Thomas Jefferson Papers
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Memorandum Books, 1775

1775.

Jan. 2. 51 Elias Wells v. Higgins 2. Cav. v. Thompkins v. C. Tompkins. See Apr. 18. 1774. Pl. supposes are patd. If so dismiss Cav. (Those v. B. & C. Tompkins are patd. See Feb. 7. 1774.)
26. Robert Biscoe (Cumberland). Send him an opinion on the case of John Muse’s children to whom he is father in law.
John Woodson (Cumberld.). Credit him for ferriages 8/6.
 
Feb. 14. Biscoe. Committed opn. to writing.
Mar. 4. Credit John Woodson for sundry ferriages since Jan. 26. 2/9.
9. Clasby v. Emerson. Recd. £5. and Clasby promises as much more.
David Duncan (Alb.) v. Samuel Crawley (Alb.). A cav. entd. for 339. as. on the So. bra. of Piney river. Crawley assigned to John Goldsby (Albem.) Mar.  1773. as appears by the assnmt. he shewed me which was long before the cav. entd. so when called apply to S. O. for the Certif. with the assnmt. which he gave me to return. Recd. 7/2 over the right money &c.
John Strange (Alb.). His cases. Recd. 50/.
Richd. Napier (Alb.) v. Vincent Sprowce (Alb.). Ent. cav. for 107. as. Alb. on the waters of Ballenger’s creek.
Mar. 9. John Barlow (Alb.) v. Wm. Henson (run away). Ent. cav. for 400. as. Alb. on Priddy’s cr. surveied for John Dowell decd. Henson sold to pl. 150. as. part of the 400 & made a deed, then run away. Henson’s title was by deed from Ambrose Dowell son & devisee of John Dowell, but as they will not trouble themselves at S. O. with tracing these titles, pl. enters this cav. to secure himself & will convey the remaining 250. as. to those having right, on reimbursemt. of costs. Recd. 8/3.
John Evans (Alb.) v. Thos. Evans (Alb.). Ent. a cav. for the lands recovered in Evans v. Kincaid to save them in case the cav. Wood v. Kincaid for the same lands should be entered right v. Evans.
10. Gay v. Manly. Recd. 48/3. Send for a copy of his decree.
24. Patrick Rose (Amherst) v. John McGwirk (run away). Ent. cav. for 200 as. ld. on the No. side of the North branch of Piney riv. Amh. Joining the lands of pl. and Chas. Irving.
Apr. 6. Turk v. Tunner. See 1774. Apr. 5. Qu. if I have entd. it? & No. 579.
Eubank v. Deane. Qu. do.?
Martin v. Mcquirck. 1774. Feb. 22. Qu. if I have entd. in C. O.
Morgan v. Randolph. Not yet entd. in C. O.
Branham v. Colman. 1771. Sep. 11. Dec. 12. 1773 Jan. 8.
May 3.
Turk v. Tunner. } Wrote to J. Blair to enter in C. O.
Martin v. Mcquirck
Morgan v. Randolph
Branham v. Colman.
Eubank v. Dean. Petn.
Napier v. Sprowce.
Barlow v. Henson.
<Evans v. Evans.>
Rose v. McGwirck.
Turk v. Tunner. } Wrote to Garland Carr to ent. in S. O.
Branham v. Colman.
Napier v. Sprowce
Barlow v. Henson
Evans v. Evans.
Rose v. McGwirck
Wells v. Higgins. 2. caveats. Wrote to Garld. Carr to enquire if patd. If not to enter cav. in S. O. & C. O.
15. Smith’s case. Recd. 5/3.
Sep. 13. John Philips (  ) v. Thos. Moore (Augusta). A cav. for 5. as. land Augusta. Emploied by lre. from def.

In the spring of the year 1774. a robbery and murder was committed on an inhabitant of the frontier parts of Virginia by two Indians of the Shawanee nation.52 Instead of considering this as an individual wrong for which justice on the offenders should have been demanded of the Shawanese the neighboring whites were induced to punish it in a more summary way. Colo. Cresap, a man infamous for the many murders he has committed on those much injured people, collected a party of Whites and proceeded down the river Konhaway in quest of vengeance. Unhappily a canoe of women and children with one man only was seen coming from the opposite shore, unarmed, and expecting nothing less than an hostile attack from the whites. Cresap and his party concealed themselves on the bank of the river, and, the moment the canoe reached the shore, singled out their objects, and at one fire killed every person in it. This happened to be the family of Logan an Indian chief who had long and often distinguished himself as a friend of the whites, but this unworthy and cowardly return provoked his vengeance. He accordingly signalized himself in the war which ensued. In the Autumn of the same year a decisive battle was fought between the collected forces of the Shawanese and their allies, and a detachment of the army of Ld. Dunmore. This nobleman, then governor of Virginia, tho’ conscious of the injustice of the war, had thought it prudent to raise a strong power in order to compel the Indians to accept of peace on reasonable terms. The battle was fought on the banks of the Ohio, from nine o’clock in the morning till darkness came on. The Indians were defeated, and sued for peace. Logan however disdained to be seen among the suppliants, but lest Lord Dunmore should distrust the sincerity of a treaty from which so distinguished a chief absented himself, he sent by a messenger a speech to be delivered verbally, of which the following is a translation. The event was a just and honorable peace.
I appeal to any white man to say if ever he entered Logan’s cabbin hungry and <I> he gave him not meat; if ever he came cold and naked and <I> he cloathed him not. During the course of the last long and bloody war, Logan remained idle in his cabbin, an advocate for peace. Nay such was my affection for the Whites, that <those of my own country pointed> my countrymen hooted as they passed by and said ‘Logan is the friend of White men.’ I had even thought to have lived with you, but for the injuries of one man. Colo. Cresap, the last spring, in cold blood and unprovoked, cut off all the Relations of Logan; not sparing even my women or childen. There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any human creature. This called on me for revenge. I have sought it; I have killed many; I have fully glutted my vengeance. For my country I rejoice at the beams of peace, but do not harbor a thought that mine is the joy of fear. Logan never felt fear. He will not turn on his heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn for Logan?—Not one.
Feb. 8. A large plough with 4. oxen ploughed 24. furrows half a mile long 10.I. broad & 6.I. deep in a day, which is about 1¼ acres.
Wolf sais limestone should be burned 60 hours in a most violent heat. Also that if the limestone be good it should lose one third of it’s weight in burning.
Calves which fall after the 1st. June should be killed. Wm. Fitzhugh. Lambs that fall after the first of May. A lamb, whether ewe or ram should not be permitted to breed till the season after it is two year old. The ram not run with the ewes till the rutting season comes on.
Wheat in high-land should be sown as early as August. (Note corn is laid by about the last of July generally or first of August.) Wheat in lowgrounds should be sown about the middle of Septemb. W. F. TMR.
 
