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To John Jay from Thomas Jefferson (private), 23 August 1785

From Thomas Jefferson (private)

Paris Aug. 23. 1785

Dear Sir

I shall sometimes ask your permission to write you letters, not official but private. the present is of this kind, and is occasioned by the question proposed in yours of June 14 ‘Whether it would be useful to us to carry all our own productions, or none?’1 were we perfectly free to decide this question, I should reason as follows. we have now lands enough to employ an infinite number of people in their cultivation. cultivators of the earth are the most valuable citizens. they are the most vigorous, the most independant, the most virtuous, & they are tied to their country & wedded to it’s liberty & interests by the most lasting bands. as long therefore as they can find emploiment in this line, I would not convert them into mariners, artisans, or any thing else. but our citizens will find emploiment in this line till their numbers, & of course their productions, become too great for the demand both internal & foreign. this is not the case as yet, & probably will not be for a considerable time. as soon as it is, the surplus of hands must be turned to something else. my I should then perhaps wish to turn them to the sea in preference to manufactures, because comparing the characters of the two classes I find the former the most valuable citizens. I consider the class of artificers as the panders of vice & the instruments by which the liberties of a country are generally overturned. However we are not free to decide this question on principles of theory only. our people are decided in the opinion that it is necessary for us to take a share in the occupation of the ocean, & their established habits induce them to require that the sea be kept open to them, and that that line of policy be pursued which will render the use of that element as great as possible to them. I think it a duty in those entrusted with the administration of their affairs to conform themselves to the decided choice of their constituents: and that therefore we should in every instance preserve an equality of right to them in the transportation of commodities, in the right of fishing, & in the other uses of the sea. but what will be the consequence? frequent wars without a doubt. their property will be violated on the sea, & in foreign ports, their persons will be insulted, emprisoned &c. for pretended debts, contracts, crimes, contraband &c. &c. these insults must be resented, even if we had no feelings, yet to prevent their eternal repetition. or in other words, our commerce on the ocean & in other countries must be paid for by frequent war. the justest dispositions possible in ourselves will not secure us against it. it would be necessary that all other nations were just also. justice indeed on our part will save us from those wars which would have been produced by a contrary disposition. but how to prevent those produced by the wrongs of other nations? by putting ourselves in a condition to punish them. weakness provokes insult & injury, while a condition to punish it often prevents it. this reasoning leads to the necessity of some naval force, that being the only ^weapo[n]^ with which we can reach an enemy. I think it to our interest to punis[h] the first insult: because an insult unpunished is the parent of many oth[ers] we are not at this moment in a condition to do it, but we should put ourselv[es] into it as soon as possible. if a war with England should take place it see[ms] to me that the first thing necessary would be a resolution to abandon the carrying trade because we cannot protect it. foreign nations must in that case be invited to bring us what we want & to take our productions in their own bottoms. this alone could prevent the loss of those productions to us & the acquisition of them to our enemy. our seamen might be emploied in depredations on their trade. but how dreadfully we shall suffer on our coasts, if we have no force on the water, former experience has taught us. indeed I look forward with horror to the very possible case of war with an European power, & think there is no protection against ^them^ but from the possession of some force on the sea. our vicinity to their West India possessions & to the fisheries is a bridle which a small naval force on our part would hold in the mouths of the most powerful of these countries. I hope our land office will rid us of our debts, & that our first attention then will be to the beginning a naval force of some sort. this alone can countenance our people as carriers on the water, & I suppose them to be determined to continue such.

I wrote you two public letters on the 14th. inst. since which I have received yours of July 132 I shall always be pleased to receive from you in a private way such communications as you might not chuse to put into a public letter, I have the honor to be with very sincere esteem Dr. Sir your most obedient humble servt

Th: Jefferson

PrC, DLC: Jefferson (EJ: 10105). Marked: “Private.”

1JJ’s letter of 14 June, carried by Philip Mazzei and received 22 July, has not been found. See PTJ, description begins Julian T. Boyd, Charles T. Cullen et al., eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson (41 vols. to date; Princeton, N.J., 1950–) description ends 8: 207. On the subject of withdrawal from commerce, see also JJ’s report to Congress of 20 Oct., and his second letter to JA of 1 Nov., both below; and Richard Price to JJ, 25 Nov. 1785, below. For his statement that if the United States bent its “Attention to the Sea, every naval War” which did no “essential Injury,” would do “essential Good,” see JJ to the President of Congress, 13 Oct. 1785, LS, DNA: PCC, item 80, 37–39 (EJ: 157).

2For TJ’s two public letters of 14 Aug., see LS, DNA: PCC, item 87, 1: 29–31, and LbkC, DNA: PCC, item 116, 463–67 (EJ: 3582), regarding the Prussian treaty and the Algerian attacks; and LS, DNA: PCC, item 87: 1, 33–37 (EJ: 11977), Tr, DNA: PCC, item 107, 1: 16–18, and PrC: DLC: Jefferson (EJ: 10104), regarding growing British and French tensions and a French expedition to the South Seas that might indicate French intent at fur trade or colonization on the west coast of America. See also PTJ, description begins Julian T. Boyd, Charles T. Cullen et al., eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson (41 vols. to date; Princeton, N.J., 1950–) description ends 8: 372–75, 375–76. For JJ’s letter of 13 July, warning of the British settlement efforts and the likelihood the British would not evacuate the western posts, see Dft, NNC (EJ: 5741); LbkC, DNA: Foreign Letters description begins Foreign Letters of the Continental Congress and Department of State, 1785–1790, RG 59, item 121, National Archives (M61). Accessed on description ends , 90–91 (EJ: 2415); PTJ, description begins Julian T. Boyd, Charles T. Cullen et al., eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson (41 vols. to date; Princeton, N.J., 1950–) description ends 8: 292–93.

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