To John Jay
Paris Nov. 14. 1788.
In my letter of Dec. 21. 1787. I had the honour of acknoleging the receipt of your two favours of July 27. 1787. which had come to my hands Dec. 19. and brought with them my full powers for treating on the subject of the Consular convention. Being then much engaged in getting forward the Arret which came out the 29th. of Dec. and willing to leave some interval between that act, and the sollicitation of a reconsideration of our Consular convention, I had declined mentioning it for some time, and was just about to bring it on the carpet, when it became necessary for me to go to Amsterdam. Immediately after my return, which was about the last of April, I introduced the subject to the Count de Montmorin, and have followed it unremittingly from that time. The office of Marine, as well as that of foreign affairs, being to be consulted in all the stages of the negociation, has protracted it’s conclusion till this time. It is at length signed this day, and I have now the honour to inclose the original for the ratification of Congress. The principal changes effected are the following:
The clauses of the Convention of 1784, cloathing Consuls with the privileges of the law of Nations, are struck out, and they are expressly subjected, in their persons and property, to the laws of the land.
That giving the right of Sanctuary to their houses is reduced to a protection of their Chancery room and it’s papers.
Their coercive powers over passengers are taken away: and over those whom they might have termed deserters of their nation, are restrained to deserted seamen only.
The clause allowing them to arrest and send back vessels is struck out, and instead of it they are allowed to exercise a police over the ships of their nation generally.
So is that which declared the indelibility of the character of subject, and the explanation and extension of the 11th. article of the treaty of Amity.
The innovations in the Laws of evidence are done away.
And the Convention is limited to 12. years duration.
Convinced that the fewer examples, the better, of either persons or causes inamenable to the laws of the land, I could have wished still more had been done. But more could not be done with good humor. The extensions of authority given by the Convention of 1784. were so homogeneous with the spirit of this government, that they were prized here. Monsieur de Rayneval has had the principal charge of arranging this instrument with me; and, in justice to him, I must say I could not have desired more reasonable and friendly dispositions than he demonstrated through the whole of it.
I inclose herewith the several schemes successively proposed between us, together with copies of the written observations given in with them, and which served as texts of discussion in our personal conferences. They may serve as a commentary on any passage which may need it, either now or hereafter, and as a history how any particular passage comes to stand as it does. No. 1. is the Convention of 1784. No. 2. is my first scheme. No. 3. theirs in answer to it. No. 4. my next, which brought us so near together, that, in a conference on that, we arranged it in the form in which it has been signed. I add No. 5. the copy of a translation which I have put into their hands, with a request that, if they find any passages in which the sense of the original is not faithfully rendered they will point them out to me. Otherwise we may consider it as having their approbation. This, and the Convention of 1784. (marked No. 1.) are placed side by side so as to present to the eye, with less trouble, the changes made; and I inclose a number of printed copies of them for the use of the members who will have to decide on the ratification. It is desireable that the ratification should be sent here for exchange as soon as possible.
With respect to the Consular appointments, it is a duty on me to add some observations which my situation here has enabled me to make. I think it was in the Spring of 1784. that Congress (harrassed by multiplied applications from foreigners, of whom nothing was known but on their own information, or on that of others as unknown as themselves) came to a resolution that the interest of America would not permit the naming any person, not a citizen, to the office of Consul, vice consul, agent, or commissary. This was intended as a general answer to that swarm of foreign pretenders. It appears to me that it will be best still to preserve a part of this regulation. Native citizens, on several valuable accounts, are preferable to Aliens, and to citizens alien-born. They possess our language, know our laws, customs, and commerce, have generally acquaintance in the U. S. give better satisfaction, and are more to be relied on in point of fidelity. Their disadvantages are, an imperfect acquaintance with the language of this country, and an ignorance of the organisation of it’s judicial and executive powers, and consequent awkwardness whenever application to either of these is necessary, as it frequently is. But it happens that in some of the principal ports of France there is not a single American (as in Marseilles, Lorient, and Havre) in others but one (as in Nantes and Rouen) and in Bordeaux only are there two or three. Fortunately for the present moment, most of these are worthy of appointments. But we should look forward to future times when there may happen to be no native citizens in a port but such as, being bankrupt, have taken asylum in France from their creditors, or young, ephemeral adventurers in commerce without substance or conduct, or other descriptions which might disgrace the consular office, without protecting our commerce. To avail ourselves of our good native citizens, when we have one in a port, and, when there are none, to have yet some person to attend to our affairs, it appears to me adviseable to declare, by a standing law, that no person but a native citizen shall be capable of the office of Consul; and that the Consul’s presence in his port should suspend for the time the functions of the Viceconsul. This is the rule of 1784. restrained to the office of Consul and to native citizens. The establishing this by a standing law will guard against the effect of particular applications, and will shut the door against such applications, which will otherwise be numerous. This done, the office of Viceconsul may be given to the best subject in the port whether citizen or alien and that of Consul be kept open for any native citizen of superior qualifications, who might come afterwards to establish themselves in the port. The functions of the Viceconsul would become dormant during the presence of his principal, come into activity again on his departure, and thus spare us and them the painful operation of revoking and reviving their commissions perpetually. Add to this that during the presence of the Consul, the Viceconsul would not be merely useless, but would be a valuable counsellor to his principal, new in the office, the language, laws and customs of the country. Every Consul and viceconsul should be restrained in his jurisdiction to the port for which he is named and the territory nearer to that than to any other Consular or Viceconsular port, and no idea permitted to arise that the grade of consul gives a right to any authority whatever over a viceconsul, or draws on any dependance.
