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By the new Arrangement, which was brought by the Marquis de la Fayette I find myself restored to the Character of a private Citizen. The Appointment of a single Minister, at the Court of Versailles was not unexpected to me, because I had not been two Months in Europe, before I was convinced of the Policy, and indeed of the Necessity of such a Measure. But I ever entertained hopes that when the...
My last Letter to Congress, was on the Twenty seventh of last Month Since which an Account of the new Loan is received from London, and as this may perhaps afford to Congress the clearest Proof, of the Weakness of their Ennemies, it is of importance that it should be transmitted to them. Some Accounts Say the Loan is to be seven Millions, others Eight. The Conditions of the Loan are in...
At the Close of the Service, on which Congress have done me the Honour to Send me, it may not be amiss to Submit a few Reflections to their Consideration on the general State of Affairs in Europe, So far as they relate to the Interests of the united States. As the Time approaches, when our Relations, with the most considerable States in Europe, will multiply, and assume a greater Stability,...
Looking over the printed Journals of Congress of the fifteenth day of last April, I find in the Report of the Committee, appointed to take into Consideration the foreign Affairs of these united States, and also the Conduct of the late and present Commissioners of these States; the two following Articles. “1. That it appears to them that Dr. Franklin, is Plenipotentiary, for these States at the...
The Melasses business would certainly have proved the source of continual disputes, if it had not been altered; but the mischief which might have been expected from that is beyond doubt comparison less than what is pointed out in my letter to Mr. Lee of 18th. May. My apprehensions on this subject were communicated to the Commissioners at this Court; but I am sorry to say that they made no...
I had Yesterday the Honour of your Letter of the Seventh of this Month. I thank you, sir, for your obliging Congratulations on my Return to my Family and Country. The Reason why my Letters of the 27th of February and the 1st of March arrived so late, was, that they were delivered at the Time of their Date to Gentlemen, then bound to the seaport who expected to sail directly for America but...
I most sincerely congratulate You, on your happy Arrival in Europe, which must be the more agreeable to You, for the terrible Voyages You have had. Every good American in Europe I believe suffered a great Anxiety, from the Length of Time that passed between the day when it was known the Confederacy sailed, and the Time when the News arrived of your being at Cadiz. I too have had my Hair...
I had two days ago the pleasure of yours of the 26th. of April, and am very happy, to have at least recieved from your Hand an Account of your safe Arrival in that Capital. The C. de F. Blanca, is agreed to be a Man of Abilities, but somehow or other, there is something in the European Understanding different from those We have been more used to. Men of the greatest Abilities, and the most...
I shall not always stand upon Ceremonies, nor wait for Answers to Letters, because useful Hints may be given, which would be lost if one were to wait Returns of Posts. The British Channel Fleet is reckoned this Year at from thirty to thirty seven Ships of the Line, but it is well known that they depend upon Seamen to be pressed from their first West India Fleet, in order to make up this...
It is so long since I wrote You, that I am almost ashamed to recollect. I have been in the most curious Country, among the most incomprehensible People and under the most singular Constitution of Government in the World. I have not been able to write You, what could or would be done here, because I was not able to discover, nor did I ever yet find one Man in the Country, who would pretend to...
The united States of America, To all to whom these Presents shall come send Greeting. Whereas his most Christian Majesty our great and beloved Friend and Ally hath informed us by his Minister Plenipotentiary whom he hath appointed to reside near us, that their Imperial Majesties the Empress of Russia and the Emperor of Germany actuated by Sentiments of Humanity and a desire to put a Stop to...
The United States of America in Congress Assembled. To all to whom these presents shall come send Greeting. Whereas these United States from a sincere desire of putting an end to the hostilities between his most Christian Majesty and these United States on the one part, and his Britannic Majesty on the other, and of terminating the same by a peace founded on such solid and equitable principles...
Instructions to the Honble. John Adams Benjamin Franklin John Jay Henry Laurens and Thomas Jefferson ministers plenipotentiary in behalf of the United States to negotiate a Treaty of Peace Gentlemen You are hereby authorized and instructed to concur in behalf of these United States with his most Christian Majesty in accepting the Mediation proposed by the Empress of Russia and the Emperor of...
