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I received Sometime Since a Letter from an American Gentleman now in London, a Candidate for Orders, desiring to know, if American Candidates might have Orders from Prostestant Bishops on the Continent, and complaining that he had been refused by the Bishop of London and the Archbishop of Canturbury, unless he would take the Oaths of Allegiance &c. Meeting Soon afterwards, the Danish Minister...
I have the honor to inclose Copies of some Papers which passed between the Comte de Vergennes and me, lately at Paris. The Conjecture, that the British Court would insist upon their two Preliminaries, is become more probable by the publication of the King’s Speech at the Prorogation of Parliament. “The Zeal and Ardor which You have shewn for the Honor of my Crown,” says the King; “your firm...
Paris, 20 March 1780. RC in John Thaxter’s hand ( PCC , No. 84, I, f. 337–338). LbC ( Adams Papers ); notation: “No. 22 delivered Mr. Izard.” printed: Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 3:561. With this letter, read in Congress on 1 Aug., John Adams sent copies of the London...
Paris, 1 June 1780. RC ( PCC , No. 84, II, f. 82–85). printed: Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 3:747–749. In this letter, read in Congress on 15 Sept., John Adams included the text of resolutions adopted on 11 May at a meeting of the citizens of Dublin. The resolutions...
If any one should ask me what is the System of the present administration? I should answer, “to keep their places”— Every Thing they say or do appears evidently calculated to that End, and no Ideas of public Good no national Object is suffered to interfere with it. In order to drive out Shelburne, they condemned his Peace which all the Whig Part of them, would have been very glad to have made,...
Major Jackson has been sometime here, in pursuance of Instructions from Colo. Laurens, in order to dispatch the purchase of the Goods, and the shipping of the Goods and Cash for the United States, which are to go by the South Carolina. But when all things appeared to be ready, I recieved a Letter from his Excellency Dr. Franklin informing me, that he feared his funds would not admit of his...
Amsterdam, 18 January 1781. RC in John Thaxter’s hand PCC , No. 84, III, f. 87–44. printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 4:235–238. Read by Congress on 19 Nov., this letter consisted of English translations of two placards or edicts of the States General dated 12...
Paris, 23 April 1780. LbC ( Adams Papers ). Although a note to the Letterbook copy of Adams’letter of 3 May to the president of Congress (No. 58, calendared, below) indicates that this letter was sent and the Journal of Congress shows it to have been received on 19 Feb. 1781 ( JCC Worthington C. Ford and others, eds., Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789 , Washington, 1904–1937; 34...
Paris, 8 April 1780. RC in John Thaxter’s hand ( PCC , No. 84, I, f. 433–435). printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 3:602. In this letter, received by Congress on 19 Feb. 1781, John Adams provided a list of forty-six British naval vessels lost for a variety of reasons...
Duplicate The Memoire of the Prince Gallitzin, Envoy Extraordinary of all the Russias to the States General, presented the third of this Month, is of too much Importance to the United States of America, and their Allies, to be omitted to be sent to Congress. It is of the following Tenor. High and Mighty Lords., “The Undersigned, Envoy Extraordinary of her Majesty the Empress of all the...
The Writer on the Consequences of American Independence, Subjoins a Comparison between the United States, and the West Indies. He says the Exports from England was in 1771 £ s d To North America 4,586,882: 15: 5   £ To Dominica 170,623: 19: 3 To St Vincents 36,839: 10: 7 To Grenada 123,919:
Paris, 8 March 1780.. RC in John Thaxter’s hand ( PCC , No. 84, I, f. 311). LbC ( Adams Papers ); notation in Thaxter’s hand: “March 10th. Delivered the above to Mr Brown of Charlestown S. Carolina.” printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 3:539. In this letter, read by...
Amsterdam, 31 May 1781. RC in John Thaxter’s hand PCC , No. 84, III, f. 181–182. printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 4:461. John Adams provided an English translation of a memorial presented to the States General on 28 April by the Danish envoy, Mestral de Saint...
