Thomas Jefferson Papers
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Thomas Appleton to Thomas Jefferson, 10 October 1820

From Thomas Appleton

Leghorn 10th October 1820—

dear Sir

Your favor of the 13th of July & postscriptum of the 30th reach’d me on the 4th of the present month.—A few days previous, I receiv’d, by duplicates, mr Vaughan’s letters, containing a bill on Paris, for Two thousand three hundred & fifty three francs.1 20 cts, which when negotiated, deducting brokerage & postage, left 436– Dollars, which I have paid mde Pini & now inclose you their receipt for—444:44 Doll—the expences they insisted on paying, and which is correct.—I translated to them, all you wish’d, in relation to the delay; and they desire me to say to you, that even should the capital, not be convenient for you to remit, even in2 a couple of years, they will wait with great pleasure; and again to repeat to you, the infinite obligations, they have receiv’d from your hands.—

for everything in relation to the wives of the Raggi’s, I must refer you to my letter of 2nd of June; in which I mention’d, that the four hundred dollars, had been paid to them in equal parts; the determination of the elder, not to leave her native country, and the numerous obstacles to the departure of the younger, with her infant-child, unaccompanied by some protecting friend.—

I lose no time, as you percieve by the date of my letter, to reply, as I n[ow] do, to your questions in relation to the capitals for the columns.—You mention, the corinthian capitals to be similar to Palladio, book. 1—plate 26—now the edition I possess, this plate contains the edifice of Counts francesco e fratelli Tiene; the order is composite.3—your’s, I presume is a different edition.—this is not material, I shall4 reply specifically.—they will cost deliver’d here from Carrara, & well cas’d, the following prices.—to wit.—

English inches Dollars
a corinthian capital for a column,  diminish’d  diameter   20 810     110 5
a ditto   do 25 210 180 .—6
an Ionic capital 26 55 .—7
a ditto   〃 26 ½ 60 .—8

You desire, also, to know the time requir’d, to deliver them in Leghorn; but you have omitted to mention the number of capitals wanted.—supposing, however, that your order should be for9 twenty capitals, half corinthian & the remainder Ionic.—they could be deliver’d here, in five months, from the receipt of your order to procure them—the freight to the U: States from hence, of marble-works in cases, & which I have frequently sent, will cost—Sixteen dollars, the ton measure of 40 cubic feet.10—You may rest assur’d, shou’d you confide to me the order, that the work will be perform’d by the most skilfull hands, & they will be cas’d in the Strongest boxes; as they are accustom’d to transport the finest workmanship, to every part of Europe.—The best mode of remittance, is by the way of London; and the man in whom I have the most confidence, indeed, he is unexceptionable for solidity & prudence, is Samuel Williams, No 13. Finsbury Square London.—shou’d you approve this mode, the bill should be bought by your correspondent, say at Phila remitted to sd Williams to collect, & hold the amount to my order.11—I have, in the hands of messrs Snowden & Wagner, merchants of Philadelphia, several marble busts, larger than life, of Washington, copied from my original Gesso, by Ceracchi.—of Cristor Columbus, & Amerigo12 Vespuccio, copied from original paintings, in the gallery of Florence; they may be seen on application to the above-merchants, and may be had at very moderate prices, if they should be useful in ornamenting your edifices.—when you shall have determin’d the diameter of the columns for the Pantheon, the capitals & pilastres, can be sent to you, before it will be necessary to place them; by comparing those you may require, with the prices herewith, it will be easy to judge, nearly the cost.—I send this letter, by duplicates, in order to insure its safe delivery to you.13—I have also in the hands of the abovemention’d Snowden & Wagner 4. or 5 Statuary marble chimney pieces of exquisite workmanship—two, I think, are sculptur’d with the Goddess Ceres, accompanied by all the emblems of agriculture, in releivo—the others represent Bacchus, with his emblems on the frontispiece & columns, agreeably to mythology.—no Superior workmanship has ever been sent from Italy—they would ornament the most noble palace; I presume, they could be bought, for about14 200– Dollars each—at messr Snowden & Wagner.—I have mention’d this, because, I thought it probable, you might have occasion for such, in Some of the superior Saloons, of your edifices.15—on the 6th inst the neapolitan troops under Genl Pepe, enter’d, by capitulation, the city of Palermo.—The government of naples progress with energy & wisdom; and the patriotism of the people, is, perhaps, equal to 1775 in our country—The regular troops have all been withdrawn from the interior, and plac’d on the frontiers—the provinces are left to the guard of some hundred thousand well arm’d Guarillos; while the capital has a national guard of nearly fifty thousand men.—The Empr of austria, hitherto, confines his army within his italian States; those who believe his counsels guided by wisdom & prudence, judge he will not invade the neapolitan territory.—

