From Edmund Jenings
[London, ca. 8 July 1783]1
I have reciv’d your Excellencys Letters of the 16th of May2 & the 9th of June— I had written to your Excellency oftener if I had not my Doubts whether you were at Paris, imagining that when Mr Laurens left that Place, all business had been at an End, & that you had returned too.
on my Arrival here I begged the Gentleman who had caused certain writings to be published to return me the original work. He told me could not do it, the Mode of setting things for the Press requiring that it should be cut into Peices for the distribution of them into several hands at a Time. all that is not published He has returnd me, consisting of two Sheets. I sent you regularly those, which have Seen the Light3
The Treaty with Holland has been published six weeks it is subjoined to a new publication of the Constitutions the whole makes a Handsome Volume in Octo Consisting of a print of Genl Washington a Dedication Preface, American State Papers, including the Declaration of Rights non importation Agreements, Last Petition to the King Declaration of Independance articles of Confederation &c, the Constitutions of the several States Treaty of Amity & Commerce with France, Treaty of Alliance, Treaty of Amity & Commerce with the States General Convention between the States General & the United States, a Copy of the Provisional Articles signed at Paris, & a list of Presidents of Congress.4 If I can get a good Conveyance I will send it to your Excellency together with a Pamphlet published by Ld Sheffield, but supposed to be composed by a Junto formed by Dean Arnold Wentworth Skene &c &c5 and at the same time I shall enclose a Book published by Govr Pownal—entitled a Memorial to the Sovereigns of America, written in the same Manner as a former Memorial was. & containing as that did matter, that deserves attention.— it is sent by the Author to the Abbé Needham at Brussells to be translated into French for fear that &c.6
your Excellency askd me several Questions with respect to this Country & the Definitive Treaty. I have sent to Mr Ridley. a News paper which contains the Debate in Parliament last Week.7 in which I think may be seen the true Temper of this Country towards America, I shall convey several of these Papers Abroad, & our Friends will Act Accordingly
I cannot think that the Ministry will Stand as it is whether it stands or not is of little Consequence to America, there being hardly a Man in England who has any Idea of the true Manner in which this Country ought to Conduct herself towards the United States. Burkes Policy & Idea of Trade prevail throughout & the Seeds of Dissention seem to be sewn between the Father & Son. Fox will never be forgiven for the part He has Acted, He Knew He was not liked by the Father, & therefore paid his Courts to the Son.8 the chance of the Sons succeeding to the Throne may give Fox weight with his Colleagues & He may continue in place but will not have any Influence, unless He proposes desperate Measures, & affects to dispise the people of which He has already given such Strong Proofs that His Popularity is gone. Lord North is looked up to by all the needy people for He disposes of almost all the places & by consequence He has the chief Wieght.
How goes on Parties in America I Hope there are none yet formed, but I see much personal Invective in many Quarters. This may lead to Mischief
Talking of personal Matters I must inform Your Excellency that I have written a long Letter to Mr B in answer to an Extraordinary one of the 28th of Janry last.9 if He shews it to Mr L it will bring on an Eclaircissement.
I am with the greatest Respect / Sir / Your Excellencys / Most Obedient Humble Servant
RC (Adams Papers); internal address: “His Excellency / John Adams Esqr”; endorsed in an unknown hand: “Mr. Jenings.”; notation: “June 1783.” Filmed at [June 1783].
2. Vol. 14:484.
3. JA had asked Jenings to retrieve the manuscript copies of his “Letters from a Distinguished American” in his letter of 9 June, above. For the copies that he was able to recover, Nos. 11 and 12, see vol. 9:578–588. Both bear evidence of Jenings’ editorial efforts and provide an indication of his probable contributions to the ten letters that were published.
4. William Jackson, comp., The Constitutions of the Several Independent States of America, London, 1783. For Jackson and the origins of the publication, see vol. 14:375.
5. John Baker Holroyd, Lord Sheffield, Observations on the Commerce of the American States with Europe and the West Indies, London, 1783. For the significance of the pamphlet, see Jenings’ letter of 3 June, and note 6, above. There is no indication that the loyalists Silas Deane, Benedict Arnold, Paul Wentworth, or Philip Skene played any part in its creation.
