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Outline for George Washington’s Fifth Annual Address to Congress, [November 1793]

Outline for George Washington’s
Fifth Annual Address to Congress

Objects to be communicated in Speech & Messages

I Proclamation
II Embarrassments on carrying into Execution the principles of neutrality; necessity of some auxiliary provisions by law
III Expectation of indemnification given in relation to illegal captures
IV State of our affairs with regard to G Britain
to Spain
to France—claim of Guarantee
—propositions respecting Trade
V Indian affairs.
failure of Treaty15—state of expedition under Wayne prospects with regard to Southern Indians.
VI Prudence of additional precautions for defence; as the best security for the peace of the Country
  1 fortification of principal sea ports
  2 Corps of efficient Militia
VII Completion of settlement of Accounts between the United and Individual States:16 Provision for ballances
VIII Provision for a sinking fund
IX Our revenues in the aggregate have continued to answer expectation as to productiveness but if the various objects pointed out and which appear to be necessary to the public Interest are to be accomplished it can hardly be hoped that there will be a necessity for some moderate addition to them
X Prolongation of the Dutch installment by way of Loan—terms.17
XI Provision for the second installment due to Bank of UStates18
 
XII for interest on the unsubscribed debt during the present year. Quære
XIII Communication of the state of cessions of Light Houses. The Cession in various instances has not been intire; it has reserved a partial right of jurisdiction for process; consequently is not strictly conformable to law19
XIV Commissary to receive issue & account for all public stores would conduce much to order & œconomy.

D, in the handwriting of H, George Washington Papers, Library of Congress.

1For Washington’s neutrality proclamation, see John Jay to H, April 11, 1793, note 1.

3Ford, Writings of Jefferson description begins Paul Leicester Ford, ed., The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (New York, 1892–1899). description ends , I, 266–67. For H’s “paragraph,” see “Draft for George Washington’s Fifth Annual Address to Congress,” November, 1793.

4“Heads of matters, to be communicated to congress, either in the speech, or by message, as collected from the notes of the President, and the other gentlemen” (AD, George Washington Papers, Library of Congress). See also Ford, Writings of Jefferson description begins Paul Leicester Ford, ed., The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (New York, 1892–1899). description ends , I, 268.

5This is a reference to H’s “Pacificus” essays written in the summer of 1793 in defense of Washington’s neutrality proclamation. The essays are dated June 29, July 3, 6, 10, 13–17, 17, 27, 1793.

6Ford, Writings of Jefferson description begins Paul Leicester Ford, ed., The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (New York, 1892–1899). description ends , I, 268–69.

7JPP description begins “Journal of the Proceedings of the President,” George Washington Papers, Library of Congress. description ends , 237.

8For Jefferson’s account of the proceedings at this meeting, see Ford, Writings of Jefferson description begins Paul Leicester Ford, ed., The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (New York, 1892–1899). description ends , I, 269–70.

9For this controversy, see the introductory note to H to King, August 13, 1793.

10Jefferson’s draft presented at this meeting is dated November 28, 1793, and is located in the Thomas Jefferson Papers, Library of Congress.

11Concerning French favors to American commerce, Jefferson’s draft stated: “The several Representative & Executive bodies in France have uniformly manifested the most friendly attachments to this country, have shewn particular favor to our commerce & navigation, & as far as yet appears have given just & ready redress of the wrongs to our citizens & their property irregularly taken on the high seas, & carried into their ports.…” An alteration in the margin reads: “have given particular advantages to our commerce and navigation, and made overtures for placing these advantages on a permanent ground.”