Accept Sir, the renew’d expressions of my unfeign’d esteem & respect

Th: Appleton

RC (DLC); edge chipped; endorsed by TJ as received 6 Feb. 1821 but recorded in SJL as received a month later. RC (MHi); address cover only; with PoC of TJ to Francis Eppes, 12 June 1822, on verso; addressed: “To Thomas Jefferson esq—Monticello—Virginia”; franked; stamped “SHIP”; postmarked Boston, 24 Feb. Dupl (DLC); with RC of Appleton to TJ, 2 Nov. 1820, subjoined; at head of text: “Duplicate.” FC (Lb in DNA: RG 84, CRL); in Appleton’s hand; adjacent to salutation: “Sent by Orlanda—20. Octr for Boston. duplicate by Ship Eliza ann. for new York. 24. novr”; at foot of text: “memo mention’d the Surrender of Palermo— & that no late occurence indicates the aggression of the austrians into the neapolitan territory.” FC (Lb in NNGL); in Appleton’s hand; incomplete and canceled, consisting of dateline, salutation, and first paragraph. Tr (ViU: TJP); extract in TJ’s hand; at head of text: “Extract of a letter from Thos Appleton (Consul of the US. at Leghorn) dated Oct. 10. 20.” Enclosure: receipt from Elisabetta Mazzei Pini and Andrea Pini to TJ, Leghorn, 10 Oct. 1820, indicating that from TJ through Appleton they had received 444 pesos duros and 44 cents, “un Anno di frutti del Capitale che si trova nelle mani del detto Sige Jeffersen Resultato della vendita fatta in Richmond dello stabile appartenente al defunto mio Padre Filippo Mazzei” (“the interest for one year on the capital in the hands of the said Mr. Jefferson resulting from the sale in Richmond of the building belonging to my deceased father, Philip Mazzei”) and that the sum was received in cash (MS in DLC, in an unidentified hand, with sums filled in a different hand, signed by Elisabetta Mazzei Pini and Andrea Pini; Dupl in DLC, written and signed as above; translation by Dr. Jonathan T. Hine).

counts francesco e fratelli tiene were Count Francesco Trissino and the Thiene brothers, Marcantonio and Adriano. guarillos: “guerrillas.” The italian states controlled by Francis I of Austria were the northern provinces of Lombardy and Venetia.

1RC: “frances.” Dupl and FC: “francs.”

2Dupl and FC: “under.”

3TJ here noted above the line “Pallad. B. II. pl. IX. XLVIII.”

4Extract begins here with “to your questions relating to the Capitels for the columns I.”

5To left of this line in extract TJ wrote “No IV. E” [Pavilion VIII].

6To left of this line in extract TJ wrote “II. W” [Pavilion III].

7To left of this line in extract TJ wrote “III. W.” [Pavilion V].

8To left of this line in extract TJ wrote “I. E.” [Pavilion II]. Extract ends here.

9Extract resumes here with “as to time, suppose you order.”

10TJ here noted above the line “or .40 C the Cub. foot. a capitel of 25.I. diam contains abt 6. cub. f. = 2.40.”

11Extract ends here.

12RC: “Amrigo.” Dupl and FC: “Amerigo.”

13Sentence not in Dupl.

14Dupl: “little more than.”

15Dupl and FC end here with closing and signature.

Index Entries

  • Appleton, Thomas; and capitals for University of Virginia search
  • Appleton, Thomas; and families of G. Raggi and M. Raggi search
  • Appleton, Thomas; and P. Mazzei’s estate search
  • Appleton, Thomas; letters from search
  • Appleton, Thomas; on Italy search
  • Austria; and Italy search
  • Bacchus (Roman deity) search
  • boats; cost of transportation by search
  • Ceracchi, Giuseppe; bust of G. Washington by search
  • Ceres (Roman deity) search
  • Columbus, Christopher; bust of search
  • Eliza Ann (ship) search
  • Florence, Italy; Galleria degli Uffizi search
  • Francis I, emperor of Austria; and Italy search
  • Italy; T. Appleton on search
  • Jefferson, Thomas; Business & Financial Affairs; and P. Mazzei’s property search
  • Jefferson, Thomas; Business & Financial Affairs; debt to P. Mazzei search
  • marble; chimneypieces search
  • Mazzei, Philip; Richmond property of search
  • Mazzei, Philip; TJ’s debt to search
  • museums; Galleria degli Uffizi search
  • Naples, kingdom of (later Kingdom of the Two Sicilies); revolution in search
  • Orlando (ship) search
  • Palermo, Italy; falls to Neapolitan troops search
  • Palladio, Andrea; works of, as models for University of Virginia construction search
  • Pepe, Florestano; Neapolitan general search
  • Pini, Andrea Tozzi (Elisabetta Mazzei Pini’s husband); and P. Mazzei’s estate search
  • Pini, Elisabetta Mazzei (Philip Mazzei’s daughter; Andrea Pini’s wife); and P. Mazzei’s estate search
  • Raggi, Giacomo; family of search
  • Raggi, Michele; family of search
  • Richmond, Va.; P. Mazzei’s property in search
  • sculpture; of A. Vespucci search
  • sculpture; of C. Columbus search
  • sculpture; of G. Washington search
  • Snowden & Wagner (Philadelphia firm) search
  • Thiene, Adriano search
  • Thiene, Marcantonio search
  • Trissino, Francesco, Count search
  • Uffizi, Galleria degli (Florence) search
  • Vaughan, John (1756–1841); and payments made for TJ search
  • Vespucci, Amerigo (Americus Vespucius); bust of search
  • Virginia, University of; Construction and Grounds; Pavilion II search
  • Virginia, University of; Construction and Grounds; Pavilion III search
  • Virginia, University of; Construction and Grounds; Pavilion V search
  • Virginia, University of; Construction and Grounds; Pavilion VIII search
  • Virginia, University of; Construction and Grounds; Rotunda search
  • Washington, George; sculpture of search
  • Williams, Samuel (ca.1759–1841); and remittances to T. Appleton search