TMR. tells me he never made less than 30. bushels of wheat to the acre in Sabot island. His wheat is alwais measured, & he knows the exact content of his feild, so speaks on certain grounds.
The best way is to get all the ploughing for the succeeding crop of corn finished before Christmas, & so in all the open parts of the winter be fallowing for wheat.
A pint of cotton seed contains of good seeds     900.
Consequently a bushel will contain 57600.
Put 4. in a hill, and it will plant hills 14400.
If hills are 2.f. apart, an acre will contain abt. 11025.
So that a bushel of seed will plant 1⅓ acres.
Mr. Eppes with 7. hands at the Forest has sowed 148. bushels of wheat, and tends 20,000 corn hills a hand. He has only 4. horses.
The flue of a chimney may go two feet horizontally for 1. foot perpendicular rise without danger of smoking.
If a pipe of Madeira yeilds 30 doz. bottles, we drink it at 7. years old for 3/ a bottle, which includes the 7. years interest. Such a bottle holds 15 common wine glasses. A flask of Syracuse53 holds about 7¾ common wine glasses call them 7½ because of the extraordinary sediment. To drink it then as cheap as the best Madeira it should be 18d. currcy. the flask. To be as cheap as new Madeira it should be but 10d the flask, or £6–0 the gross.
A pipe of new Madeira will yeild 40. dozen, which brings the price (there being no interest) to 20/ a doz. or 20d the bottle when drank new.
It would be a good way to cow-pen our worn-out and gullied hill-sides.
Two waggons bringing stone from the quarry to Monticello
went from the house to the quarry in 15′
loaded both of them in 25′
came up in 30′
unloaded both in 10′
so that to fetch 2 loads takes in the whole     80′
27 head of cattle will convert 65 loads of straw & haulm (besides what they eat of it) into about 300. loads of dung.
Horses well littered yeild from 12. to 17. loads of dung per horse.
88. fat hogs converted 5. loads of straw & 4 of stubble into 90 loads of very rotten dung, but they had not litter enough. They would have made 12. or 15. loads into manure. This is much the best of all dungs.
The above from Young’s rural oeconomy.54
Dr. Walker sais he remembers that the years 1724 & 1741. were great locust years. We all remember that 1758. was & now they are come again this year 1775. It appears then that they come periodically once in 17 years. They come out of the ground from a prodigious depth. It is thought they eat nothing while in this state; laying their eggs in the small twigs of trees seems to be their only business. The females make a noise well known. The males are silent.
John Day gives 2d a bushel for charcoal delivered at his shop. He sais a cord of wood will make 40. bushels.
Fireplace in B. Randolph’ parlour55
2.f. 6.I. wide in the back.         another of his fireplaces
3.f. 2½ I. wide in front. 2.f. 9.I. in the back
1.f. 8.I. in the jamb. 4.f. in the front.
2 f. 10.I. high.
Dr. Shippen’s56 side peice of marble is 5.I., which added to width of the iron side gives the depth of the chimney, only that there is the thickness of the marble architrave besides.
H. of burgesses room 28 f. wide in the clear. The seats 3.f. deep not in the clear.
Grill work in Mr. Pages gate.57 2.I. in flank 1.I. in front. The frame-peices are 2.I. in front & flank.
 
Dover mill 30. by 40. f.
Colo. Harrison’s 28. by 50.
Stone fence near Baltimore 4.f. 3.I. high 19.I. thick at top & about 22. or 23.I. thick at bottom.
A Nailer will make 12 ℔ nails a day. Nail rod iron is 36/ p. C.
A breakfast table. bed 2 f. 4.I. by 21 I. leaf 9.I.

1775.58

Committee chosen for Albemarle.59
votes votes
1.  T. Jefferson    211.    9. George Gilmer    155
2. J. Walker 200. 10. Thos. Walker 150
3. N. Lewis 197. 11. John Ware 113
4. C. Lewis N. G. 188. 12. James Quarles 76 .
5. Isaac Davies 183. 13. James Hopkins 71 .
6. John Coles 175. 14. Thos. Napier 71 .
7. David Rhodes 165. 15. William Sims 64 .
8. John Henderson 156.
Estimate of Howard’s land by H. Skipwith, H. Cox & myself.
£ 
60. acres lowgrds. uncleared & injurd. by fresh.@ £3–10s    210 .
60. as. do. cleared @ £7–10 450 .
680. as. highland @ 40/ 1360 .
800. as. 2020
Thos. Mims & Mr. Jarrett give a different account. There are 732. as. only. 400 of them are such as Smith’s land worth about 12/6. It was sold by one Stephen Hughes to Allen Howard abt. 30. y. ago.
   120. as. lowgrds. as above     £660 .
212. as. highland prim[e ferti]lity @ £3. 636 .
400. as. do. indifferent @ 12/6 250
732. as. 1546
 
Jan. 6. Charge the Smith’s shop 117. ℔ square steel bought of William & Thomas Mitchell @ 9d. £4–7–9.
Charge Mr. Carr’s estate my assumpsit to Ninian Minzies for his debt £6–5–3.
13. Pd. J. Walker’s Michael a pretended balance for chickens 1/.
14. Charge James Buchanan T. Garth’s order on him for amt. of 15. bush. wheat £3–15.
Mrs. Jefferson } See my acct. this day settled with T. Garth sundry articles which I am to charge them.60
Rand. Jefferson
P. Mazzei
Wm. Pond
G. Bradby
On settlement of accts. with T. Garth this day I am in his debt £79–2–7 besides the following sums by bond.61
    £ 30.  paiable on  demand
150. June 10. 1775.
270. Dec. 25. 1777.
450.
15. Bot. a horse Le Fleur of J. Walker for £35. to be paid in wheat in Richmond at the current price in April 1776. but if by stoppage of ports or other accident wheat does not sell tolerably, I am at liberty to withold paiment till it does, only allowing 5. bushels per cent per ann. interest from that time. He was foaled in the spring of 1772.
21. Gave ferryman at J. Woodson’s on my way to Guinea62 7½d.
23. Pd. entertt. at Cumbld. C. H. 4/5½.
24. John Mayo is to saw me stuff for a warehouse at Richmond. The plank for weatherboarding, sheeting, & flooring for 1d. a foot. The flooring plank 1½ I. thick.
28. Joseph Neilson63 & his apprentice began to work for me the 23d. inst. @ 50/ per month.
 