By the last Post, I recieved from L’Orient a sett of fresh Instructions from Congress, dated the 16th. of August, and with the more enjoined to open a Correspondence with your Excellency, upon the subject of them. I presume You have Copy by the same Vessel; but as it is possible it may have been omitted, I shall venture to inclose a Copy, and hope it may pass unopened. I have communicated it...
I had the Honour to write you, on the 26 instant by the Post, a Conveyance which I am determined to try, untill I am certainly informed of its Infidelity, in which Case, I will ask the favour of the French or Spanish Ambassador, to inclose my dispatches. I received by the last Post, a Duplicate of Dispatches from Congress the originals of which I received Sometime ago. I presume you have recd...
I have the pleasure to inform You, that Friesland has taken the Provincial Resolution to acknowledge the Sovereignty of the United States of America, and to admit their Minister to an Audience, and have instructed their Deputies in the Assembly of their high Mightinesses at the Hague to make the Motion in eight days from this. The States of Holland have also taken my last Requisition and...
The Duke de la Vauguion has this Moment, kindly given me Notice, that he is to Send off a Courier this Evening at Eleven, and that the Dutch Fleet has Sailed from the Texel this Morning. I shall take Advantage of the Courier Simply to congratulate you, on your Arrival at Paris, and to wish you and Mrs Jay, much Pleasure, in your Residence there. Health, the Blessing which is Sought in vain,...
It was with very great pleasure that I recd. this morning your kind favor of the 2d. inst. I am surprized to learn that your and Mrs: Jay’s health have been disordered in France where the air is so fine. That your anxieties have been very great I doubt not—that most of them were such as you ought not to have met with, I can easily conceive. I can sincerely say, that all mine, but my Fever,...
The public Papers announce Fitzherbert’s Comission to be, to treat “With the four Powers at War with Great-Britain” But whether they mean Hyder Aly, or the Marattas, is uncertain. I have obtained Intelligence of a Paper addressed lately from the Court of St. James’s to the Courts of Vienna and Petersbourg, as well as that of Paris, in which are the following words, vizt. Sa Majesté Britannique...
The States General have chosen Mr Brantzen Minister to negotiate for Peace. Yesterday he did me the honour to dine with me. He is represented to me to be a good Man and well fixed in the true System. I have very authentic Information that his Instructions will be such as France and America as well as his own Country ought to wish them. I have Letters from Boston 17 June —grand Rejoicings on...
I wrote you on the 10th. 13th. and 17th. of August, but have no Answer as yet to either Letter. All is well here, and will not only remain so but grow better and better. Since it is from Bows and Smiles and Invitations to Dinner and Such kind of Indications that We are to collect the deep Politicks of Courts, I Suppose I may augur well for your Negotiations with Spain, because I have lately...
Your Favour inclosing a certain Copy, I have recd, and in exchange Send you, two others, Fitzherberts Commission and the Dutch Instructions. The first you may have Seen or may not. The other may have been communicated to you in Part. I need not Say to you that it ought not to be known, from whence, either of them comes to you, or to me. RC (private owner, 1978). See John Jay’s letter of 1...
Your favour of 28 Ult. was brought me last night. On Fryday last I was notified, by the Messenger of their H.M. that the Treaties would be ready for Signature on Monday (this day). I am accordingly at Noon, to go to the Assembly and finish the Business. But when this is done, Sometime will be indispensable, to prepare my Dispatches for Congress and look out for the most favourable Conveyances,...
You may remember, that from the very beginning of our Negociation for settling a Peace between Great Britain and America, I insisted that you should positively stipulate for a Restoration of the property of all those Persons, under the Denomination of Loyalists or Refugees, who have taken part with Great Britain in the present War. Or if the said property had been resold, and passed into such...
Knowing the expectations of the Kings ministers that a full Indemnity shall be provided for the whole Body of Refugees, either by a restitution of their property, or by some stipulated compensation for their lossess, & being confident, as I have repeatedly assured you, that your refusal upon this point will be the great obstacle to a Conclusion and Ratification of that Peace which is meant as...