To these general facts and observations I will add some local, and of the present moment.
Marseilles. There is no native. Stephen Cathalan, the father, has had the Agency, by appointment either of Doctr. Franklin or Mr. Barclay. But his son, of the same name, has solely done the duties, and is best capable of them. He speaks our language perfectly, is familiar with our customs, as having lived in a counting house in London, is sensible, active, and solid in his circumstances. Both the port and person merit a Viceconsulate.
Bordeaux. Mr. John Bondfeild, a native citizen, has hitherto acted by appointment from Doctr. Franklin. He is well known in America; is of a higher degree of information than is usually to be found, and unexceptionable in every point of view. His circumstances, indeed, have, at one time, been perplexed; but I suppose them to be otherwise now. He is likely to remain long at Bordeaux, and is so much respected that we cannot expect a better subject there. I think him proper for a Consular commission.
Nantes. We have but one native citizen there, Mr. Burrell Carnes, who has acted by appointment from Mr. Barclay, and acted well as far as I am able to judge. He is young, and beginning business only, would be proper for the viceconsulate at present, and for the Consulate when time shall have added experience and firm establishment to his present qualifications.
Lorient. No citizen at all. Mr. Loreilhé, a Frenchman and very worthy man, acted for some time: but failing in his affairs, he removed to the neighborhood of Bordeaux. After that, I wrote occasionally to Wilt & Delmestre: but they too are become bankrupt. There is lately gone there from Paris a Monsieur Vernés, an uncommonly sensible well informed man, speaking our language well, connected in commerce with the wealthy house of Berard & co. and particularly engaged in the American commerce. I suppose him proper for a Vice-consulate.
Havre. There is no native. Mr. André Limosin has acted by appointment of Doctr. Franklin. He is a very solid merchant, speaks and writes our language, is sensible, experienced, and very zealous. His services hitherto have been so assiduous as to entitle him to the viceconsulate, in preference to any other person of that port.
Rouen. There is but one citizen there, Mr. Thomas Appleton, son of Nathaniel Appleton of Boston. He is young, and just beginning business. He is sensible, active, and fit for the viceconsulate, with a view to the Consulate at some future day, as in the case of Mr. Carnes.
The preceding are the only ports worthy of either Consular or Viceconsular establishment. To multiply would be to degrade them, and excite jealousy in the government. At the following I should suppose Agents sufficient.
Dunkirk. Francis Coffyn, an American, and good man, appointed by Doctr. Franklyn.
Dieppe. Mr. Cavalier, a Frenchman appointed by Mr. Barclay.
Bayonne. Louis Alexander has meddled for us of his own accord. I know neither good nor harm of him. He writes a broken English, but I do not know whether he speaks the language. Tho’ a free-port, there had entered there, but one or two ships from the peace to the autumn of 1787. I have no account since.
Cette. Nicholas Guirrard, named by Dr. Franklin. He is of the mercantile house of Guirrard & Portas. I saw one of the partners when at Cette, who spoke English well, is familiar with English usages in commerce, is sensible, and has the appearance of being a good man. But I do not recollect whether the person I describe was Guirrard or Portas. The other partner does not speak English. Mr. Barclay can probably fix this incertainty, as well as give fuller information on all the other persons named. This one, whichever he be, is fittest for the Agency.
