Thomas Jefferson Papers

Enclosure: Katherine Duane Morgan’s Circular on the Encouragement of Domestic Manufactures, 1 January 1822


Katherine Duane Morgan’s Circular on the Encouragement of Domestic Manufactures

WASHINGTON, pa. Jan. 1st, 1822.


YOU are now addressed as a member of a republic, blest by nature with all the necessaries and many of the luxuries of life—you are called upon by the general distress of our citizens, and the public shame of our country, to exert yourself as becomes an American, in endeavouring by your example and principles to encourage the women of your neighbourhood and township, to rise in the strength of their virtue and love of country, and assist in wrenching assunder the bonds and fetters clinched on us by the ministry of England through the medium of their manufactures. Were precedent requisite, a bright example of patriotism is afforded by the conduct of the women of the colonies (now the elder sisters of the United States) who, when the British parliament taxed them contrary to their charters—“the zeal of the daughters of liberty proscribed the use of TEA, and rendered the disuse of it a universal fashion:” all that is now asked of us is, to subdue our own love of the fantastic follies and extravagancies of dress. Certainly American citizens have not become so degenerate as to be incapable of respecting their virtuous and sensible countrywomen, attired in the manufactures of their own land. If they have, too soon will the British government have the pleasure of witnessing the hopes and wishes of lord North, the leader of the English ministry, realized by “seeing America prostrate at their feet”—Can it be supposed that Americans are solicitous of this disgraceful situation? No! no! The struggles of the glorious revolution are too fresh in the memories of the descendants of the sages and heroes who achieved it, for them to be content with so abject a station. Let us by retrenching our expences in dress—and supporting our own manufactures to the entire exclusion of all imported fabrics, teach proud Britain that the women of Columbia are truly republicans, and lovers of their country. Let us prove to them that we prefer simple attire and virtuous liberty to all their tinsels and crapes, associated with the oppressive taxes of a government like theirs—that we will not agree to place ourselves in a similar situation to that of the oppressed, yet noble inhabitants of Erin—that we will not agree to pay a tax for the light of Heaven passing through our windows—nor for the hearths round which we can now sit, fearless of tax collectors—and that we are no longer, to be duped into the virtual payment to them, of a tax identified and confounded with the price of their manufactures—in a word, let us bear in mind the invaluable lesson, imparted by that philanthropic and profound statesman Barre, to the American Regulus, the great and lamented Quincy—“let us beware of tastely extravagance in our buildings, equipage and dress as a deadly poison.”

Believing that you are animated with feelings such as these, I beg leave to furnish you with the subjoined resolutions and the names attached in this borough, not doubting that you will obtain a number of the signatures of your female friends and neighbours.

It is suggested that meetings in the several school-houses would afford the easiest and speediest mode of effecting the object.

As it is proposed to publish a complete list of all the names procured in the county, distinguished by townships, be pleased to forward me yours by the first of February next.


K. D. Morgan

And, now, let us offer for your consideration,1 the following preambles and resolutions.

Convinced that the encouragement of Domestic Manufactures, is indispensible to the substantial interests, the permanent welfare, and the real independence of the United States; and believing that a single act, will conduce more towards the accomplishment of those invaluable objects, than ten thousand inconclusive professions.

Therefore, Resolved, That WE, the undersigned, will henceforward, confine our purchases, for the apparel of ourselves and families, to articles manufactured within the United States.

And not doubting, that these all-important ends may be farther promoted—a check given to the destructive extravagance which reigns even in the very poorest of our cabins, and multitudes withheld, or converted from vice, by the encouragement of learning and by an extension of support to American manufactures, beyond the walls of our immediate households.

Therefore, Resolved, That WE will employ only such persons to spin, sew, knit, and weave, as will clothe themselves and families, exclusively in homespun; and appropriate a portion of the money arising from those labours, to the education of their children, or other relatives.

Which resolutions being adopted the following names were subscribed.