I have the Honour to inclose to Congress, the latest Gazettes. We have no other Intelligence than is contained in them. Since the 11. July the Date of Lord Howes Letter, announcing the Arrival of the Compte D’Estaing off Sandy Hook, We have not a syllable from America by Way of England. In France We have nothing from America Since 3 July. This long Interval leaves a vast Scope for Imagination...
Amsterdam, 6 August 1781. RC in John Thaxter’s hand PCC , No. 84, III, f. 347–350. printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 4:623.. In this letter, which was read in Congress on 16 Nov., John Adams provided an English translation of a report dated 13 July at St....
Mr. Burke’s Bill not being as yet public, we are not yet informed of the Extent of it. But as it already appears, that it strikes at the Department of Secretary of State for America, at the Board of Trade, there seems to be little Reason to doubt that it goes further and strikes at the American Board of Commissioners, at all the American Judges of Admiralty, Governors of Provinces, Secretaries...
Paris, 1 June 1780. RC ( PCC , No. 84, II, f. 90–95). printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 3:752–758. This letter, read in Congress on 5 Sept., contains John Adams’ analysis of Lord George Germain’s speech of 5 May opposing Gen. Conway’s bill to end the American war,...
War is to a Dutchman the greatest of Evils. Sir Joseph Yorke is so sensible of this, that he keeps alive a continual Fear of it by Memorials after Memorials, each more affronting to any Sovereignty of delicate Notions of Dignity, than the former. By this means he keeps up the Panick and while this Panick continues, I shall certainly have no Success at all. No Man dares engage for me—very few...
I have the Honour to inform Congress, of my Safe Arrival in this City in the Frigate Boston after a most dangerous, and distressing Voyage of Six Weeks and four Days. The Situation of Things in Europe is so critical, at this Moment that, notwithstanding I am exhausted with the Fatigues of the Voyage, I am determined to proceed, the Day after Tomorrow, on my Journey to Paris. By all that I...
On the fourth of May I did myself the Honour to wait on Peter Van Bleiswick Esqr., Grand Pensionary of Holland, and presented him a Letter containing a Copy of my Memorial to the States General &c. His Excellency said that it was necessary for me to go to the President and Secretary of their High Mightinesses, and that it was not customary for foreign Ministers to communicate any thing to the...
Paris, 24 April 1780. RC in John Thaxter’s hand ( PCC , No. 84, I, f. 495–498). printed: Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 3:626–628. In this letter, received by Congress on 19 Feb. 1781, John Adams sent intelligence derived from newspaper reports originating at Stockholm,...
Amsterdam, 11 Oct. 1780. Dupl in John Thaxter’s hand ( PCC , No. 84, II, f. 289–304). printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 4:88–95. The copy cited here was received by Congress on 29 Jan. 1781, but the original (not found) was received and read on 27 Dec. ( JCC...
Paris, 25 April 1780. RC ( PCC , No. 84, I, f. 500–503). In this letter, received by Congress on 19 Feb. 1781, John Adams included long newspaper accounts from Dublin of events in Ireland, particularly the progress of the volunteer movement, and from London of the efforts of the British ministry to bring about a resolution of the Irish problem. RC ( PCC , No. 84, I, f. 500–503.)
Paris, 10 April 1780. RC in John Thaxter’s hand ( PCC , No. 84, I, f. 443–446). printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 3:604– 606. Received by Congress on 19 Feb. 1781, this letter included a series of newspaper accounts of events at Copenhagen, Madrid, Paris, Malta,...
La Coruña, Spain, 16 December 1779. RC in John Thaxter’s hand PCC , No. 84, I, f. 231.; docketed: “No. 2 Letter from J. Adams Corunna Decr. 16. 1779 Read March 27. 1780.” LbC Adams Papers . LbC in Thaxter’s hand Adams Papers ; notations: “Recd in Congress Oct. 15. Triplicate.”; by Thaxter: “No. 2.” and “NB. Nos. 1 & 2 were sent by Captain Trask bound to Newbury Port from Corunna.” For a...