29. Sent Mrs. Carrol for 7. geese 14/ & wrote her word I would take her young geese hereafter every winter @ 18d.
Feb. 5.
Gave my wife to pay  Betty Hemings 1/3.
Aggy64 1/3.
Old York 1/3.
black Sall65 1/.
Pd. Lewis Martin’s Phill for making a pr. of swingle trees in the great snow 2/.
7. Charge F. Eppes carrying 6. hhds. tobo. to Westham.66
9. Pd. for toddy &c. at Charlottesville 1/9.
Pd. David Meriwether for a jointer 6/.
11. Agreed with Joseph Neilson that he and his apprentice Wm. Fosset shall continue a year with me for which I am to pay him £30. & find him provisions.
Feb. 13. Agreed with Dabney Wade that he shall make 5. wheat fans67 to be paid for in wheat @ £4–15.
14. Pd. Colo. Lewis’s John for 34 partridges 5/3¾.
20. Pd. at Goochld. ct. towds. expences of last and next Congress 12/.
Pd. expences at do. 3/1½.
Mar. 4. Gave ferryman at Woodson’s 7½d.
5. Pd. Skelton’s Pharaoh for 3 doz. eggs 1/.
9. The balance of my dues &c. to Wm. Henderson sher. Alb. is £9–12–5½ which I am to pay at Apr. court. Also assumd. £6–7–6 for J. Bolling.
Pd. Hierom Gaines for Davd. Nemo 9/4.
Pd. Joseph Henderson for P. Mazzei 7/. This is instead of the corn ordered (see Sep. 14. 1774) which he did not receive.
Pd. do. for myself 1/6.
Pd. toddy at Jouett’s 2/.
11. Gave A. S. Jefferson 12/.
12. Bought of Norris two tobacco canoes for £8. to be paid for in corn or wheat of this year at the market price.
 
18. Charge my father’s estate a pr. of stays bought at Capt. Walker’s for A. S. Jefferson 40/.
Pd. ferriage at Shirley going & coming 1/3.
20. Pd. for punch at Mrs. Younghusband’s68 1/.
22. Pd. postage 1/3.
Pd. Galt & Valentine69 3/1½.
Pd. Mrs. Ogilvie for book-muslin 22/3.
Pd. at Gunn’s for this day’s dinner and for one night’s feeding horses (19th.) 15/6.
23. Pd. punch at Cooley’s 1/.
25. Pd. George Lefong for himself & Fisher in full 6/3.
Pd. the Sexton 1/3.
27. Pd. Doorkeeper of Convention 1/3.
Pd. coach hire 1/3.
Pd. entertt. at Gunn’s 5/.
28. Pd. breakfast at Gunn’s 1/3.
<Pd. Treasurer of my own money to make up Congress money 5/2>.
Tom Carr’s works for 105. as. got by caveat v. Smith cost returning to Sec.’s office.
Gov.’s & Sec.’s fees 1–12–0
3. rights 0–17–6
copy order conc. 10–9
3– 0–3
He gave me cash 1–12–6
so I advanced the balance now 1– 7–9

Advanced to Treasurer of my own money to make up the Congress money70 s  
5–2
do. for Dr. Walker 20/ do. for John Coles 20/ wch. charge 2–0–0
£2–5–2
Gave John at N. Minzies’ 12/.
Gave washerwoman at do. 11/.
 
29. Pd. silversmith for mendg. sugar tongs 1/3.
Pd. at Doctr. Brown’s for 2. oz. gum Arabic 1/3.
Pd. a smith for a key 1/3.
Apr. 3. Answered Jno. Snodgrass for A. S. Jefferson wch. charge my father’s estate £1–11–5 (see acct.).
4. Gave old York to pay for 3 ℔ cotton he bought and 2 ℔ more he is to bring from one of Skelton’s negroes 7/6.
7. In three months and one week (excluding time we have been absent) we have used at Elk hill 2. doz. bottles Madeira, 3 bottles of red wine, & 10. pint flasks of Syracuse which is at the rate of 10. bottles a month.
9. Borrowed of Martin 1/9¾.
Pd. Skelton’s Sam for cotton 2/9.
Postd. 15. Gave Joseph Neilson an order on R. Anderson’s store for goods to amt. of £5.
Corn made by Stanley at Judith’s cr.71 was 146B–1b–1½p.
Corn made by Wingo 58B–2b. His share T. Garth sais was 11B–3–1 @ 7/6.
Wingo has had pork of Watt Mousley which I am to stop £5–6. See post 1776 Feb. 16.
He has also had some corn of me 1B–4b @ 10/.
16. Pd. Skelton’s Jacob 2/3. (Note part of this was for 13. partridges brought by Moses.)
Repd. Martin 1/9¾.
17. Pd. Mrs. Wills for silk 1/3.
Pd. Mrs. Williams for spinning thread 1/6.
18. Gave R. Harvie my bond72 for  which included  due from my mother to him. Charge this sum therefore to her.
29. W. Flem. offers me Mt. Pleasant for Poplar forest73 for which he has been offd. £3500.
 
100  as. (not quite) of Lowgrounds { There are 500 as. cleared land.
200  barrens
1205  good highland
Rucker’s battoe74 is 50.f. long. 4.f. wide in the bottom & 6.f. at top. She carries 11. hhds. & draws 13½ I. water.
May 7. Allycroker’s colt75 by young Fearnought was foaled May 7.
11. Pd. at T. Carr’s for punch before dinner 2/6.
12. Pd. Howard for handle of chariot door 1/3 (still owe him 1/3).
14. Pd. Aggy for a pullet 7½d.
Pd. Cate for chickens 7½d.
20. Pd. for 14. tythes Albemarle listed in my name the powder tax76 21/.
Pd. also to Dr. Gilmer for 16. tythes listed in T. Garth’s name 24/. Qu. if T. Garth should not refund this?
Pd. T. Carr club in toddy 7½d.
22. Gave Daniel Reynolds my note to Mr. Manson for 20/ in paimt. for the entry of land I bought of him.
24. Charge T. Garth 10 galls.–  pints of rum & 100 ℔ brown sugar.
Recd. of T. Garth 12/.
Postd. 27. Charge Nelson 18/ furnished him by Mr. R. Anderson & Capt. Carr on my acct.
June 1. Pd. ferrge. & breakfast at Foese’s77 (formerly Lorton’s) 4/6.
Pd. at do. for Bob crossing abt. 1st. of May 2/6.
Pd. Lefong for a bag 5/.
3. Pd. for punch at Anderson’s 1/3.
 
