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You must give me leave to return you the inclosed, as I have laid aside the distressing trade of receiving money for serving my friends. the pleasure of doing them an acceptable office is the richest reward which can be conferred on me, and I never think them ungenerous but when they decline giving me an opportunity of proving this. the late occasion too was peculiarly sacred. the packet to...
2Memorandum Books, 1775 (Jefferson Papers)
Jan. 2. Elias Wells v. Higgins 2. Cav. v. Thompkins v. C. Tompkins. See Apr. 18. 1774. Pl. supposes are patd. If so dismiss Cav. (Those v. B. & C. Tompkins are patd. See Feb. 7. 1774.) 26. Robert Biscoe (Cumberland). Send him an opinion on the case of John Muse’s children to whom he is father in law. John Woodson (Cumberld.). Credit him for ferriages 8/6. Feb. 14. Biscoe. Committed opn. to...
Your letter of Aug. 23. 1774 and Proposals for collecting and publishing the American state papers I have received. It is an undertaking of great utility to the continent in general, as it will not only contribute to the information of all those concerned in the administration of government, but will furnish to any historical genius which may happen to arise those materials which he would...
I had the pleasure by a gentleman who saw you at Birmingham to hear of your welfare. By Capt. Aselby of the True-patriot belonging to Messrs. Farrell & Jones of Bristol I send you three dozen bottles of Madeira, being the half of a present which I had laid by for you. The captain was afraid to take more on board lest it should draw upon him the officers of the customs. The remaining three...
Articles of confederation and perpetual Union proposed by the delegates of the several colonies of New Hampshire &c. in General Congress met at Philadelphia May. 10. 1775. The Art. I. name of this confederacy shall henceforth be ‘The united < colonies > states of North America.’ The Art. II. said united colonies hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other binding on...
souls dollars New Hampshire 100,000 82,713 2 Massachusets 350,000 289,496 Rhode island 58,000 47,973 Connecticut 200,000 165,426 New York 200,000 165,426 New Jersey 130,000
I am to acknoledge the receipt of your letter, and to scribble a line in answer, being just in the moment of setting out on my journey. The situation of your island is truly hard, and I should think deserves a relaxation of our terms if I may trust my first thoughts on the subject. I also think it probable it might be mutually beneficial to us. Should I continue of that opinion I will...
The large strides < advances > of late taken by the legislature of Great Britain towards establishing < in > over the colonies their absolute rule, and the hardiness of their present attempt to effect by force of arms what by law or right they could never effect render< s > it necessary for us also to change < shift > the ground of opposition and to close with their last appeal from reason to...
< We > A Declaration < of > by the representatives of the United colonies of America now sitting in General Congress, < to all nations send greeting > < of > setting forth the causes & necessity of their tak[ing up arms]. The large strides of late taken by the legislature of Great Britain towards establishing over these colonies their absolute rule, and the hardiness of the present attempt to...
You will before this have heard that the war is now heartily entered into, without a prospect of accomodation but thro’ the effectual interposition of arms. General Gage has received considerable reinforcements, tho’ not to the [wh]ole amount of what was expected. There has lately been an action at the outlet of the town of Boston. The particulars we have not yet been able to get with...
Since my last, nothing new has happened. Our accounts of the battle of Charleston have become clear, and greatly to our satisfaction. Contrary to what usually happens, the first accounts were below truth; it is now certain that the regulars have had between 1200 and 1400 killed and wounded in that engagement, and that of these 500 are killed. Major Pitcairn is among the slain, at which...
The battle of Charlestown I expect you have heard, but perhaps not so as you may depend on. The provincials sustained two attacks in their trenches, and twice repulsed the ministerial forces, with immense slaughter. The third attack, however, being made with fixed bayonets, the provincials gave ground, retired a little way, and rallied ready for their enemy; but they, having been pretty...
The continued sitting of Congress prevents us from attending our colony Convention: but, directed by a sense of duty, we transmit to the Convention such determinations of the Congress as they have directed to be made public. The papers speak for themselves, and require no comment from us. A petition to the king is already sent away, earnestly entreating the royal interposition to prevent the...
