Report on Census
SCHEDULE of the whole number of Persons within the several Districts of the United States, taken according to “An Act providing for the Enumeration of the Inhabitants of the United States;” passed March the 1st, 1790.
|Free white Males under sixteen years.||Free white Females including heads of families.||All other free persons||Slaves.||Total.|
|Free Males under twenty-one years of age.||Free white Females including heads of families.||All other Persons.||Slavecs.||Total.|
|S. Western Territory||6,271||10,277||15,365||361||3,417||35,691|
Truly stated from the original Returns deposited in the Office of the Secretary of State.
October 24, 1791.
MS not found; text taken from first printed copy by Childs and Swaine, 1791, consisting of 56 pages, the last page bearing TJ’s signature; delayed returns from South Carolina have been tipped in as page 54, dated 5 Feb. 1792, showing a total of 249,073 persons (copy in NjP: Rare Books). Tr (DNA: RG 59, MLR); copy of MS prepared some time after 5 Feb. 1792 with significant differences described in textual notes below.
These returns had been arriving at the President’s office all summer and were normally transferred to the Secretary of State upon receipt (Tobias Lear to TJ [Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, and districts of Kentucky and Maine], 12 July 1791, RC in DNA: RG 59, MLR; FC in DNA: RG 59, SDC; Lear to TJ [Maryland, New York, North Carolina], 5 Aug. 1791; RC and FC in same; Lear to TJ [Rhode Island], 6 Aug. 1791, RC and FC in same; Lear to TJ [Virginia], 18 Aug. 1791, RC and FC in same; Lear to TJ [New Jersey], 20 Aug. 1791, RC and FC in same; Lear to TJ [Pennsylvania], 22 Aug. 1791, RC and FC in same; and William Blount to TJ [Southwest Territory], 19 Sep. 1791). South Carolina requested and was granted an extension by an act of Congress adopted on 2 Nov. 1791. Washington sent the final return from South Carolina, dated 5 Feb. 1792, to Congress on 3 Mch. 1792 (JHR description begins Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, Washington, D.C., 1826, 9 vols. description ends , i, 446–7, 526; JS description begins Journal of the Senate of the United States, Washington, D.C., 1820–21, 5 vols. description ends , i, 336–7, 404).
TJ sent this summary to the President, who announced the completion of the census “excepting in one instance in which the return has been informal, and another in which it has been omitted or miscarried” in his annual message to Congress on 25 Oct. 1791, the day after the session began. He transmitted the summary to Congress two days later (Fitzpatrick, Writings description begins John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington, Washington, 1931–1944, 39 vols. description ends , xxxi, 400, 407; JHR description begins Journal of the House of Representatives of the United States, Washington, D.C., 1826, 9 vols. description ends , i, 437; and JS description begins Journal of the Senate of the United States, Washington, D.C., 1820–21, 5 vols. description ends , i, 329–30).
1. In Tr: 22,435.
2. In Tr: 252.
3. In Tr: 11,453.
4. In Tr: 3,737.
5. The Tr includes the figures for South Carolina as follows: 35,576, 37,722, 66,880, 1,801, 107,094, and 249,073.
6. In Tr after this figure in this column a total is calculated as follows: “3,893,635, from below 42,691, 3,936,326.”
7. The Tr contains “supposed total 7,000” at this point. Judging from Washington’s comment in his annual message, the original MS TJ submitted to him probably had contained this figure as well.