Notes on Navigation and Trade
[ca. 13 May 1790]1
Massts. has 60 distilleries. (Sheffd. p. 108)3
The Quantity of foreign Molasses imported into America, prior to the war, appears by the Custom house books to be greater than the quantity of rum imported there, altho’ the latter free from duty and molasses subject to a duty of more than 20 PerCt. on prime cost—and ⅓ may be reasonably added to the Custom house account. The undistilled consumption inconsiderable (Id. 111.)
⅓ more rum distilled than imported (p. 114)
|In 1773. imported into Engd.||61.||6.||2.||20.||— Exported||7 —||6 —||3 —||244|
N. England Rum preferred by the Canadians & lower ranks—is stronger & 25 Per Ct. cheaper (p. 110)
Rum greatly exceeds any other article of W. Indies brought into America. (p. 111.[)]
Rum from Sta. Cruz 3d or 4d. a Gallon cheaper than British5—
In 1769. 2,834,752. Gallns. valued at ⅔ Ster: £318,909–12. imported into America (112)
|In 1769. rum exported from America—to||G. Britain||25,974|
|South of Europe||13,871|
|In 1773. total rum||imported into G. B.||2,138,681.||No. II6|
|exported from do||828,803.|
N. Engld. Rum from 25 to 30 PerCt. cheaper than W. Inds. rum—(Sheffd.)
Rum imported into U. S—1785–86–87—cost 12,000,000 drs—Country rum ½ as much more. Morse 897
|No. of Vessels inward to America in 1770||21428||+||4919||=||7061||–||365,110.|
|do||outward to do||do||2271||+||5135||=||7406||–||385,446|
N. B. deduct 60 or 70,000 tonnage for N.foundland—Canada, Nov. Scot: Floridas &c—
In 1774. total British comercial Tonnage 1,136,162
allowing 12 men to 200 tons—sailors, 68,228.9
|English tonnage||72,450—95,266||—after navigation act in 15 years—up at 190,533.—||273,693—609,798—798,864|
|+ ⅓ unregistred 266,288 = 1,065,152 + Scotch 71,010 = 1,136,162 (Id. p. 136)|
proportion of foreign to British tonnage cleared out, about 1600—¼—1700. less than ⅙—1725. 1/19—1750. 1/12—1774 less than 1/12. (Ibid)
|Ships built||and equipped in N. Engd. Sts||from £7.10||to £8. Sterlg.||per ton|
|do||middle & S. Sts,||from £8–||to £8–10.||Cost of timber & building||£4.||Most esteemed|
|do.||live oak, S. Sts||from £10.||to £10.10.||Cost of do||£5.|
Medium price in Thames for vessel of 300 tons compleatly finished £9. per ton with £150. for masts & yds.
Wages of Seamen in America 45/. Sterlg. per month—in Engd. 25/. to 30/.
U. Provs. of Holld. have 10,000 national seamen only—with abt. 25,000 from Germany & North of Europe.10
|No. of coasting vessels entered at Custom-House of Philada. in 1785–was 567 all others 501 =||1068.|
Exports of U. S. estimated by Mr. Jefferson at £3,000,00011—of which ⅓ might be advantageously interchanged with France under regulations mutually liberal & proper
formerly 6,000 seamen in Whale fishing—now free in France—
Rice gaining ground in France—probably whole of American rice may be consumed there—it employed 2500 sailors—
About 600 vessels enter & clear in ports of R. Island annually—Morse12
Annual amt. of Cod & other fish exported from N. England, including profits of Whalefishing about £500,000. Morse13
|Connecticut prior||to 1774. exports £200,000 lawful money. Morse14|
|180 vessels—10,317 tons—1162 seamen besides coasters—with 90 seamen|
|N York in 1774. 1075 vessels in her trade–40,81215|
|Pennsylva. vessels entered||1786–910–||1787–87016|
Exports of Va. rated by Mr. Jefferson at 2,800,000 Dollrs.17
do. of S. C. at £505,279. by Morse18—
|Pennsylva. tonage for 178819—||British||21,240||American||214||Ves.||22122|
|28,012||of 240 Vessels||843||72,101||tons|
|Dutch W. Inds.||49,585|
|Fr: W. Inds.||20,538|
|Danish W. Inds.||96,849|
|1785 Value of imports—1,018,578|
|Imports for 1 Year—||ending|
|Supr. Green tea||10,000|
|W. I Rum||760,000||Gal: @||3/4||£ 121,829|
Ms (DLC). In JM’s hand. Undated, but see n. 1. Listed under date of 14 May 1790 in Index to the James Madison Papers.