Besides these, I would take the liberty of recommending the appointment of Agents at Toulon, Rochefort, Brest, and Cherburg, merely for the purposes of intelligence. They are king’s ports, and it is in them that the symptoms of a maritime war will always first shew themselves. Such a correspondence therefore will be always proper for your minister here, and in general the consuls and viceconsuls should be instructed to correspond with him for his information. It does not appear to me proper that he should have any power of naming or removing them. It might lead to abuse.
It is now proper I should give some account of the state of our dispute with Schweighauser & Dobrée. In the conversation I had with Dobree at Nantes, he appeared to think so rationally on this subject, that I thought there would be no difficulty in accomodating it with him, and I wished rather to settle it by accomodation than to apply to the minister. I afterwards had it intimated to him through the medium of Mr. Carnes, that I had it in idea to propose a reference to Arbitrators. He expressed a chearful concurrence in it. I thereupon made the proposition to him formally by letter, mentioning particularly that we would chuse our arbitrators of some neutral nation, and of preference from among the Dutch refugees here. I was surprized to receive an answer from him wherein, after expressing his own readiness to accede to this proposition, he added that on consulting Mr. Puchelbourg, he had declined it: nevertheless he wished a fuller explanation from me as to the subjects to be submitted to arbitration. I gave him that explanation, and he answered finally that Mr. Puchelbourg refused all accomodation and insisted that the matter should be decided by the tribunals of the country. Accomodation being at an end, I wrote to Monsieur de Montmorin, and insisted on the usage of nations, which does not permit the effects of one sovereign to be seised in the territories of another, and subjected to judiciary decision there. I am promised that the stores shall be delivered: but the necessary formalities will occasion some delay. The king being authorized to call all causes before himself, ours will be evoked from the tribunal where it is, and will be ended by an order to deliver up the stores arrested, leaving it to the justice of Congress to do afterwards what is right as to the demand of Schweighauser & Dobrée. I wish I could receive instructions what to do with the stores when delivered. The arms had certainly better be sent to America, as they are good, and yet will sell here for little or nothing. The gunstocks and old iron had better be sold here. But what should be done with the anchors? Being thoroughly persuaded that Congress wish that substantial justice should be done to Schweighause & Dobrée, I shall, after the stores are secured, repeat my proposition of arbitration to them. If they then refuse it, I shall return all the papers to America and consider my powers for settling this matter as at an end.
I have received no answer yet from Denmark on the subject of the prizes: nor do I know whether to ascribe this silence to an intention to evade the demand, or to the multitude of affairs they have had on their hands lately. Patience seems to be prudence in this case; to indispose them would do no good, and might do harm. I shall write again soon if no answer be received in the mean time.
I have the honour to be with sentiments of the most perfect esteem & respect, Sir, Your most obedient & most humble servant,
RC (DNA: PCC, No. 87, ii, 291–300). PrC (DLC). Enclosures: In addition to the signed official French text of the Consular Convention transmitted with this letter for ratification by the Senate, TJ also enclosed a copy, in Short’s hand, of his letter to Montmorin, 20 June 1788, together with copies of the five documents numbered and described in the text above, all of which are in TJ’s hand and are to be found in DNA: PCC, No. 87, ii, 303–99 (for full texts and descriptions, see Documents v, vii, xi, xiii, xiv, and xvi in the group of documents on the Consular Convention, following). For TJ’s state of the case of Schweighauser & Dobree, see at end of Nov. 1789.
TJ’s comments on consular appointments are in general agreement with appraisals made by Thomas Barclay, who, at some date after TJ became minister to France in 1785 and before Barclay returned to America in 1787, supplied him with a “List of American Agents in France.” This reads as follows:
“Dunkirk. Francis Coffyn, Employ’d during the War by Doctor Franklin, appears to be well informed, and attentive to the Interests of America and I think may be depended on.
Dieppe. Mons. Cavallier, Extremely well recommended by Mr. Holker and by sundry other persons of Charracter at Rouen—a French subject.
Havre. Andrew Limozin, Appointed in Consequence of a strong Recommendation from M. Morris of Philadelphia, but I know nothing of his Disposition towards America nor of his abilities but I believe him Very attentive to his own Interest.