The Congress proceeding to take into their consideration a resolution of the House of Commons of Gr. Br. referred to them by the several assemblies of New Jersey, Pennsylva. and Virga., which resolution is in these words ‘that it is the opinion &c.’ are of Opinion That the colonies of America possess < an > the exclusive < right > privilege of giving and granting their own money; that this...
It gives us much concern to find that disturbances have arisen and still continue among you concerning the boundaries of our colonies. In the character in which we now address you, it is unnecessary to enquire into the origin of those unhappy disputes, and it would be improper for us to express our approbation or censure on either side: But as representatives of two of the colonies united,...
With the most cordial warmth we recommend our Countryman Mr. Edmund Randolph to your patronage and favor. This young Gentlemans abilities, natural and acquired, his extensive connections, and above all, his desire to serve his Country in this arduous struggle, are circumstances that cannot fail to gain him your countenance and protection. You will readily discern Sir, how important a...
MS ( Vi : Third Virginia Convention, Loose Papers); probably in an unidentified hand in part, with the last eight names and numerical totals added by TJ, the dots and check marks being in TJ’s or another hand; undated, but assigned on basis of minutes of the Third Virginia Convention (see below); left margin partly torn away; with inverted and unrelated notation in the hand of John Tazewell,...
I received your message by Mr. Braxton and immediately gave him an order on the Treasurer for the money, which the Treasurer assured me should be answered on his return. I now send the bearer for the violin and such musick appurtaining to her as may be of no use to the young ladies. I beleive you had no case to her. If so, be so good as to direct Watt Lenox to get from Prentis’s some bays or...
I wrote to Patty on my arrival here, and there being then nothing new in the political way I inclosed her letter under a blank cover to you. Since that we have received from England news of much importance, which coming thro’ many channels we beleive may be confidently relied on. Both the ministerial and provincial accounts of the battle of Bunker’s hill had got to England. The ministry were...
Connecticut is bounded Westward 1. by the N. W. line of Virginia. 2. by the Proviso in the Plymouth grant in favr. of the Southern colony. 3. by the decision of Nicholson & al. pa. 14. declard Western boundary , to which Connecticut assented. 4. by the grant of Pensylvania. N ( DLC ). These notes on the protracted dispute between Pennsylvania and Connecticut over the Wyoming Valley are...
Since my last, we have nothing new from England or from the camps at either Cambridge or St. John’s. Our eyes are turned to the latter place with no little anxiety, the weather having been uncommonly bad for troops in that quarter, exposed to the inclemencies of the sky without any protection. Carleton is retired to Quebec, and though it does not appear he has any intimation of Arnold’s...
We have nothing new from England or the camp before Boston. By a private letter this day to a gentleman of Congress from General Montgomery we learn that our forces before St. John’s are 4000. in number besides 500. Canadians the latter of whom have repelled with great intrepidity three different attacks from the fort. We apprehend it will not hold out much longer as Monsr. St. Luc de la Corne...
We have no late intelligence here except of the surrender of Chambly, with 90. prisoners of war, 6½ tons of powder, 150 stands of arms and some other small matters. The acquisition of this powder we hope has before this made us masters of St. John’s, on which Montreal and the upper parts of St. Laurence will of course be ours. The fate of Arnold’s expedition we know not as yet. We have had...
After sealing my last letter to you we received an account of the capture of St. John’s which I wrote on the letter. What I there gave you was a true account of that matter. We consider this as having determined the fate of Canada. A Committee of Congress is gone to improve circumstances so as to bring the Canadians into our Union. We have accounts of Arnold as late as Octob. 13. All well and...
I am to give you the melancholy intelligence of the death of our most worthy Speaker which happened here on the 22d of the last month. He was struck with an Apoplexy, and expired within five hours. I have it in my power to acquaint you that the successes of our arms have corresponded with the justice of our cause. Chambly and St. John’s have been taken some weeks ago, and in them the whole...