Since the Early Period When I Had the Happiness to Be Adopted Among the Sons of America, I ever Made it My Point to do that Which I thought Would prove Useful to Her Cause or Agreable to Her Citizens— After We Had Long Stood By ourselves, France did join in our Quarrell, and So Soon as Count d’Estaing’s departure Made My Presence Unnecessary, I Had a Permission to Return to France Where, Among...
The Three Commissioners Adams, Franklin and Jay, met at M r Oswalds Lodgings at the Hotel de Muscovie, and after Some Conferences, M r Oswald delivered them the following Articles, as fresh Proposals of the British Ministry, Sent by M r Stratchey. vizt. Articles agreed upon, by and between Richard Oswald Esquire, the Commissioner of his Britannic Majesty, for treating of Peace, with the...
I was honoured with your favour of the 12 th. of Dec r: by the last post, enclosing a Copy of the preliminary Treaty of Peace between his Britannic Majesty and the United States. I most heartily congratulate with you upon this great event, in which you have had the honour of so distinguished a part. I think that we ought to be, and shall be satisfied with the terms of peace. But we are here...
I have the honour to transmit to you herewith a packet containing one hundred passports for American Vessels which I have this moment received by a Courier from England. I take this opportunity of acquainting you that a proclamation was issued out in the King’s Name on the 14 th Instant, making known the cessation of hostilities which has been agreed upon between the several belligerent...
I am now to acknowledge the favor of your joint Letter by the Washington, together with a Copy of the preliminary Articles —Both were laid before Congress— The Articles have met their warmest approbation, and have been generally seen by the People in the most favorable point of view. The steadiness manifested in not treating without an express acknowledgment of your Independence previous to a...
Upon the receipt of the provisional Articles & a subsequent account brôt by a Vessel dispatched by Count d’Estaing, I wrote the Letter N o. 1. to S r. Guy Carleton, & N o. 2. to Admiral Digby: to which I recieved the Answers N o. 3. & 4. You will find them cold & distant— Those they wrote to the Minister of France, in answer to similar Communications made by him, were still more so, and...
It is some Months ago since I had the honor to write you, & am well persuaded, altho I received no Answer thereto, that it will have engaged your attention. I earnestly wish it may have been productive of an Improvement to the Finances of Congress which I then foresaw would be short of our Wants & which is unfortunately too much the case at present. Last Month I remitted to the Honorable R t....
Having yesterday conferred with Count de Vergennes upon some Public Concerns, He requested I would tell you what, instead of troubling you with the Demand of a meeting, I think better to mention in this Note. The several Powers said he, are going to make up their Treaties, and when ready to sign, they will of Course meet to do it alltogether. The Mediation of the Emperor and that of Russia...
Paris, 21 May 1783. PRINTED: JA , D&A , 3:131–134 . LbC ( Adams Papers ); APM Reel 109. LbC-Tr ( Adams Papers ); APM Reel 103. This memorial was Hartley’s response to the article that the commissioners had proposed on 29 April to open American and British ports to virtually unrestricted free trade, to which Hartley had at least tentatively agreed ( calendared, above
By the direction of Congress, contained in the enclosd resolutions, I have the honor to transmit you the Correspondence between General Washington & Sir Guy Carlton, together with minutes of their Conference, when, in pursuance of the invitation of the first, they met in Orange-County. Nothing can be a more direct violation of the 7 th: Article of the Provisional Treaty, than sending off the...
We observe by the favour of your Excellencies most honour’d letter of 22 Inst. that M r. Grand has laid before your Exc s. a state of the Affairs of the United States under his Care; and that the Dispositions made upon him are Such, that therefore your Exc s. advise us to remit to M r. Grand on account of Said States a sum of half a Million Livres Tournois, if the Cash in our hands, compared...
Congress were yesterday pleased to pass the enclosed Resolutions on the subject of the payment of British Debts— The language they speak requires no Comment— I complained in my last of your long Silence, or rather laid before you the Complaint of Congress. These I think receive additional force from Intelligence I have since had, that the Negotiations are still going on, and that important...
As I am informed that next Wednesday is appointed for the Signature of the definitive Treaties of Peace, I Suppose it will be thought proper to think of Some Conveyance of the Ratification of the Provisional Treaty, and of the Original of our definitive Treaty as Soon as it Shall be Signed To Congress. By what Vessell it will be proper to Send it, deserves to be considered as soon as possible,...