6. The pamphlet by Thomas Pownall, former governor of Massachusetts, was entitled A Memorial Addressed to the Sovereigns of America, London, 1783. As Jenings indicates, it was a follow-up to his earlier pamphlet, A Memorial, Most Humbly Addressed to the Sovereigns of Europe, on the Present State of Affairs, between the Old and New World, London, 1780. For JA’s publication of a revised version of Pownall’s first Memorial, in French and English, see vol. 9:157–221. Pownall’s first pamphlet called on the “Sovereigns of Europe,” including George III, to recognize that a new system had arisen in America and to take steps to incorporate it into the European economic and political systems. The 1783 pamphlet, on the other hand, offered advice to the “Sovereigns of America” on fulfilling the promise of its new system so as to “become a Nation to whom all Nations will come; a Power whom all the Powers of Europe will court to Civil and Commercial Alliances; a People to whom the Remnants of all ruined People will fly, whom all the oppressed and injured of every nation will seek to for refuge” (p. 138). John Turberville Needham translated the 1780 pamphlet, but there is no record of a French edition of Pownall’s later effort (vol. 12:28). For JA’s November visit to Pownall’s residence at Richmond Hill outside London, see Pownall’s letter of 30 Nov., and note 1, below.
7. There is no way to know to which of the debates in Parliament Jenings refers. On 24 and 27 June the Commons considered compensation for loyalists, but the rhetoric was no more hostile to the United States than one would expect in such debates (Parliamentary Hist. description begins The Parliamentary History of England, from the Earliest Period to the Year 1803, London, 1806–1820; 36 vols. description ends , 23:1041–1045, 1050–1058).
8. Jenings refers to the controversy over creating an establishment for George, Prince of Wales, who would come of age on 12 Aug. 1783. The issue did not bring down the government, but it did highlight the conflict between Charles James Fox and George III. Among the many reasons that the king despised Fox was his friendship with the Prince of Wales. He believed that his son’s profligate and dissipated lifestyle and resulting indebtedness were owing primarily to Fox’s influence. Fox, as the prince’s advocate, proposed a salary of £100,000, but George III refused any sum above £50,000, the amount ultimately provided (Cannon, Fox-North Coalition description begins John Cannon, The Fox-North Coalition: Crisis of the Constitution, 1782–4, London, 1969. description ends , p. 95–99). For the 23 June debate in the House of Commons over this issue, see Parliamentary Hist. description begins The Parliamentary History of England, from the Earliest Period to the Year 1803, London, 1806–1820; 36 vols. description ends , 23:1030–1041; and for a later comment by AA on the prince’s debts, see AFC description begins Adams Family Correspondence, ed. L. H. Butterfield, Marc Friedlaender, Richard Alan Ryerson, Margaret A. Hogan, and others, Cambridge, 1963–. description ends , 7:180.
9. Edward Bridgen’s letter of 28 Jan. and Edmund Jenings’ brief reply of 4 Feb. and much longer one of 30 June comprise the final sixteen pages of Jenings’ 37-page pamphlet, The Candor of Henry Laurens, Esq.; Manifested by His Behaviour to Mr. Edmund Jenings, London, 1783 (from Jenings, 3 June, and note 2, above). Bridgen indicated in his letter that he initially thought William Lee to be the author of the anonymous letter at the center of Jenings’ dispute with Henry Laurens, a belief that he considered Jenings to have confirmed by his silence. Lee had since convinced Bridgen that he was not the author, but Bridgen’s original statements to the contrary had placed him in a bad light, and he blamed Jenings for the situation in which he found himself. More important, according to Bridgen, “it seems that you told Mr. Laurens, that it was at my request that you shewed the Anonymous Letter to Mr. A. Be pleased to refer to my letter on that subject, and you will find yourself mistaken.” In his replies Jenings denied ever having implied that Lee was the author and questioned why Bridgen would have expected Jenings not to send a copy of the anonymous letter to JA when Bridgen had already sent one to Laurens. The gist of Jenings’ replies was that he blamed Bridgen for all of the misunderstandings regarding the anonymous letter and thus for the dispute between himself and Laurens. Jenings indicated on the final page of his pamphlet that “to this Letter [that of 30 June], which was delivered to Mr. Bridgen’s servant, at his door, no answer has been given.”