      Memm. of my tobo. this year.
hhds.
I expect  from Bedford in all        26
from Elk-island in all 20
I have purchased from T. Garth 4
50 .
 How to be disposed of.    
 E. hhds.
T. I.78 No. 1.——6. S. W. 6  } at Byrd’s79 already delivered to Evans for Farrell & Jones <wch. charge to J. Wayles’s estate>.
No. 1.2.3.5.6.  W. 5.
No. 2.6. P. F. 2 
H. C. No. 2.3.4. S. W. 3 
T. I. No. 1. P. F. 1  } Shockoes already delivered to Evans. <Charge as before.>
No. 2. I. C. 1 
of the tobacco purchased of Garth 2. Shockoes to be delivd. to Evans
of the tobo. not yet inspected 18. to be delivered to Evans
38. in all of which he is to ship 35. on my acct. & to sell the other 3. to repay the £40. he let H. Cox have.
{ The 35 hhds. are to be
applied by F. & J. to
credit of J. Wayles’s
estate so charge the estate.
}
H. C. No. 1. S. W. 1  at Byrd’s already delivd. to H. Cox.
T. G. No. 28.12. 2. Shockoe’s of Garth’s tobo., I sell.
of the tobo. not inspected 7. to be delivd. to Power for Cary80 which charge to J. Wayles’s estate.
of do. 2. to be delivd. S. Williams for his share
50.
June 6. Left two hhds. tobo. with Dr. Walker to sell
  viz. T. G. No.  28. 116. 902.
12. 118. 1170.
The money to be applied by J. Walker as follows
£ 
   Boston money81 for  myself
T. Garth
   10– 0 –0
1– 0 –0
   Powder tax for   J. Bolling
T. M. Randolph
0– 16 –6
1– 1 –0
To be paid into Council
& Sec.’s office on
returning works for
these people
} Thos. Evans 3– 7 –0
Davd. Robertson 2– 9 –6
Samuel Dedman 3– 0 –3
Henry Mullins 1– 2 –2
To be paid to E. Rand. for John Skip Harris in his petn. v. Hall 2– 10 –0
Something also to be paid for John Coles into Sec.’s office. I know not what.
Note David Robertson, H. Mullins & J. S. Harris had left their full sums with me, so not to be charged.
Evans had left with me 35/11 & Dedman 42/6 so they must be charged the surplus. For the others I pay the whole & charge them.
Pd. Greenhow in part for hooks & eyes & center bits 15/ (still due 2/).
June 10. Pd. Greenhow for sundries in full £5–4–1½.
Gave T. M. Randolph’s servt. 1/3.
Recd. of Treasurer for use of myself & other delegates of Congress £315.
Pd. Carter Braxton £230. for his Excha. on Mr. Lynch82 in Philadelphia for £200. sterl.
Pd. Doctr. Mclurgh’s Cis 6/.
June 11. Set out from Wmsburgh. for Philadelphia.
 
Pd. ferrge., breakfast, dinner &c. at Ruffin’s ferry 13/8.
Gave ferrymen 1/.
12. Pd. breakfast &c. at K. Wm. Ct. house 7/6.
Pd. Farleigh’s83 store boots for servt. 5/.
Pd. dinner &c. at Aylett’s84 3/.
13. Pd. in Fredsburgh. for a hair-bag 4/.
14. Pd. Alexr. Spotswood85 for a horse (The General) £25. & gave him an order on H. Skipwith for £25. more, the balance. He was got by Janus & is 6. years old.
Pd. for postillion whip 1/6.
Pd. Green for harness £3–10–6.
Pd. for box lock 1/6.
Gave Richd.86 to pay for washing 1/3.
15. Pd. for swingle trees 24/.
Pd. horse doctor 6/.
Borrowed of Weedon87 13/6.
Pd. Weedon £3–8–1½.
Pd. ferrge. & ferrymen Fredsbgh. 3/9.
Pd. guide 1/6.
Pd. ferrge. at Howe’s88 20/.
Ferrymen 1/6.
Maryland. The following articles in Maryland currency, where coins are as follows
pistereen 1/4—English shilling 1/8—Dollar 7/6
Guinea 35/
half Jo £3.
Note the true difference of exchange with Virginia is 100 = 125.
 
June 16. Pd. at Mrs. Halkinson’s89 Port Tobacco for dinner & lodging &c. £1–3–10.
Servt. at do. 1/4.
17. Pd. at Mrs. Gibson’s90 Upper Marlborough for breakfst. dinner, Lodging &c. 30/2.
Servts. at do. 2/2.
Pd. ferrge. & ferrymen at London town91 7/6.
Pd. Aikman,92 bookseller at Annapolis for books 31/.
Gave Richd. to buy comb 10d.
Pd. a smith for mending pole of Phaeton 2/.
Pd. for shewing apartments in State house93 3/9.
Pd. for mending umbrella 2/.
18. Pd. for breakfast, dinner, lodging, breakfast &c. at Middleton94 £2–2–8 servt. 1/8.
Pd. ferrge. from Annapolis to Rock-Hall £3.
Gave ferrymen 5/2½.
19. Pd. at Greentree’s95 at Rockhall lodging &c. 18/4.
Gave servt. at do. 10d.
Pd. for breakfast, dinner &c. at Downs’s96 10/8.
Pennsylvania & Delaware counties, currency same as Maryland, only that English shillings are  . True difference of exchange same as Maryland i.e. 100 = 125.
20. Pd. Scurrie at Middletown or Witherspoon’s97 lodging &c. 17/11.
 