The Prince was ill advised, when he undertook, what he was not obliged to do, in producing Mr. Laurens’s Papers, which he did too in a manner justly offensive to the United States. It was the part of Sir Joseph Yorke, to have produced them, not to the Prince, but to their High Mightinesses. His Serene Highness, therefore, in this Work of Supererogation, gave himself the Air of an Instrument of...
By the Tenth Article of the Treaty of Alliance with France “The most Christian King and the united States agree, to invite or admit other Powers, who may have received Injuries from England, to make common Cause with them and to acceed to that Alliance, under Such Conditions as shall be freely agreed to and Settled between all the Parties.” According to present Appearances, in a few Weeks...
RC in John Thaxter’s hand PCC , No. 84, I, f. 295; docketed: “No. 11 J. Adams Esqr Feby. 29th. 1780 the Gazette mentioned, not inclosd. Read May 15th. requests the Constitutions of each State particularly Georgia & North Carolina.” LbC Adams Papers ; notations: “Recd in congress Oct. 15. Triplicate.”; by Thaxter: “No. 11.” Responding to a request from Edmé Jacques Genet, John Adams asked for...
At the Close of the Service, on which Congress have done me the Honour to Send me, it may not be amiss to Submit a few Reflections to their Consideration on the general State of Affairs in Europe, So far as they relate to the Interests of the united States. As the Time approaches, when our Relations, with the most considerable States in Europe, will multiply, and assume a greater Stability,...
There are Persons, in this Republick, who have been Attentive to this War, and who know somewhat of the History of the Rise and Progress, of the united States of America: but it is Surprizing that the Number Should be So Small. Even in the City of Amsterdam, which is the most Attentive to our Affairs, and the best inclined towards Us there are few, who do not consider the American Resistance,...
Leyden, 18 March 1781. RC in John Thaxter’s hand PCC , No. 84, III, f. 78–93. printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 4:306–313. This letter was read in Congress on 19 Nov. and consisted of English translations of the States General’s countermanifesto of 12 March and...
Paris, 26 March 1780. RC ( PCC , No. 84, I, f. 357–360). printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 3:573–576. In this letter, received by Congress on 31 July and read on 1 Aug., John Adams used material taken from British newspapers to describe the celebrations on 2 March...
Amsterdam, 4 Sept. 1780. RC ( MdHi : Gilmor Papers). A note attached to this letter by Robert Gilmor, a Baltimore merchant, indicates that he received it from Jared Sparks on 24 Dec. 1827. printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 4:45. In this letter, received by Congress...
Having been obliged to come to Holland, the Beginning of this Year to obtain Money, to prevent M r Morriss Bills from being protested, I have remained here untill this Time, in Expectation of receiving the further Commands of Congress. From the Resolution of the 1. of May 1783 and from many private Letters, I expected that a Commission would have arrived to the late Ministers at the Peace, to...
Paris, 19 May 1780. RC in John Thaxter’s hand ( PCC , No. 84, II, f. 53– 56). printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 3:688–690. In this letter, read in Congress on 11 Sept., John Adams provided the substance of Spain’s response to the Russian declaration of an armed...
The State of Parties in this Republick is still critical. Many anonymous Pamphlets appear on both Sides. Those which proceed from the English Party, are virulent against Mr. Van Berkel. The Republick itself wavers, according to Events and Causes which are impenetrable. A few days ago, the Plan appeared to be to acceed to the armed Neutrality, in order to satisfy one Party, and to disavow the...
Paris, 8 May 1780. RC ( PCC , No. 84, II, f. 27–30). LbC in John Thaxter’s hand ( Adams Papers ). printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 3:660–663; extracts in various American newspapers, including the Pennsylvania Gazette of 27 Dec. 1780 and the Boston Gazette
On the 10 of Nov. 1780 The Memorial of Sir Joseph York to the States General, was presented for a Disavowal, Satisfaction proportioned to the Offence, and Punishment of the Guilty. The 28 Nov. a formal Disapprobation of the States General, of the Conduct of the Regency of Amsterdam. 12. December: Second Memorial of Sir J. York, for a Satisfaction proportioned to the Offence, and the Punishment...