Rouen. Anthony Garvey. I Believe a good man. He was strongly recommended by Mr. Holker of Rouen and by others.
Lorient. Thomas Barclay. In his absence Zachariah Loreilhe, a French Man by Birth but I believe a subject of the United States. For his attention and secrecy in any Matter of Consequence I will be responsible.
Bordeaux. John Bondfield, appointed some Years ago by Mr. Lee, and has Continued to act under great propriety.
Marseilles. Etienne Cathalan, Recommended by M. Morris of Philadelphia on account of some services done during the war. I cannot say any thing of the propriety of the Choice, Nor any thing against him. A French subject.
Cette. Nichs. Guerrard Recommended by M. Franklin. Of his Qualifications I Cannot say any thing” (DLC:TJ Papers, 14:2521).
But TJ’s recommendations respecting the use of agents for the purpose of intelligence—which was one of the things that Americans most feared about a French consular establishment in America—stand in marked contrast to the views of the French minister, Moustier, whose aim was to create a corps of efficient civil servants in aid of commerce with America, not to build up a political espionage system. The following is a detailed summary of Moustier’s proposals that were entitled “Distribution des Consulats et Vice Consulats de France dans les Etats unis et caractère des differens Sujets qui y sont employés.” Moustier explained that his sole purpose had been to promote the success of an establishment that would inevitably have a considerable influence on commerce with America, that this alone had persuaded him to denounce the abuses that had been introduced in it, and that the new distribution of consulates that he proposed was based on this aim and supported by incontestable facts of which he had proof in hand. A consul in America, he said, was obliged to live on a plane of equality with the officials and most distinguished citizens of the republic. This was not the case where Congress resided, for there consuls were overshadowed by foreign ministers and by officials of the United States; elsewhere consuls took rank immediately after the governor, and received from officials and wealthy citizens courtesies that they were obliged to return in order to support rank. The salary allowed, even at Charleston where expenses were high, was sufficient to cover living costs: some governors even received less, but they were able to supplement these with resources which consuls did not have. It would be ridiculous to suggest that consuls live in boarding houses and without servants as members of Congress did, for the latter, elected for only one year, poorly paid, and remaining only five or six months, could not possibly maintain residences. Some of them received only “deux piastres” a day during their stay in Congress and lived so shabbily as to excite ridicule even among Americans. Consuls must, then, live like officials of the states or of the United States, who give frequent dinners, and have carriages and decent houses.—French consuls could not equal this style of living without extreme economy, but those of Great Britain had no such difficulty: Temple lives more like a minister than a consul. This is necessary even in a republic, for simplicity is practiced only by necessity, and many sacrifices are made to ostentation.
Moustier thought it necessary for a consulate to have a secretary who was a lawyer; but in America there was only one—Mantel, attached to the consul general: others were either merchants who had failed, inexperienced young men, or adventurers. The inconvenience was less when the consuls themselves were lawyers, as their station required, but too often they relied on notaries and lawyers of the country. In Baltimore the secretary was a former hotel-keeper who had compromised the fortunes of merchants who trusted their affairs to him; an astonishing irregularity in the registers was the natural result. The political details that the ministry occasionally requested consuls to give concerning the situation in their respective states had caused some to regard this as the principal aim of their establishment and to neglect their primary duty to attend to mercantile affairs.—Consuls should remember that they are French. Obliged to live among Americans and to talk about their politics and laws, some have forgotten that they are only spectators of what takes place under their eyes. A sojourn in America has many attractions for men of inferior birth and fortune; clothed with an office that endows them with considerable importance, they often recall with bitterness the small role they enjoyed in their native country, exaggerate the inconveniences of customs which bind them to the monarchy, look with enthusiasm on the advantages of a democratic country, become foreigners to France, and, far from preventing nationals from deserting the flag, they seem to encourage them.—There was, in brief, a greater need for reorganizing the consular establishment in America than ever existed anywhere else. It was particularly important that a channel of authority be established, with agents, vice consuls, consuls, and the consul generals reporting to their immediate superiors, not establishing direct correspondence with the minister of marine. But much depended on those who occupied the offices. Some of these were worthy of confidence, and Moustier therefore appended a list with some observations that might guide the department in making instructions:
De la Forest, vice consul. All the desireable qualities of a good consulactive, vigilant, industrious, attached to his country, perfectly versed in both consular and general American affairs, putting order, dispatch, and precision in his work, respecting the manners and laws of this country without for a moment abandoning the interests of his own, which he defends vigorously while moderating the impetuosity of several of his colleagues. He is generally esteemed by the Americans, though they have ground to be discontented because of his vigilance and patriotism. He is younger than most of his colleagues, but served an apprenticeship for several years under La Luzerne.