   Katherine Duane Morgan Margaret Orr Mary Wilson Charlotte Whitehouse Sarah Linville Eliza Lindsay Mary Lindsay Elizabeth Lindsay Jane Ann Middleton Christiana Middleton Catherine Long Olivia Whitehouse Sarah Barnes Ann Richardson Mary Morris Jane Gordon Susanna Eckert Eleanor A. Gordon Nancy Lattimer Jane Simonson Susanna M. Mitchell Nancy Mitchell Louisa Schaffer Martha Scott Margaret Officer Mary Hornish Nancy Taylor Triffy Younger Elizabeth Brister Mary Shepherd Mary Miller Sarah Hornish Eliza Morris Margaret Sample Martha Pattyson Elizabeth Morrow Mary Ann Pattyson Sophia Chaplin Sally Caruth    Mary F. Simes Dorothea Koch Martha Slagle Eleanor Harter Eleanor Edwards Nancy M’Beath Mary Cooper Mary Donaldson Elizabeth Ledlie Eliza Cooper Elizabeth Brown Mary Officer Margaret Harrah Rachel Prigg Rebecca Taylor Sarah White Ann Terry Jane Rea Ann Arnold Elizabeth Good Maria Good Maria Good, jr. Eliza Grimes Sarah Harter Elizabeth Vankirk Mary Philips Mary Jones Eliza Garret Jane M’Dermot Fanny Wolfe Jane Ruth Sarah White Hannah Reed Sarah Kerr Eliza. Hailman Elizabeth M’Cluney Elizabeth O’Harra Elizabeth Kuntz, jr. Sidney Allender    Elizabeth Ramsey Rebecca Ramage Polly Marshell Sarah Griffith Jane Mullan Margaret Bleake Jane Morrison Mary Wilson Ann Brice Rebecca Denniston Sarah Wolfe Sarah Dille Ann F. Simes Hannah Taylor Sarah Hawkins Jane M’Clure Mary O’Hara Hannah Lattimore Mary Hull Margaret Maffet Mary Devore Danah Ruple Barbara Waltz Susanna Roberts Mary Valentine Jane Scott Ann Baggaley Kizia Middleton Margaretta B. Daggs Margaret Robinson Rebecca B. Robinson Margaret Kerr Margaret M’Adden Mrs. Robert Anderson Isabella Thompson Martha Brown Elizabeth M’Clellan Mary Ann Walker Elizabeth Reichart

Broadside (CtY: Franklin Collection); with closing and signature preceding resolutions in Morgan’s hand; at head of text: “(CIRCULAR.).” Also printed in Washington, Pa., Reporter, 7 Jan. 1822 (circular) and 31 Dec. 1821 (resolutions and list of signatories).

the zeal of the daughters of liberty … universal fashion, seeing america prostrate at their feet, and let us beware … a deadly poison are quotes from William Gordon, The History of the Rise, Progress, and Establishment, of the Independence of the United States of America (London, 1788; Sowerby, description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, 1952–59, 5 vols. description ends no. 487), 1:258, 264, 438.

On 31 Jan. 1822 TJ’s granddaughter Mary J. Randolph reported from Monticello to her sister Virginia J. Randolph (Trist) that “Grand papa received a circular the other day & an oration delivered at an examination of the Franklin school in Pensylvania by Mrs Katharine Duane Morgan, daughter of the editor of the Aurora; after proving as plain as a pike staff in her oration that Leghorn & crape are to cause the downfall of the republic, she publishes a circular (to which she has obtained a pretty long list of subscribers) calling upon every one to enter into an agreement that from this time forward they will bind themselves to wear nothing but American manufactures; for which good deed they are to deserve a place near a string as long as my arm of grecian & Roman worthies whose names Mrs Morgan has recorded in her harangue.” Alluding to her sister’s ongoing quest for suitable clothing and accessories to wear during her visit to Richmond, she continued: “now what could you do better than to shew your patriotism by joining the confederacy & then your wants might all be so easily supplied, we might send you down a whole bale of providence cloth & a piece of steam loom shirting to make ball dresses would quite set you up” (RC in NcU: NPT).

1Printed text: “consiedration.”