On the Twenty Eighth of February, I had the Honour of writing to Congress, informing them of my Intention of returning home, in Consequence of the new Commission which Superceded mine: on the first of March, I had again the Honour of writing Some interesting Information concerning the unprecedented Interest which the british Government are obliged to give for the Loan of Money, for the Service...
Paris, 27 March 1780. RC ( PCC , No. 84, I, f. 361–364). In this letter, received by Congress on 31 July and read on 1 Aug., John Adams wrote that war “is now generally considered as a Contest of Finances; so that the Nation which can the longest find Money to carry on the War, can generally hold out the longest.” Adams believed that Great Britain, because of its heavy taxation since 1774, had...
Mr. Schweighauser of Nantes, who is a Native of Switzerland, observing me, as I was, one Day at his House, looking with some Attention, upon a Stamp, of the heroic Deed of William Tell, asked me to take a few of them to America, as a Present from him, which I agreed to do, with Pleasure. He, accordingly Sent, on Board the Frigate a Box, containing as he told me, one Stamp for each of the...
On Wednesday the third day of this Month, the American Ministers met the British Minister at his Lodgings at the Hôtel de York, and signed, sealed and delivered the Definitive Treaty of Peace between the United States of America and the King of Great Britain. Altho’ it is but a Confirmation or Repetition of the Provisional Articles, I have the honor to congratulate Congress upon it, as it is a...
Soon after the Signature of the Preliminary Articles of Peace, I requested, of Congress, their Permission to return to America. This Request they did not at that time judge proper to grant, me, but on the contrary resolved that a Commission should be sent to me, M r: Franklin & M r: Jay, to make a Treaty of Commerce with Great Britain. But as no such Commission has arrived in Europe, the...
Since my Arrival in Europe I have had the Mortification to see in the public Papers a Series of little Successes which our Enemies have had in the prosecution of the War. The first was a very exaggerated Account in the English Court Gazette of their Successes against the Spaniards in South America. The next was the History of the Repulse of General Lincoln and the Comte D’Estaing at Savannah...
I see in the London Courant, which arrived to day, an advertisement of a translation into English of the address to the People of the Netherlands: so that this work is likely to be translated into all Languages and read by all the World, notwithstanding the Placards against it. I have before sent that of Utrecht. That of Holland is as follows: “The States of Holland and of West Friesland, to...
On the twenty seventh of July. I set out from Paris on a Journey to Amsterdam. I left Mr. Dana and Mr. Thaxter at Paris, who will regularly transmit to Congress whatever shall occur of Importance to the United States to know—they will also inclose all the English, French and Dutch Gazettes. They are exerting themselves in this Republick, to mann their Ships of War, in which they have great...
By the new Arrangement, which was brought by the Marquis de la Fayette I find myself restored to the Character of a private Citizen. The Appointment of a single Minister, at the Court of Versailles was not unexpected to me, because I had not been two Months in Europe, before I was convinced of the Policy, and indeed of the Necessity of such a Measure. But I ever entertained hopes that when the...
Paris, 8 May 1780. RC ( PCC , No. 84, II, f. 23–26). LbC in John Thaxter’s hand( Adams Papers ). In the Letterbook this letter begins on the page following that of 11 May, numbered 64. printed: Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 3:656–660. In this letter, read in Congress on...
Mr. Temple has held offices of such Importance, and a Rank so considerable in America, before the Revolution, that his Return to his native Country at this time, cannot fail to cause much Speculation, and it is to be feared some diversity of sentiments concerning him. As he came from London to Amsterdam and did me the honor of a visit, in which he opened to me his design of returning, and his...
Affairs are Still in Suspence. This Day being Chrismas and Yesterday a sunday, there was no publick Exchange held, on either. But Business, and especially, Stock Jobbing goes on, without ceasing, being done at the Coffee houses, on Sundays and holy days, when it cannot be held upon Change. The English Mail which had been interrupted by contrary Winds, for three Posts, arrived on Saturday. The...