De rebus novis, ita est. One of our armed vessels has taken an English storeship coming with all the implements of war (except powder) to Boston. She is worth about £30,000 sterling as General Washington informs us, and the stores are adapted to his wants as perfectly as if he had sent the invoice. They have also taken two small provision vessels from Ireland to Boston; a forty gun ship blew...
there is a bar off Presque isle which prevents large vessels coming near the shore. distance from Pittsbgh to Cayahoga by land 150 miles. There are some morasses on the road, but may be made good for carriages, cayahoga is a deep creek at the dryest season. But the mouth is barred as Presque isle is. in a hard winter they travel on the ice from Cayahoga to Sandusky & Detroit, & slays might go...
Capt Orl[ando] Jeremiah Nichols Clear Jones’s Company Ice-and Snow Clear Joshua Fry Clear 15. William Gaines Clear Alexander Gordon Clear Capt . Wallace’s
[ Albemarle, ca. 1776 ] A tabulated return in six columns giving names and numbers of captains, and numbers of first lieutenants, second lieutenants, ensigns, and rank and file, totalling respectively 15, 15, 4, 11, and 863, making in all 908 officers and men. [ At foot of text :] “About three fourths have firearms of some sort.” MS ( DLC : TJ Papers, 6: 1049); entirely in TJ’s hand; undated...
30Memorandum Books, 1776 (Jefferson Papers)
Jan. 1. Pd. entertt. at Ewens’s 15/7½. Pd. ferrge. at do. 13/1½. 2. Pd. lodging, dinner &c. at Bush town 26/3. Pd. a smith at do. 8/4. Gave servts. at do. 3/9. 3. Pd. a smith at Baltimore 17/6. Pd. dinner, lodgg. breakfast &c. Baltimore £1–13–1½. Gave servt. at do. 1/10½. Pd. ferrge. over Patapsco 6/7. Pd. feeding horses &c. at do. 1/8. Gave ferrymen 1/10. 4. Pd. lodging &c. at Rawlings’s 23/2.
Queen Elizabeth by letters patent bearing date the 11th. of June 1578. granted to Sr. Humphrey Gilbert license to search for uninhabited countries, and to hold the same to him and his heirs, with all jurisdiction and royalties by sea and land, reserving to the crown of England his allegiance and the fifth part of all the oar of gold and silver which should be gotten there. He had moreover...
I arrived here last Tuesday after being detained hence six weeks longer than I intended by a malady of which Gilmer can inform you. I have nothing new to inform you of as the last post carried you an account of the naval engagement in Delaware. I inclose a vote of yesterday on the subject of government as the ensuing campaign is likely to require greater exertion than our unorganized powers...
Having arrived here but lately I have little to communicate. I have been so long out of the political world that I am almost a new man in it. You will have heard before this reaches you of the naval engagement in the Delaware. There are letters in town it is said from General Sullivan which inform that the lower town of Quebec is taken and a breach made in the wall of the upper; but I do not...
Your’s of August I received in this place, that of Nov. 24th. is just now come to hand; the one of October I imagine has miscarried. On receiving the first of these, I proposed to have spoken to the gentleman you mention, as I was then about to return to my own country and had expectations of seeing him. I knew him to be just and good; but I knew at the same time that for some cause or other...
The dignity and stability of government in all its branches, the morals of the people, and every blessing of society, depend so much upon an upright and skilful administration of justice, that the judicial power ought to be distinct from both the legislative and executive, and independent upon both, that so it may be a check upon both, as both should be checks upon that. The judges, therefore,...
Whereas George Guelph King of Great Britain & Ireland and Elector of Hanover, heretofore entrusted with the exercise of the kingly office in this government, hath endeavored to pervert the same into a detestable & insupportable tyranny by < neg > putting his negative on laws the most wholesome & necessary for the public good by denying to his governors permission to pass laws of < the most >...
A Bill for new modelling the form of government and for establishing the Fundamental principles of our future Constitution Whereas George king of Great Britain & Ireland and Elector of Hanover Be it therefore enacted by the authority of the people that the said George the third king of Great Britain < formerly holding & exercising the kingly > < power > < office within this colony be , & he is...