Servt. at do. 6d.
Pd. at Wilmington for mending whip 1/.
Pd. Marshall98 at do. for breakfast &c. 4/11.
Pd. Mrs. Withey99 at Chester for dinner &c. 8/.
Arrived in Philadelphia.1
Pd. for horse & guide from Wilmington to Philadelphia 28/.
June 21. Borrowed of E. Pendleton 5/.
Pd. dinner at Mullins’s2 on Schuylkill 12/6.
Gave Richd. 1/.
22. Pd. at Hall’s3 for books 12/3.
Pd. at Bradford’s4 for do. 8/.
Pd. Hillegas5 for music 26/.
Pd. E. Pendleton 5/.
24. Pd. Burn the barber 4/.
25. Put into poor boxes 1/10.
Pd. for sangeree6 at Center house7 9d.
 
26. Gave in charity 3/9.
Pd. coach hire to Dickerson’s8 1/10½.
27. Pd. postage 2/10.
Recd. of Mr. Lynch for his bill of Excha. £310.
Pd.  Colo. Pendleton £63–19–9½.
Colo. R. H. Lee £64.
Colo. Harrison £63–19–9–½.
Patr. Henry £63–19–9–½.
Note by difference of Exchange we gained £22–10 Pennsylv. currency so that our £315. Virga. currcy. = £393–15 Penns. curcy. was converted into £416–5 Penns. curcy. Of this I was allowed £160–5–10 Penns. curcy. to put me on a footing with the others who had received a former sum.
Pd. punch at City tavern9 1/.
Gave Richd. 4d.
Pd. dinner at Center house 7/.
28. Pd. Starr for shoes 21/.
Pd. dinner at Burn’s10 6/2.
Pd. Bringhurst, ironmonger,11 for sundries 11/3.
June 29. Pd. for a sword-chain 7/6.
Pd. acct. at Smith’s at the city tavern from 20th. to 25th. inclusive 35/.
30. Pd. for washing 18/4.
Pd. for 4. butterprints 4/.
Gave prison box12 4d.
 
July 1. Pd. Sparhawk13 for a book 10/.
Pd. Burn the barber one week shaving & dressing 5/.
Pd. do. for grinding razors 4/.
Gave Richd. to buy linen for shirt 7/6.
2. Pd. Hilsymur14 for one week keeping 4. horses £3–10–6.
3. Pd. Bringhurst for 2 files 8d.
Pd.  repairing whip 1/.
mending key 1/.
4. Pd. for a sword chain 17/.
Pd. at Hall’s for a book 4/6.
Pd. postage 3/4.
Pd. Hillegas for music 31/6.
Pd. Starr for a pr. of boots 47/6 for buckles 2/6.
Pd. for paper 1/9.
6. Pd. Bringhurst for 3. brass night bolts15 27/ for 1. japannd. do. 5/ 8. spring bolts for sashes 16/.
7. Pd. ferrge. over Schuylkyll going & coming from Mr. Hamilton’s16 4d.
Pd. Smith entertt. to this day inclusive £3–0–2.
8. Pd. at Hall’s for a book 2/.
Pd. Benjamin Randolph a fortnight’s lodging for self & servt. £3–15.
Pd. Hilsimur a week’s keeping horses £3–10.
July 9. Pd. dinner in Province isld.17 8/1.
10. Pd. for pickled oysters 6d.
11. Pd. Hales18 for keeping horses 4 days £2–13–2.
 
Pd. postage 10/5.
Pd. for 3. bell-bolts 6/.
12. Pd. for corn salve 1/.
Pd. coffee, club, &c. on Jersey shore 2/10.
13. Pd. Bringhurst for 7. sash bolts 14/.
Pd. Mrs. Loremore for washing 9/.
Pd. dinner at Smith’s 6/.
14. Put in church box at German church19 3d.
Pd. Bradford for a pamphlet 6d.
15. Pd. Richard’s washing 1/9.
Pd. for bottle of Capillaire20 2/6.
Pd. Way21 for mending Phaeton £1–11–6.
Pd. for a tomahawk 15/.
Pd. Smith in full, including this day £1–14–6.
Gave servt. 1/.
Pd. Hilsymur for my horses this week £3–10.
17. Pd. freight of box & cask to Virginia 10/.
Pd. dinner at Smith’s 6/6.
18. Gave prisoners 3d.
Gave in Charity 7/6.
Pd. Bell for Political disquisitions 2. vols.22 15/.
19. Pd. for seeing wax-work23 3/.
20. Put into prisoners’ box 3d.
Pd. supper &c. at Smith’s 7/9.
21. Pd. Mrs. Loremore for washing 8/9.
July 23. Pd. Smith in full £1–1.
24. Pd. dinner at Smith’s 14/8.
 
25.
Gave Richd. to pay  mendg. whip 6d.
grindg. knives 1/.
26. Pd. Sparhawk for a purse 3/6.
Pd. Bringhurst for 3. bell bolts 4/6.
Pd. former club at Byrn’s 4/3.
Pd. for 6 pr. brass pullies in iron boxes 42/.
Pd. for fruit 9d.—for seeing wax work 2/.
27. Pd. for mendg. harness 5/9.
Pd. for pr. gloves 7/6.
Pd. an ironmonger for 300. brass tacks 2/3 4. brass pullies in iron cases 12/.
28. Pd. for needles 15/.
Pd. for fruit 5d.—a pamphlet 6d.
Pd. Hillegas for violin strings 21/3.
29. Pd. Burn the barber in full 20/.
Pd. John Stille the taylor24 £3–14.
Pd. Benjamin Randolph lodging in full £6–8–6.
Pd. Smith 16/9.
30. Pd. Mrs. Loremore washing 23/6.
Pd. dinner & club at falls of Schuylkyll25 9/6.
Pd. supper & club at Biddle’s26 1/8.
31. Gave Mr. Henry’s boy 1/6.
Pd. for 3 ℔ chocolate 4/6.
Pd. for net hood 4/6—lace do. 22/6—fruit 6d.
Gave Richard 1/6.
Aug. 1. Pd. Mrs. Loremore washing in full 4/8½.
Pd. Heiltzhiemer for keeping horses &c. £9.
Pd. a blacksmith 16/6.
Debts left unpaid
{ <Hillegas strings>
Burn the barber 3/ Hillegas 8/6
Smith dinner & club.
Bringhurst sundries.
 