12Jefferson had stated in his draft that Genet’s violations of neutrality “had been borne with, from sentiments of regard to his nation, from a sense of their friendship & favors, antient & recent.…”

13Jefferson’s draft reads: “Very early after the arrival of a British minister here, mutual explanations on the inexecution of the treaty of peace were entered into with that minister. These are now laid before you for your information.… The undertaking to restrain generally our commerce of corn & other provisions to their own ports & those of their friends by an express order of their government [being an infraction of our natural rights, unfounded in reason, inconsistent with the candor of our conduct towards them & excused by no want of these articles themselves] has been the subject of the representations now communicated. These were forwarded to our minister at their court. [By these you will perceive that] we may expect final information thereon in time [for the legislature to consider whether any provision will be necessary on their part for securing an indemnification to our agriculture & commerce for the losses sustained by this interception of their produce].” Jefferson deleted the bracketed portions in this paragraph. The following substitute paragraph appears in the margin: “The British government having undertaken, by orders to the Commanders of their armed vessels, to restrain generally our commerce in corn & other provisions to their own ports & those of their friends, the instructions now communicated were immediately forwarded to our minister at that court. In the mean time some discussions on the subject took place between him & them. These are also laid before you; and I may expect to learn the result of his special instructions in time to make it known to the legislature during their present session.” For the British orders concerning American corn, see “Conversation with George Hammond,” August 21–30, 1793, note 3. Jefferson’s draft with several further changes necessitated by late information received from Thomas Pinckney and Gouverneur Morris (Ford, Writings of Jefferson description begins Paul Leicester Ford, ed., The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (New York, 1892–1899). description ends , VI, 456, note 1) was sent as a separate communication to Congress on December 5. The final version and its supporting papers are printed in ASP description begins American State Papers, Documents, Legislative and Executive, of the Congress of the United States (Washington, 1832–1861). description ends , Foreign Relations, I, 141–243.

14Ford, Writings of Jefferson description begins Paul Leicester Ford, ed., The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (New York, 1892–1899). description ends , I, 270–72. Further undated cabinet papers by Jefferson, Knox, and Randolph relating to the address may be found in the George Washington Papers and the Thomas Jefferson Papers, Library of Congress. Washington’s outline for the address and the address itself are printed in GW description begins John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington (Washington, 1931–1944). description ends , XXXIII, 160–61, 163–69.

15In the spring of 1793 Benjamin Lincoln, Timothy Pickering, and Beverley Randolph had been sent as commissioners to negotiate a treaty with the Indians northwest of the Ohio River. For background, see “Conversation with George Hammond,” November 22, December 15–28, 1792, February 24–March 7, 1793; H to Hammond, December 29, 1792; “Draft of Instructions for William Hull,” January 14, 1793; Hull to H, February 6, 1793; Washington to H, February 17, 1793; “Cabinet Meeting. Opinion Respecting the Proposed Treaty with the Indians Northwest of the Ohio,” February 25, 1793; Arthur St. Clair to H, August 9, 1793, note 4.

18Under the terms of Section 11 of “An Act to incorporate the subscribers to the Bank of the United States” (1 Stat. description begins The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America (Boston, 1845). description ends 196 [February 25, 1791]) the United States had borrowed two million dollars from the bank, to be repaid in ten equal annual installments. Provision had not yet been made by Congress for the second installment due in 1794. It was not until June 4, 1794, that Congress made an appropriation for this payment in “An Act providing for the payment of the second instalment due on the Loan made of the Bank of the United States” (1 Stat. description begins The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America (Boston, 1845). description ends 372).

19For examples of the reluctance of some states to make unconditional cessions of lighthouses, see Tench Coxe to H, January 3, 19, 1793; Randolph to H, January 7, 1793. Continued opposition from the states to relinquishment of the right of state officials to serve criminal and civil processes in areas ceded by them to the Federal Government for lighthouses resulted in the passage of “An Act relative to cessions of jurisdiction in places where lighthouses, beacons, buoys and public piers have been, or may hereafter be erected and fixed” (1 Stat. description begins The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America (Boston, 1845). description ends 426 [March 2, 1795]), which provided that cessions containing such reservations “shall be deemed sufficient.”

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