Index Entries

  • Allender, Sidney; signs petition search
  • American Revolution; and boycotts search
  • Anderson, Mrs. Robert; signs petition search
  • Arnold, Ann; signs petition search
  • Baggaley, Ann; signs petition search
  • Barnes, Sarah; signs petition search
  • Barré, Isaac search
  • Bleake, Margaret; signs petition search
  • Brice, Ann; signs petition search
  • Brister, Elizabeth; signs petition search
  • Brown, Elizabeth; signs petition search
  • Brown, Martha; signs petition search
  • Caruth, Sally; signs petition search
  • Chaplin, Sophia; signs petition search
  • clothing; boycott of British search
  • clothing; dresses search
  • clothing; homespun search
  • clothing; manufacture of search
  • clothing; women purchase search
  • Cooper, Eliza; signs petition search
  • Cooper, Mary; signs petition search
  • Daggs, Margaretta B.; signs petition search
  • Denniston, Rebecca; signs petition search
  • Devore, Mary; signs petition search
  • Dille, Sarah; signs petition search
  • Donaldson, Mary; signs petition search
  • Eckert, Susanna; signs petition search
  • Edwards, Eleanor; signs petition search
  • Garret, Eliza; signs petition search
  • Good, Elizabeth; signs petition search
  • Good, Maria, Jr.; signs petition search
  • Good, Maria; signs petition search
  • Gordon, Eleanor A.; signs petition search
  • Gordon, Jane; signs petition search
  • Gordon, William; The History of the Rise, Progress, and Establishment, of the Independence of the United States of America search
  • Great Britain; and U.S. search
  • Griffith, Sarah; signs petition search
  • Grimes, Eliza; signs petition search
  • Hailman, Elizabeth; signs petition search
  • Harrah, Margaret; signs petition search
  • Harter, Eleanor; signs petition search
  • Harter, Sarah; signs petition search
  • Hawkins, Sarah; signs petition search
  • Hornish, Mary; signs petition search
  • Hornish, Sarah; signs petition search
  • Hull, Mary; signs petition search
  • Ireland; oppression in search
  • Jones, Mary; signs petition search
  • Kerr, Margaret; signs petition search
  • Kerr, Sarah; signs petition search
  • Koch, Dorothea; signs petition search
  • Kuntz, Elizabeth, Jr.; signs petition search
  • Lattimer, Nancy; signs petition search
  • Lattimore, Hannah; signs petition search
  • Ledlie, Elizabeth; signs petition search
  • Lindsay, Eliza; signs petition search
  • Lindsay, Elizabeth; signs petition search
  • Lindsay, Mary; signs petition search
  • Linville, Sarah; signs petition search
  • Long, Catherine; signs petition search
  • looms search
  • machines; loom search
  • Maffet, Margaret; signs petition search
  • manufacturing; encouragement of in U.S. search
  • manufacturing; of clothing search
  • Marshell, Polly; signs petition search
  • Middleton, Christiana; signs petition search
  • Middleton, Jane Ann; signs petition search
  • Middleton, Kizia; signs petition search
  • Miller, Mary; signs petition search
  • Mitchell, Nancy; signs petition search
  • Mitchell, Susannah M.; signs petition search
  • Morgan, Katherine Duane; Circular on the Encouragement of Domestic Manufactures search
  • Morris, Eliza; signs petition search
  • Morris, Mary; signs petition search
  • Morrison, Jane; signs petition search
  • Morrow, Elizabeth; signs petition search
  • Mullan, Jane; signs petition search
  • M’Adden, Margaret; signs petition search
  • M’Beath, Nancy; signs petition search
  • M’Clellan, Elizabeth; signs petition search
  • M’Cluney, Elizabeth; signs petition search
  • M’Clure, Jane; signs petition search
  • M’Dermot, Jane; signs petition search
  • North, Lord Frederick (later 2d Earl of Guilford); as British prime minister search
  • Officer, Margaret; signs petition search
  • Officer, Mary; signs petition search
  • Orr, Margaret; signs petition search
  • O’Hara, Mary; signs petition search
  • O’Harra, Elizabeth; signs petition search
  • Pattyson, Martha; signs petition search
  • Pattyson, Mary Ann; signs petition search
  • Philips, Mary; signs petition search
  • Prigg, Rachel; signs petition search
  • Providence, R.I.; cloth from search
  • Quincy, Josiah (1744–75) search
  • Ramage, Rebecca; signs petition search
  • Ramsey, Elizabeth; signs petition search
  • Randolph, Mary Jefferson (TJ’s granddaughter); correspondence with siblings search
  • Rea, Jane; signs petition search
  • Reed, Hannah; signs petition search
  • Reichart, Elizabeth; signs petition search
  • Richardson, Ann; signs petition search
  • Roberts, Susanna; signs petition search
  • Robinson, Margaret; signs petition search
  • Robinson, Rebecca B.; signs petition search
  • Ruple, Danah; signs petition search
  • Ruth, Jane; signs petition search
  • Sample, Margaret; signs petition search
  • Schaffer, Louisa; signs petition search
  • Scott, Jane; signs petition search
  • Scott, Martha; signs petition search
  • Shepherd, Mary; signs petition search
  • shirting (textile) search
  • Simes, Ann F.; signs petition search
  • Simes, Mary F.; signs petition search
  • Simonson, Jane; signs petition search
  • Slagle, Martha; signs petition search
  • taxes; on imports search
  • Taylor, Hannah; signs petition search
  • Taylor, Nancy; signs petition search
  • Taylor, Rebecca; signs petition search
  • Terry, Ann; signs petition search
  • textiles; crepe search
  • textiles; domestic search
  • textiles; homespun search
  • textiles; leghorn search
  • textiles; manufacturing search
  • textiles; Providence cloth search
  • textiles; shirting search
  • The History of the Rise, Progress, and Establishment, of the Independence of the United States of America (W. Gordon) search
  • Thompson, Isabella; signs petition search
  • Trist, Virginia Jefferson Randolph (TJ’s granddaughter); clothing for search
  • Trist, Virginia Jefferson Randolph (TJ’s granddaughter); correspondence with siblings search
  • United States; and Great Britain search
  • Valentine, Mary; signs petition search
  • Vankirk, Elizabeth; signs petition search
  • Walker, Mary Ann; signs petition search
  • Waltz, Barbara; signs petition search
  • Washington County, Pa.; Franklin School of search
  • White, Sarah (of Washington, Pa., 1st listed); signs petition search
  • White, Sarah (of Washington, Pa., 2nd listed); signs petition search
  • Whitehouse, Charlotte; signs petition search
  • Whitehouse, Olivia; signs petition search
  • Wilson, Mary (of Washington, Pa., 1st listed); signs petition search
  • Wilson, Mary (of Washington, Pa., 2nd listed); signs petition search
  • Wolfe, Fanny; signs petition search
  • Wolfe, Sarah; signs petition search
  • women; and textile manufacture search
  • women; boycotts by search
  • women; documents by; K. D. Morgan search
  • Younger, Triffy; signs petition search