Recd. of Colo. Harrison to form common stock for our travelling expences £6–16.
Pd. ferrge. over Schuylkill 1/3.
Pd. punch &c. Mrs. Withay’s in Chester 3/.
Pd. toddy at a country tavern 1/.
Pd. ferriage over Christiana27 1/8.
2. Pd. lodging, supper &c. Mrs. Clay’s,28 Newcastle £1–3–4.
Pd. breakfast &c. McCullogh’s, Warwick 7/8.
Pd. a sadler 2/6.
Pd. punch &c. at Downs’s 4/4.
3. Pd. supper, lodging &c. Worrall’s, in Newtown upon Chester29 £1–11.
Pd. breakfast, ferriage &c. Hodges’s30 Rockhall £3–1.
Gave Skipper 1/8.
Pd. barber at Annapolis 2/.
Pd. ferriage to Greentree’s boat £1–1–8.
Pd. a sadler 5/.
4. Pd. lodging, supper &c. Middleton’s, Annapolis £1–14–5.
Pd. crossing at London town ferry 8/.
Pd. breakfast &c. Mrs. Gibson’s, Marlborough 8/11.
Pd. dinner &c. Piscataway 12/11.
5. Pd. ferriage &c. Young’s on Patowmack £1–8.
       Virginia currency
Aug. 5. Gave boatmen at Howe’s 2/.
6. Pd. supper, lodging &c. at Buckner’s,31 Portroyal £1–5s–6d.
Pd. breakfast &c. at Bowling green 5/ which ends our common expences travelling.
Recd. of Colo. Harrison at sundry times to balance acct. of common expences 7/6.
8. Gave Jesse32 for riding postillion 6/.
 
11. Pd. James Buchanan freight of my window frames33 from Norfolk 18/.
12. Pd. George Lefong in full 11/3.
13. Lent Daniel L. Hylton 3/3¾.
14. Recd. of D. L. Hylton 3/3¾.
17. Delivered to Carter Braxton an order on the Treasurer in favor of J. Randolph Atty. General for £13. the purchase money for his violin. This dissolves our bargain recorded in the Gen. ct. & revokes a legacy of £100. sterling to him now standing in my will which was made in consequence of that bargain.34
19. Pd. Sam. Wms. for Johns near Elk isld. 14/6.
20. Pd. Sheets the smith mending chariot wheel 3/.
Pd. Madison the ordinary keep for oats 2/6.
26. Gave Wm. Reynolds my assumpsit to R. Anderson for £3–8 which was 40/ for the entry of land I bought of him & 28/ for butter.
27. Pd. Nell for melons 7½d.
31. Assumed to pay Wm. Kerby for Jos. Neilson £6.
Sep. 3. Pd. Mr. Lewis’s Daniel chicken acct. 11/.
Pd. do. for George Bradby 5/.
Postd. 10. Pd. W. Beck for Robinson 1/ (still due 1/).
12. Gave in charity 6/.
14. Pd. old Anderson (Mason)35 6/.
 
Pd. Wm. Sumpter by order of my mother 12/ (still due to him 4/).36
Recd. from Treasurer wages due to me for Assemblies & conventions £26–9.
Pd. Josiah Wallace for Mrs. Wallace 36/ (but note it was gold by tale,37 so qu. if right).
16. Charge Sam. Taliaferro this day’s waggoning.
Postd. 19. Gave Jos. Neilson order on Anderson’s store for £6.
20. Sent my mother 20. ℔ wool in dirt38 & 4 ℔ of picked cotton which charge.
24. Gave orders on H. Mullins for 30£ to be pd. to Dr. Walker for Philip Mazzei, for 70.£ to be pd. to R. Harvie, & £70. to Richd. Anderson, which money Mullins owes to H. Skipwith & I shall allow it as part paiment of H. Skipwith’s bond39 paiable last April.
25. Set out from Monticello for Philadelphia.
Pd. dinner &c. Bell’s40 at Orange C. H. 4/6.
26. Pd. supper lodging &c. at Porter’s41 on the Rapidan 5/1.
Pd. breakfast &c. at Bradley’s in Culpepper 1/6.
Pd. for oats at Elk-run church42 1/.
Oct. 13. 43 Pd. dinner at Byrne’s 10/.
14. Put into Common stock housekeeping 20/.
Gave T. N.’s44 Frank 7/6.
Pd. a sadler 39/6.
Pd. Heiltzheimer £5–5.
 
15. Pd. ferrge. over Schuylkill going & returning 4d.
Pd. dinner at Mullins’s 15/.
16. Pd. Hillegas for a mute 6/.
Pd. Bartram45 for pullies 5/8.
Pd. for handkercheifs 6/8.
Pd. Randolph my part of house rent &c. 22/6.
17. Pd. for brass pullies 20/.
Pd. postage 3/4.
19. Pd. for sattin 18/.
Pd. for pullies 3/4.
Pd. Smith yesterday’s dinner & a breakfast 18/6.
20. Put into Common stock for housekeeping 20/.
21.
Pd.  for cambrick      £4– 13 –9 } £7–19–3
 a quilt 2– 8
 sewing silk 9 –6
 Durantz46 8
Pd. for pr. of gloves 7/6.
Pd. Bradford for a book 12/6.
Pd. former club at Blue bell47 10/.
22. Pd. Currie for leather breeches 35/.
Gave his shop boy 2/6.
Pd. Heiltzheimer 52/6.
Put into German church box 2d.
This evening the amiable Peyton Randolph esq. our Speaker died about 9. o’clock of an apoplexy at the house of Mr. Richard Hill, 6 miles from this city, whither he had gone to dine.48
Oct. 24. Pd. postage 3/4.
Gave a boy of Mrs. Randolph’s 1/8.
Pd. dinner at Indian queen49 4/.
Pd. supper at do. 4/5.
 
Pd. for Evening post50 2d.
25. Pd. for 6. pr. stockings 48/6.
Pd. Barhill for sundries £6–2–9.
Pd. for boxing pullies 30/.
Pd. for catch for night bolt 3/9.
Recd. of G. Wythe 3/9.
26. Pd. Mrs. Lorrimore washing 16/4.
Put into prison box 2d.
Pd. for razor case 2/6.
Pd. Binks51 (sadler) 6/4.
Gave his shop boys 1/6.
27. <Pd. proportion of express to Lynch 20/.> 52
Pd. Dr. Shippen for inoculating Bob £5–5.
Recd. of Mrs. Randolph Congress money £85. Virginia currency = £111–9–2 Pennsylva.
Gave Mrs. Randolph’s Johnny 7/6.
28. Pd. Richards for 20 ℔ chocolate 33/4.
Pd. for flannel 15/9.
Pd. for half gross hooks & eyes 2/6.
Pd. Hollingsworth53 freight of sundries 16/.
Gave in charity 1/.
Pd. for pincushion 1/.
Pd. for oysters 1/.
Pd. Hugh Walker for 1 M needles 20/.
Pd. do. for portage of sundries to Fredsbgh. 52/6.
Octob. 29. Gave Col. Nelson’s Frank 7/6.
Pd. Heiltzheimer 52/6.
Pd. my part houserent for fortnight 49/6.
Pd. Bell for books & maps £6–12–6.
31. Pd. postage 3/4.
Pd. Little & Flower54 4. sets iron backs & jambs £8–17.
Pd. for common stock of Madeira £6–13–3.
Nov. 1. Pd. Wheeler for altering locks 5/.
 