A Bill for new-modelling the form of Government and for establishing the Fundamental principles thereof in future. Whereas George Guelf king of Great Britain and Ireland and Elector of Hanover, heretofore entrusted with the exercise of the kingly office in this government hath endeavored to pervert the same into a detestable and insupportable tyranny; by putting his negative on laws the most...
Jefferson ’s extraordinarily graphic account of the debates and proceedings in Congress during two critical months in the summer of 1776 is perhaps the best single source of information concerning the movement toward independence and the formation of the Articles of Confederation, not even excepting the similar notes made by John Adams ( Works , ii , 485–502; also JCC Worthington C. Ford and...
Whereas George Guelph King of Great Britain & Ireland and Elector of Hanover, heretofore entrusted with the exercise of the Kingly office in this government, hath endeavored to pervert the same into a detestable & insupportable tyranny < has kept some colonies without judiciary establmts > < judges dependant > refused judiciary establmts to some without unjust & partial judges dependant...
re-established them in po[wer …] < this conduct and > at this very time too, they are permitting their < sovereign > chief magistrate to send over not only soldiers of our < own > common blood but Scotch & foreign mercenaries to < destroy us > invade and deluge us in blood. < this is too much to be borne even by relations. enough then be it to say, we are now done with them. > these facts have...
A Declaration of the Representatives of the United States of America , in General Congress assembled. When in the course of human events it becomes necessary for a people to advance from that subordination in which they have hitherto remained, & to assume among the powers of the earth the equal & independant station to which the laws of nature & of nature’s god entitle them, a decent respect...
The place called the Cedars is on the river St. Lawrence, about 43 miles above Montreal. At this place Colo. Bedel was posted with 390 men. He had here laid off some works of defence inclosed the greater part of them with picquets and the rest with lines of earth and had two canons mounted. Colo. Bedel having received intelligence on Wednesday the 15th. of May that the enemy were approaching...
AL : American Philosophical Society This note has probably far more importance than appears on the surface, because the likelihood is that Jefferson enclosed with it his draft of the Declaration of Independence. The evolution of that document has undergone repeated and microscopic analysis. A number of minor questions remain unanswered, but the general outline is clear. On June 7 the issue of...
The inclosed paper has been read and with some small alterations approved of by the committee. Will Doctr. Franklyn be so good as to peruse it and suggest such alterations as his more enlarged view of the subject will dictate? The paper having been returned to me to change a particular sentiment or two, I propose laying it again before the committee tomorrow morning, if Doctr. Franklyn can...
I this day received information that the Convention had been pleased to reappoint me to the office in which I have now the honor to be serving them and through you must beg leave to return them my sincere thanks for this mark of their continued confidence. I am sorry the situation of my domestic affairs renders it indispensably necessary that I should sollicit the substitution of some other...
Mr. John Blake. July. 1. 1776. He lives at Montreal. A merchant. Has lived there almost from the year 1760. Was a great scarcity hard cash, could not supply troops with clothes or food, wood. He lent 471–18–9 and 394–15–3 in January. If had been cash in Canada, provisions might have been had. He has lent individuals of army 130. half Joes. Continental bills would not have passed in Canada. A...
Your’s of 22d June came to hand this morning and gratified me much as this with your former contains interesting intelligence. Our affairs in Canada go still retrograde, but I hope they are now nearly at their worst. The fatal sources of these misfortunes have been want of hard money with which to procure provisions, the ravages of the small pox with which one half of our army is still down,...
To prevent every danger which might arise to American freedom by continuing too long in office the members of the Continental Congress, to preserve to that body the confidence of their friends, and to disarm the malignant imputations of their enemies It is earnestly recommended to the several Provincial Assemblies or Conventions of the United colonies that in their future elections of...
On July 4, 1776, Franklin, John Adams, and Jefferson were named as a committee to suggest a seal. Each man proposed designs, and one of Jefferson’s closely resembled Franklin’s. In addition the painter Pierre Du Simitière, who had been called in as a consultant, produced a version of his own. A letter from John Adams of August 14 described the various proposals; hence Franklin’s had been...