James Madison Papers

To James Madison from James G. Forbes, 13 April 1811 (Abstract)

§ From James G. Forbes

13 April 1811, New York. “As the annexation of the hanseatic towns to the French Empire may have given the finishing stroke to the official duties of my Brother John M. Forbes, the Consul at Hamburg during a period of nine fruitless Years of unprecedented interruption to neutral Commerce1—may I hope, that the President … will Consider my Brothers Conduct and afford him such continued marks of his approbation as he ever strived to merit.”

RC (DNA: RG 59, ML). 1 p.

1In order to improve the enforcement of the Continental System, Napoleon, in December 1810 and January 1811, had annexed and occupied the Hanseatic towns, the northern part of Hanover, and the duchies of Berg and Oldenburg (Lefebvre, Napoleon: From Tilsit to Waterloo, p. 235).

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