Pd. for linen 24/.
Pd. Crukshanks55 for pamphlet 2/.
Pd. Brooks56 for maps 27/6.
Pd. for oysters 1/10½.
Pd. for Evening post 4d.
2. Pd. for punch 1/6.
4. Pd. for 4 pr. socks 12/.
5. Pd. Smith (tavern keeper) in full 17/2.
Pd. club at Blue bell 7/6.
6. Pd. Ambo for lodging & nursing Bob 4. weeks £3–7–6.
Pd. for punch at Coffee house57 9d.
7. Pd. into common stock for provisions £3–18–3.
Pd. Bringhurst £60–15.
Pd. postage 3/4.58
8. Pd. for catches to locks 2/.
Pd. Aitkin59 for maps 15/.
9. Pd. postage 5/.
10. Pd. for porter 1/6.
Nov. 13. Expences riding 1/10.
14. Put into Comm. stock for house rent & provns. £2–12s.
15. Pd. for nuts 6d.
Pd. Heiltzheimer £5–5.
17. Pd. for paper 3/.
Pd. for oysters 2/.
18. Pd. for message cards60 2/2.
 
Pd. for penknife 5/.
Pd. ferrge. to Marble quarry 3d.61
Dinner at Bird in hand 4/.
Ferrge. back again 6d.
20. Pd. for dying silk 18/.
Pd. into Comm. stock for rent & provisions £2–16s–8½.
24. Pd. dinner at Smith’s 15/.
25. Pd. for 2 pr. mittens 5/6.
Pd. for 1 ℔ rotten stone 2/6.
Lent Randolph to be credited in house rent £9.
Pd. postage 3/.
26. Pd. for blacking 2/.
Pd. dinner at Sadler’s arms in Germ. town 7/10.
28. Pd. for punch at Smith’s 11d.
Pd. Stille £5–10–6.
Pd. repairing pistols £3–0–6.
29. Pd. for repairing chair 7/6.
30. Pd. into Common stock housekeeping £4–4–7½.
Dec. 2. Pd. for oysters 2/3.
3. Pd. ferriage riding 9d.
Dec. 4. Pd. into Comm. stock housekeepg. £6–5–1–½.
Pd. Bell for books 12/6.
11. Put into Common stock for provisions £3–5–8–¾.
Gave G. W. for Bruce for copying £2–5.
Pd. for Smith’s hist. of New Jersey62 12/6.
Pd. for pamphlet 2/.
12. Borrowed of Robt. Morris63 166⅔ dollars equal to £62–10 Pennsylva. Currcy.
Pd. Dr. Franklin for a book 12/6.
13. Pd. for toys 8/3.
 
14. Put into Common stock 18/.
15. Pd. for William Rice (a servant)64 £17–10.
Gave do. to buy trowels 16/.
Gave do. to buy necessaries 15/.
16. Pd. Correy for breeches 26/.
Pd. Binks the sadler £3–6.
Pd. Heiltzheimer £13–2–6.
Gave Smith for Rice’s expences to Virginia 21/6.
Pd. for muslin & cap wire 29/.
17. Pd. expences riding to Fort isld.65 & back 4/5.
18. Put into Common stock for provisions £3–5–4.
Pd. for nuts 7d.
20. Pd. for punch at Duff’s66 3/.
23. Pd. Marshall for 2. cartridge boxes 9/.
Put into Common stock <for wood> £2–13.
25. Pd. Simpson the shoemaker £5–0–6.
Pd. Starr a shoemaker £5–6–9.
Dec. 25. Paid Aitkin 25/.
26. Put into common stock housekeepg. £4–7.
Pd. for blue cord 15/.
27. Pd. Mrs. Lorrimore in full £2–12–6.
Gave Randolph’s housekeeper £1–10.
28. Pd. Byrne the barber in full £3–17–6.
Say recd. of R. C. Nicholas 1732123 dollars = £50. Virga. currency.
Left with Colo. Nelson to pay to Robt. Morris 166⅔ dollars.
Recd. of Colo. Harrison to bear expences of his boy & horses to Virginia £3–15.
Pd. Binks the sadler 21/.
Pd. Heiltzheimer in full £4–11.
Pd. a smith 22/9.
Pd. Randolph for a yd. of oznabrigs 2/6.
Pd. ferriage over Schuylkill 1/4.
29. Pd. barber at Wilmington 1/.
Pd. a sadler at do. 5/10.
Pd. Marshall supper, lodging, breakfast &c. 27/.
 
Pd. for oats &c. at Head of Elk67 3/6.
30. Gave Mrs. Nelson’s Barnaby 2/6.
31. Pd. entertt. at Stephenson’s68 on Susquehanna £2–15s–11d.
Gave a guide 4/3.

      Mrs. Jefferson’s rects. & paiments.
Receivd. of T. Garth 11/6.
Nov. Received of Mr. Skipwith 32/6.
Dec. Pd. Joe Anderson £2.
Pd. Wingey £1–12–6. for weavg. 25 yds. cloth.
9. Pd. Mr. Snodgrass for stays 32/6  scissars 2/6.
Pd. do. for 8. yds. ferrit 2/6.

51TJ did not mark out any legal entries for 1775.