De l’Etombe, consul at Boston. Very active, meeting his duties with care. Has acquired experience in consular affairs, and has won the esteem and affection of the people of his state. Although one of the oldest, he has been careful to defer to the vice consul general and to give him exact reports. His secretary, De Bissy, is a promising young man. It may be recommended to De l’Etombe to be less worried, less carried away, not so much concerned about intrigue, and more vigilant about commercial operations. In general, he merits praise: he dispenses his emoluments prudently, and is “très considéré a Boston.”
Crèvecoeur, consul at New York. Has often gone to the other extreme, running away from duties when they most need attention. Having come at mature age to a foreign country and without knowledge of the first elements that must enter into the education of a good consul, he needs a secretary to guide him. There has been slight inconvenience up to now because of the small amount of commerce with New York and because Crèvecoeur has profited from the wisdom of De la Forest. But as this will change, it should be strongly recommended to him to obtain an informed secretary, to interest himself in mercantile affairs, and to devote to the study of the laws of the realm the time that he has hitherto given to literature, to natural history, and to other researches, which, however useful, do not appertain to his office. Les Lettres d’un Cultivateur Américain that he has published do more honor to his sensibility and imagination than to his judgment, and he should be desired not to continue a work which has led many French emigrants to misery in a land where they expected to find great fortunes. He has been expatriated more than 25 years, and only by a lucky chance does he find himself consul in New York. Because he has lived too long in America and not enough in France, he has developed prejudices in favor of the English laws and customs that he prudently tries not to reveal. It should be recommended to him not to praise a nation that is already too much admired in America, and to be French in his discourse and conduct. He should be reproached about his outlays, which, before his voyage to France, became almost stingy. With these faults, he has many good qualities: he is very amenable, only needs direction to become a good consul, and has even begun to face his duty with more zeal. He is esteemed in America, speaks the language well, and his simple manners suit the people.
D’Anmours, consul at Baltimore. Very informed, more than any of his colleagues is able to “generaliser ses idées” and to present to the court illuminating and true reports on the situation of affairs in America. He began his career by travelling from one end of the continent to the other and gathering everywhere interesting details which reveal his genius and insight. He is esteemed in Maryland and Virginia by informed and discerning people. But he is not a good consul: interested only in broad politics and in the revolution taking place in the country, he neglects his duties and thinks they are beneath him. A useful secretary would take care of current affairs, but he has neglected to get one and business at Baltimore goes on as best it can. He has not only disdained to report to the consul general, but even refused to answer the vice consul of his department who had written him several times to ask instructions on important matters. It is indispensable that he should devote himself less to political and more to consular affairs. He could render more essential service in any other country: since separating from his wife, he has affronted the manners of the country so greatly by living openly with a mulatto, who has had the effrontery to use his wife’s carriage and presides over her house, that this reason alone would be sufficient to employ him elsewhere.
Toscan, vice consul at Portsmouth. Will perhaps be able to acquire qualities he now lacks. Up to now he has been occupied too much in worrying his chief, De l’Etombe, and in being insubordinate. His official conduct has been very irregular in several respects, and he should be strongly reminded of the ordinance forbidding consuls to engage in commerce or form alliances with mercantile houses. Either from frivolity, personal interest, or complaisance towards intimates, he has made several onerous transactions for the king and failed to use vigilance where duty demanded it. These irregularities drew strong reprimands from De l’Etombe, to which he replied so sharply that it has become necessary for the service to separate these two men. His removal from Portsmouth would also have the advantage of cutting off commercial links that, with good reason, are suspected to exist.
Dejean, Canadian, commercial agent at New London, has been placed there by Crèvecoeur to test his talents. He has just converted to his private use, under pretext of right to enjoy during one year, the produce of an inheritance whose recovery had been entrusted to him. This single fact should suffice to exclude him from all advancement. He also lacks necessary education. Although strongly recommended by several influential persons, he should not occupy a post in the United States. He knows the smuggling trade Americans carry on with the French West Indies, has been zealous in uncovering it, and, since he merits some consideration on these grounds, might be usefully employed in the islands.
