that the waters were
a- dried over earthan.
  dried over earth.

11. heo com tha on æfnunge eft to Noe, & brohte an twig of anum ele-beame mid grenum-leafum on hire muthe. tha under-geat Noe that tha wætera wæron a-druwode ofer eorthan.

6. under-geat. qu. g. for w. under-wat wat, wot Bailey Johnson. wate. Chaucer. under-wat then is to understand. to know.

12. and abode swa tha seven dayes, and a- sent out culvran; se nay y- chird on-gain him.
  [and abode so then seven days and sent out culver it nay returned again him.

12. andabad swa theah seofon dagas, and a-sende ut culfran. seo ne ge-cirde on-gean him.

13. tha y- opened Noah this ark’s roof, and beheld out, and y- saw that there earthan
  [then opened Noah this ark’s roof, and beheld out, and saw that the earth’s
broadness was a- dried.
  [broadness was dried.

13. thage-openode Noe thæs arces hrof, and beheold ut, and ge-seah that thære eorthan bradnis wæs a-druwod.

14. a considerable part of the last and the whole of this verse omitted in A-S.
15. God tha spreach to Noah. thus cwathend.
  [God then preached to Noah, thus quothing.

15. God tha spræc to Noe thus cwæthende,

16. gang out of them ark, and thine wife, thine sona and her wife,
  [gang out of the ark, and thine wife, thine sons and their wife,
and all that there in is mith thee.
  [and all that there in is with thee.

16. gang ut of tham arce, and thin wif, thine suna and hira wif, and eall that thær inne ys mid the.

17. lead out mith thee over earthan, and wax ye, and beeth y- manifold over earthan.
  [lead out with thee over earth, and wax ye, and be manyfold over earth.

17. læd ut mid the ofer eorthan, and weaxe ge and beoth ge-menigfilde ofer eorthan.

18. Noah tha out-yode of them ark and hie all over earthan.
  [Noah then out-yode of the ark and hied all over earth.

18. Noe tha ut-eode of tham arce, and hig ealle ofer eorthan.

19. this verse is omitted in the A-S. version.
20. and he a- reared an weofod Gode, and y- nam of allum tham cleanum neatum
  [and he reared an altar God, and nam of all the clean neats
and cleanum fowlum, and y- offered God lac on them weofod.
  [and clean fowls, and offered God lay 6.b. on the altar.

20. and he arærde an weofod Gode, and ge-nam of eallum tham clænan nytenum and clænum fugelum, and ge-offrode Gode lac on tham weofode.

6.b. lay is still used for wages, hire.

21. God tha under- fang his lac, and their winsomness breath, and cwoth him to
  [God then under- 7. fang his lay, and the winsome8 breath, and quoth him to,
will I nots -when a- worryan tha earthan henon forth for mannum, 9 and git and y- thought
  [will I no -when worry the earth hence forth for man. wit and thought
mannisher heartan sindon forth-held to evil from youth. earnestly nay off-slay I
  [mannish heart are forth-held to evil from youth. earnestly nay off-slay I
henon forth mith water ilk thing 10. quics; swa swa I did, allum dayum there earthan.
  [hence forth with water ilk thing quick, so as I did, all days the earth.

21. God tha under-feng his lac thære wynsumnysse bræth, and cwæth him to, Nelle ic nates-hwon a-wirgean tha eorthan heonon forth for mannum. and-git and ge-thoht menniscre heortan syndon forth healde to yfele fram iugothe. eornostlice ne of-slea ic heonon forth mid wætere ælc thing cuces, swa swa ic dyde, eallum dagum thære eorthan.

7. fang is a tooth or claw. fangan, to take.

8 winsom breath, sweet flavor.

9 and-git intellectus qu. g. for w. and-wit.

10. cuces, i.e. quickes living, as in the phrase the quick and the dead.

22. seed and y-reap, chill and heat, summer & winter, day & night nay y-swacheth.
  [seed and reaping, chill and heat, summer & winter, day & night na assuageth.

22. sæd and ge-rip, cile and hæte, sumor and winter, dæg and niht ne ge-swicath.

Chap. IX.

1. God bletsed tha Noe and his suna, and cwath him to; waxeth and beeth
  [God blessed then Noe and his sons, and quoth him to, wax and be
y- manifold, and a- filleth the earthan.
  [ manifold, and fill the earth.

1. God bletsode tha Noe and his suna, and cwæth him to, Weahxath and beoth ge-menigfilde, and a-fyllath tha eorthan.

2. and be your 1 ege and oge over all neaten, and fowls, and over all the thing
  [and be your fear and awe over all neats, and fowls, and over all the things
the on earthan stirreth, all sea-fishes sindon yourum handum be-taht.
  [that on earth stirreth, all sea-fishes are to your hands taken.
sindan yourum handum be- taht.
  [are your hands taken

2. and beo eower ege and oga ofer ealle nitenu and fugelas, and ofer ealle tha thing the on eorthan stiriath, ealle sæ-fixas sindon eowrum handum be-tæhte. 2.

1 cge, oge, age, g, for w. awe, terror. ege-leas. aweless, in English it is translated ‘fear and dread,’ in the LXX. T[. . .]s.

2. be-tæhte, be-taht. part, pas be-tæcan tradere. tæcan to take.

3. and all that the stirreth and liveth, beeth you to meat, swa swa growend
  [and all that that stirreth and liveth be you to meat, so as growing
worta I be-taht all you.
  [worts I be-took all you.

3. and eall that the styrath and leofath, beoth eow to mete, swa swa growende wyrta ic be-tæhte ealle eow.

4. buton them anum that ye flesh mith blood nay eatan.
  [but them one that ye flesh with blood nay eat.

4. buton tham anum that ge flæsc mid blode ne eton.

5. your blood I off-gang at all wild-deerum, and eke at them men. of these weres handa
  [your blood I require at all wild-deer, and eke at them men. of these weres hands
and his brother handa, I off-gang these mannes life.
  [and his brother hands, I require these man’s life.

5. eower blod ic of-gange æt eallum wild-deorum, and eac æt tham men. of thæs weres handa, and his brothor handa ic of-gange thæs mannes lif.

6. swa-who-swa a- get mannes blood, his blood beeth a- gotten. witodlic to Godes anlikeness
  [so-who-so gets man’s blood. his blood be gotten. wittingly to God’s ownlikeness
is is se man y- wrought.
  [is is the man wrought.

6. swa hwa swa a-git mannes blod, his blod bith agoten. witodelice to Godes an-licenisse ys se man ge-worht.

7. wax ye now and beeth y- manifold, and goeth over earth and y- fill hi.
  [wax ye now and be manifold, and go over earth and fill it.

7. weaxe ge nu and beoth ge-menigfylde, and gath ofer eorthan and ge-fyllath hig.

8. God coath aft to Noe and to his sunum.
  [God quoth aft to Noe and to his sons.

8. God cwæth eft to Noe and to his sunum,

9. Even, now I set mine 3 wed to you and to yourum offspring,
  [Even, now I set mine wed to you and to your offspring,

9. Efne, nu ic sette min wedd to eow and to eorum of-springe.

3 wedd, wed, pledge, covenant. Chaucer.

10. and to allum them livendum neatenum the of them arc yode.
  [and to all the living neats that of the