1. Although undated, this document is obviously related to JM’s speeches of 13 and 14 May 1790. The Ms is a single sheet written on both sides. As preserved in JM’s papers the recto consists of the notes on navigation, with the statistics on Pennsylvania tonnage and imports inserted at the bottom of the page; the verso contains the notes on molasses and rum. The notes on navigation were undoubtedly used by JM during the May 1790 debate on discriminatory tonnage duties. Those on molasses and rum are also relevant to this debate but may have been originally drawn up for the 1789 tariff debate (see n. 2). In the text presented here the editors have placed these notes first to accord with the probable order in which JM compiled them. This ordering is also consistent with his citations of Lord Sheffield. At the beginning of the section on molasses, he mentions “Sheffd. p. 108” as his authority. The first citation under navigation, however, is “Id. p. 136,” suggesting that these notes are a later addition to those on molasses and rum.
2. JM may have used these notes in his speech of 28 Apr. 1789 (PJM description begins William T. Hutchinson et al., eds., The Papers of James Madison (vols. 1–10, Chicago, 1962–77; vols. 11—, Charlottesville, Va., 1977—). description ends , XII, 114–18).
3. John [Baker Holroyd] Lord Sheffield, Observations on the Commerce of the American States … (new ed., much enlgd.; London, 1784). For JM’s reaction to this work upon its first appearance in 1783 as a pamphlet, see PJM description begins William T. Hutchinson et al., eds., The Papers of James Madison (vols. 1–10, Chicago, 1962–77; vols. 11—, Charlottesville, Va., 1977—). description ends , VII, 295–96. Six editions had been published by 1784. Although the sixth edition was available to JM, his page-number citations prove that he used the earlier “new edition, much enlarged” (also published in Dublin, 1784).
4. These statistics are from Table III in the appendix to Sheffield’s Observations.
5. Sheffield, Observations, p. 128.
6. Ibid., Appendix, Table II.
7. Jedidiah Morse, The American Geography … (Elizabeth Town, [N.J.], 1789). JM’s entry from Morse is inserted at the bottom of the page and may have been added at a later time. It is uncertain when JM first saw a copy of this work, which was published sometime during the spring of 1789. Morse petitioned Congress for a copyright on 12 May (DHFC description begins Linda Grant De Pauw et al., eds., Documentary History of the First Federal Congress of the United States of America (3 vols. to date; Baltimore, 1972—). description ends , III, 56–57).
8. JM copied from the wrong column; this figure should be 3299. These statistics are from Sheffield, Observations, Appendix, Table VII.
9. Ibid., p. 136.
10. The preceding information (beginning with the cost of New England ships) is from ibid., pp. 139–40 n.
11. This is Jefferson’s estimated value of U.S. exports to Europe (Boyd, Papers of Jefferson description begins Julian P. Boyd et al., eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson (19 vols. to date; Princeton, 1950—). description ends , XIX, 136–37). At the top of his copy of Jefferson’s estimate, JM wrote “Estimate (by Mr. Jefferson 17) of the annual exports of the U. States, those of the American Traveller (1769) taken as the basis but corrected. This statement refers to the exports prior to the Revolution.” For a comparison of Jefferson’s figures with those in Alexander Cluny, The American Traveller … (London, 1769), see Boyd, Papers of Jefferson description begins Julian P. Boyd et al., eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson (19 vols. to date; Princeton, 1950—). description ends , XIX, 138 n. In addition to Jefferson’s estimate of exports, JM also copied Jefferson’s estimate of American imports and an extract from Jefferson’s remarks on Sheffield’s Observations (ibid., XIX, 127–31, 135). JM’s copies of these documents are in a notebook that JM apparently put together late in life when arranging his papers (DLC [Series 6, Madison’s Notes on Exports and Navigation]).
12. Morse, American Geography, p. 203.
13. Ibid., p. 149.
14. Ibid., p. 216.
15. Ibid., p. 263.
16. Ibid., p. 336.
17. Jefferson, Notes on Virginia (Peden ed.), p. 167.
18. Morse, American Geography, p. 437.
19. JM had cited Pennsylvania’s tonnage statistics in his speech of 5 May 1789. His source on that occasion was a memorandum listing the tonnage figures for five states (PJM description begins William T. Hutchinson et al., eds., The Papers of James Madison (vols. 1–10, Chicago, 1962–77; vols. 11—, Charlottesville, Va., 1977—). description ends , XII, 101 n. 1, 135).
20. JM inserted these statistics laterally on the lower margin.
21. The preceding statistics are also recorded in a separate memorandum, filed at the end of 1784 in the bound Madison Papers volumes at the Library of Congress. Written in an unknown hand, this document is headed: “The Whole Imports into Pensylvania in 1784. Valued— £1,119,383.”