James Madison Papers

To James Madison from Thomas Appleton, 1 April 1806

Leghorn 1st. April 1806


I had the honor of addressing you on the 27 fe⟨b⟩ruary inclosing a list of American Vessels sail’d from this port during the last six months of th⟨e⟩ year 1805, also my Account of disbursements ⟨to⟩ distress’d Seamen &c. for the year, with their ⟨a⟩ttendant vouchers. In the course of the last month the U:S: Schooner Captn. Evans arriv’d here but from a variety of circumstances he shortly ⟨dr⟩ew on himself to a high degree, the displeasure ⟨o⟩f the Governor; however from the particular intimacy ⟨w⟩hich has long subsisted between the latter and ⟨m⟩yself, I was able to pacify him, as likewise the Government at florence who had taken cognisance of the affair. I do not now trouble yo⟨u⟩ Sir with this fastidious detail, but should it become necessary, I shall forward it to the minutest circumstance, as it is enregister’d in my office.

The affairs of Italy have sin⟨ce⟩ my last, taken a new aspect. Prince Joseph B⟨ona⟩parte finding himself in quiet possession of t⟨he⟩ City of Naples, dispatch’d a Considerable army int⟨o⟩ Calabria, where the hereditary Prince had retir’d with all the forces he Could Collect. The two armies have had frequent rencounters, but the Neapolitains have in every instance been put to flight; and by our latest Accounts, Notwithstandin⟨g⟩ the apparent determin’d Spirit of the Calabrese, there is scarce any part of the Kingdom which has not surrender’d to the Superior Skill of the french. Gaeta is the only Strong hold which has hitherto with effect resisted the french arms, but it is presum’d it Cannot hold out more than ten days— from what I can discover, there is little doubt but the island of Sicily will be the next object of the Conqueror. The Pope it is affirm’d, is on the eve of his departure for Avignon; and the Prince Borghese brother-in-law of the Emperor Napoleone, who is already ⟨a⟩rriv’d in Rome, will be invested with the temporal Authority. Tuscany hitherto has ⟨e⟩xperienc’d no change, but from the present Appearances it is not likely long to continue under the actual Sovereign. It is Conjectur’d, and I confe⟨ss⟩ it is likewise my own opinion that it will be join’d to the principality of Lucca, and togeth⟨er⟩ form the inheritance of the Princess Bacjoch⟨.⟩ ⟨As⟩ for the Queen Regent, she will probably be provided for, in the intended Conquests in Sicily

In Naples, Prince Joseph has Decreed that all the Neapolitain Nobles who have follow’d the arms of their late Sovereign, Shall be Consider’d as emigrès, and their esta⟨tes⟩ Confiscated, it is even enjoin’d on every individ⟨ual⟩ to discover their effects, under the Severest penalties for a disobedience— all british manufactures are prohibited, not only un⟨der⟩ the penalty of foreiture of the goods, but double the amount to be paid in money by the delinquents, and not less than three months imprisonment. The Prince has Sworn on the altar ⟨o⟩f St: Genaro to respect the Catholic Religion and its Ministers, and he has very bountifully ⟨d⟩istributed his largesses to the indigent. ⟨T⟩hese Measures became the more Necessary, in⟨a⟩smuch as, the late King was Singularly belov’d by the lower order of his Subjects, ⟨a⟩nd any Violation of the rites of the clergy ⟨w⟩ould most Assuredly have endanger’d the peaceable possession of the New Sovereign.

May I beg the favor of you to inform the President, that there is shipp’d on board the Ship Cora Captn. Jones for Baltim⟨ore⟩ and to the Care of the Collector, a case contai⟨ning⟩ thirty flasks, and a Small box of two bottle⟨s⟩ of Tuscan Wine, Sent by Mr. Mazzei, ⟨   ⟩ but as the latter has mistaken the da⟨y⟩ of the departure of the Vessel, his letters which were to Accompany them have not Reach’d me from Pisa, an⟨d⟩ must be deferr’d ’till the next conveyance. Accept Sir the Assurance of the high Respect with which I have the honor to be Yr Mo. Obt. Serv⟨t.⟩

Th: Appleto⟨n⟩

DNA: RG 59—CD—Consular Despatches, Leghorn.

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