The night before last, Commodore Jones arrived, with Dispatches from Congress. Two Packets were directed to the “Ministers,” and one larger one to D r Franklin. The two first I opened. one of them contained nothing but News Papers,. The other contained, a private Letter from the President and a Sett of Instructions to the Ministers for Peace. These I copied, and Sent on the originals to Passy,...
I have rec d a Letter from M r Gerry, at Phil a. 23 Nov. Thaxter arrived there the night before. I presume he has written by M r Reed, and that his Letter is gone to You, as he probably addressed his Letter to Us all. M r Morris has drawn afresh by this Vessell. Let me beg of you and the D r , to advise him to Stop his Hand. If I can possibly, save those already drawn, which however I still...
Last Evening, after mine to you of Yesterdays date, was gone to the Post office, yours of the Sixth, was sent me from thence. If I were to pray to Neptune, for Liberty of passing thro his Realm, again I should be tempted to Use the Form of a new converted American Indian, at Cape Cod, who went off in a fishing Vessell further to sea than he had ever been before, & was over taken by a storm. He...
The Day before Yesterday the Baron de Thuilemeyer the Envoy to their High Mightinesses, from the King of Prussia, did me the Honour of a Visit, but as I had Company, he stayed but a short time. As I accompanied him to the Door, he whis told me, that he had Something to Say to me from the King, and desird me to name an Hour, when he might call upon me again. I told him his Hour should be mine,...
I duely received the Letter, you did me the Honour to write me, on the Subject of a Treaty with Prussia and have communicated it to the Baron de Thuelemeier. The King agrees to take the Treaty with Sweeden for a Model and if your Excellencies have any Alterations to propose I should be obliged to you for the Communication of them. The Baron waits the further Instructions of the King, before he...
I blush to acknowledge, that I received your favour of the 6. Feb. in its Season and in good Condition, and that I have not answered it. By leading a quiet Life, and by great Care and regular Exercise I have happily recovered a little Health and if you think it necessary I might now venture on a Journey to Paris. But I should be glad to wait here Six Weeks longer, that I may increase my stock...
Inclosed is Copy of a Letter from the Baron de Thulemeier and Copy of a Project of a Treaty transmitted to me by order of the King of Prussia: I should be glad if your Excellencies would examine it, and write me your Objections, and proposals of alterations, which I shall immediately communicate to his Majesty through his Minister. I presume too that your Excellencies will transmit it to...
I have just now received the Letter which D r Franklin did me the Honour to write me on the 16 th. with the Copy of the Treaty with Sweeden. I have before inclosed the King of Prussias Project of a Treaty, prepared as I am assured by his Minister with his own Hand in his private Cabinet. I believe it has been reserved to the present Age when the subtilties of Aristotle and the schools are...
I am extreamly Sorry, to read in your Letter of the 8 th. that you think of embarking for America. Let me beg of you to reconsider that Project. if you persist in it, I shall repent of having written for my Family and wish I had it in my Power to go there too. The Committee to whom, the Dispatches by Thaxter were referred have reported that a Commission be sent to the 3 named in the Resolution...
Your favour of the 27. April is, before me.— I wish very Sincerely that my family had made a Visit to me, or I to them on the Conclusion of the Peace. But The two Ladies will be affectionate Friends, I dare answer for it, if they should ever meet. There are Things constantly to be done here, but if there were not, it would be impossible for me, to come to Paris at present, without arranging...
I venture to address myself to you as Minister of foreign Affairs, because I Sincerely hope you have accepted that important Office. The Emperor of Morocco, Sent an Abassador last Winter to Holland to demand Materials for some Frigates, and as none of the great Maritime Powers, have the Courage or the Will to refuse Such Requisitions, obtained them. it now appeas probable, that they have been...
Last Night, I had a visit from the Marquis, whom I was glad to see, for a variety of Reasons: his Representations of the Commerce, the Union, and the other Circumstances of our Country are very flattering and as he has so lately seen so many Parts, he was able to give more Information, than the generality of other Travellers. His views are now opening, at least in confidence to me, and his...