Marbois, vice consul at Philadelphia, had the advantage of being trained as secretary to La Luzerne and of working several years under his own brother. He has justified the good opinions that these circumstances produced. It should only be recommended to him that these advantages be expanded and that he be convinced of the need for consular officers to live in a kind of intimacy with the principal personages in America. As the laws rarely anticipate consular needs, the magistrates are often disposed to award favors from personal attachment that could not be obtained by law. Marbois is scarcely known at Philadelphia: without avoiding duty, he could form attachments which would contribute equally to his information and the success of his functions. The delicacy of his health might make it happier for him and more useful for the service if he were employed in Europe.
Oster, vice consul at Norfolk. Is perhaps the best lawyer among the king’s officials in America. He is very assiduous, attached to his country, active and methodical. He is the oldest and most industrious of all the officials,
but a profound study of the forms of justice and of the law has absorbed every other faculty, and outside of that he seems to be weak. Oster is perfectly fitted to his place, and a more industrious, loyal, vigilant, helpful protector of merchants could not be found. A consulate requires more general knowledge and view of administration and commerce than Oster appears to be capable of.
Ducher, commercial agent at Wilmington, has given constant proofs of insubordination, ill will, and ignorance. Detested by all who know him, he vents his impotent vengeance on the whole consular corps, adding hatred to scorn. His bad conduct grows worse. It would have been better for the service and for the reputation of the French name in America if he had never been invested with any office, and it is urgent that he be recalled at the earliest possible moment. He began his career in America with an imposture and all his subsequent conduct has been worthy of his debut. Whether from profound ignorance or wickedness, this man has never ceased to give every possible annoyance to consuls who have dealt with him. To all these bad qualities of spirit and heart, Ducher joins a repulsive exterior and a disgusting dirtiness: he can only dishonor the nation wherever he is sent.
Petry, vice consul at Charleston, also one who came under the tutelage of the minister. He is wise, moderate, vigilant, attached to his duties, and esteemed for the mildness of his manners. His conduct leaves nothing to desire, and when he has had more experience he will one day be able to fill a consulate.
Subjects who merit being placed and encouraged:
Mantel, secretary of the vice consul general, the oldest and most meritorious of those who have reason to aspire to a place. He could replace Ducher, who is not only useless but prejudicial to affairs. A better choice could not be made.
Dupont, a young man of great promise, son of the director general of commerce, who has come to America to fit himself for a consular career. He was received by De la Forest and worked as secretary for him. The agency at New London could be given to him to test his ability. Dejean should not be continued there.
Tardiveau, former French merchant, came to America at the beginning of the war to direct commerce for a large company and was twice taken prisoner by the British. After the loss of his fortune, he made several other attempts that were equally unfortunate. Some lands in Ohio salvaged from these are his only resource. Several voyages on the Mississippi and to New Orleans, a mind cultivated from youth, a studious habit, and a profound penetration have given him extensive knowledge of the politics and commerce of the United States. He has written some memoirs that show the justness of his observations. Without having ever had the desire to be an expatriate he finds himself unavoidably fixed in a savage country that offers no scope for his talents. If unforeseeable circumstances cause the ministry “à jeter les yeux sur le pays de Kentucke et sur la Louisiane,” connections with Tardiveau could become very important. Illinois inhabitants have thought so highly of him that they have named him their agent to Congress. It was on this occasion that Moustier had grounds for being convinced of his good qualities, drawing from him many interesting details on the actual situation of the western country, on the navigation of the Mississippi, on Louisiana, and could not refrain from remarking the soundness and extent of his views. Moustier has never spoken to him of employment and does not know whether he would accept any, nevertheless proposes him for a vice consulate (MS in clerk’s hand, headed “par le Comte de Moustier 1788”; Arch. Aff. Etr., biii, Carton 440; microfilm in DLC).
The vice consul at Philadelphia referred to in the foregoing was Pierre Francois Barbé de Marbois, Jr., who was appointed 9 Apr. 1785 when his brother was chargé d’affaires (Dipl. Corr., 1783–1789, i, 127–32). For a note on Barthélemi Tardiveau, see Vol. 5:600, note.