52Over twenty years later TJ could no longer remember the source of this account of the murder of the family of Mingo chief Logan, but he conjectured that he had first heard it at the Governor’s Palace; a variant version of Logan’s speech appeared in the Virginia Gazette (D & H), 4 Feb. 1775 description begins Virginia Gazette (Williamsburg, 1751-1780, and Richmond, 1780-1781). Abbreviations for publishers of the several newspapers of this name, frequently published concurrently, include: D & H (Dixon & Hunter), P & D (Purdie & Dixon), R (Rind) description ends . TJ published Logan’s speech, with an account of the murders, in his Notes on Virginia description begins Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, ed. William Peden, Chapel Hill, N.C., 1955 description ends as an example of Indian eloquence (Notes on Virginia, p. 62-3, 226-58, 274-5 description begins Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, ed. William Peden, Chapel Hill, N.C., 1955 description ends ; Malone, Jefferson, i, 385-7, iii, 346-56 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends ). For the political attack on TJ which utilized this published account, see MB 12 Jan. 1798.

53Syracuse is a golden vin de liqueur from Sicily.

54 Arthur Young, Rural Oeconomy: or, Essays on the Practical Parts of Husbandry (London, 1773; Sowerby, No. 705 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

55TJ no doubt took these measurements in the house of the cabinetmaker Benjamin Randolph, with whom he lodged while in Philadelphia in 1775 (see MB 20 June 1775, note 1).

56Dr. William Shippen, Jr. (1736-1808), who had inoculated TJ against smallpox in 1766 and who would inoculate TJ’s slave Robert Hemings in Oct. 1775, lived at the southwest corner of Fourth and Locust streets, Philadelphia (Eberlein and Hubbard, Philadelphia, p. 301-7 description begins Harold Donaldson Eberlein and Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Portrait of a Colonial City: Philadelphia, 1670-1838, Philadelphia, 1939 description ends ).

57This was probably a gate at Rosewell, the residence of John Page in Gloucester County.

58In the 1775 cash accounts TJ continued his practice of making a marginal check next to transactions for other people, probably when posting to their accounts in the Fee Book description begins Thomas Jefferson’s “Fee Book,” 1767-1774, containing entries pertaining to his law practice. Indexed. Miscellaneous accounts, 1764-1794. 187 bound quarto leaves. CSmH description ends and Miscellaneous Accounts. One leaf (TJ’s pages 19 and 20) of the cash accounts, covering the period between 26 Sep. and 13 Oct., is wanting.

59The Albemarle County Committee was elected in Dec. 1774 to enforce the Continental Association of 20 Oct. 1774, which sought the cessation of trade with Great Britain (Papers, i, 149-54 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; Malone, Jefferson, i, 191-3 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends ).

60None of TJ’s accounts with Thomas Garth have been found. The charges to Jane Jefferson and RJ are itemized in their accounts in the Fee Book description begins Thomas Jefferson’s “Fee Book,” 1767-1774, containing entries pertaining to his law practice. Indexed. Miscellaneous accounts, 1764-1794. 187 bound quarto leaves. CSmH description ends .

61The £450 in bonds were for TJ’s purchase from Thomas Garth of the Lego plantation, for which a deed was not executed until 1783 (Fee Book description begins Thomas Jefferson’s “Fee Book,” 1767-1774, containing entries pertaining to his law practice. Indexed. Miscellaneous accounts, 1764-1794. 187 bound quarto leaves. CSmH description ends : Personal estate account; AlCDB, viii, 92-3 description begins Albemarle County Deed Books, Albemarle County Courthouse, Charlottesville, Va. description ends ). These 819¼ acres were on the Rivanna River on the western boundary of Shadwell and were held by TJ until his death.

62The Guinea plantation, part of the John Wayles estate inherited by Anne and Henry Skipwith, was in Cumberland County at the junction of Guinea Creek and the Appomattox River. The Skipwiths, who gave it the name Hors du Monde, lived there until some time in the 1790s (Latrobe, Virginia Journals, i, 142-6, illustration opposite 160 description begins Edward C. Carter II, ed., The Virginia Journals of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, New Haven, 1977, 2 vols. description ends ).

63Carpenter Joseph Neilson and his apprentice William Fosset worked at Monticello through 1779 (Fee Book: Neilson account description begins Thomas Jefferson’s “Fee Book,” 1767-1774, containing entries pertaining to his law practice. Indexed. Miscellaneous accounts, 1764-1794. 187 bound quarto leaves. CSmH description ends ).

64 Aggy (d. 1798), a former Wayles slave, lived at Elk Hill and later Monticello. She worked as a spinner and was the wife of Shoemaker Phill (see TJ’s account of Aggy’s spinning for 1776 and 1777 in Record of Cases Tried in Virginia Courts, DLC: TJ Papers, series 7, vol. 1).

65 Black Sall (d. 1781) was a former Wayles farm laborer at Elk Hill.

66Westham was a small village in Henrico County on the north side of the James River six miles upstream from Richmond. At this time it had a public tobacco warehouse. The iron foundry a mile from Westham was the site of the public arsenal and weapons factory destroyed by British forces under Benedict Arnold in 1781 (Hening, Statutes, vi, 273-4, 500-1 description begins William Waller Hening, The Statutes at Large; Being a Collection of All the Laws of Virginia, Richmond, 1809-1823, 13 vols. description ends ; Malone, Jefferson, i, 336-40 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends ).

67A wheat fan is used for winnowing the chaff from the grain.

68This Richmond tavern was probably kept by the estranged wife of Isaac Younghusband, the prominent merchant (Ward and Greer, Richmond during Revolution, p. 19, 56, 132-3). TJ was in Richmond to attend the second Virginia Convention, which met from 20 to 27 Mch. in St. John’s Church (see Malone, Jefferson, i, 193-6 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends ).

69 Gabriel Galt and John Valentine were Richmond merchants (Virginia Gazette [P & D], 12 Aug. 1773 description begins Virginia Gazette (Williamsburg, 1751-1780, and Richmond, 1780-1781). Abbreviations for publishers of the several newspapers of this name, frequently published concurrently, include: D & H (Dixon & Hunter), P & D (Purdie & Dixon), R (Rind) description ends ).

70This is the amended entry after deletions; TJ first wrote: “Advanced to Treasurer for the Congress which our county must repay me £2–6–11.” On 27 Mch. TJ had been elected to the Second Continental Congress as a deputy for Peyton Randolph, should he be unable to attend, and the Convention had ordered the delegates to apply to their constituencies for £15 for the expenses of attendance at the Congress (Revolutionary Virginia, ii, 385 description begins Revolutionary Virginia: The Road to Independence, ed. Robert L. Scribner and others, Charlottesville, Va., 1973-, 7 vols. description ends ).

71TJ inherited the Judith’s Creek plantation, also called Dunlora, from the Wayles estate. It consisted of 2,042 acres in Bedford and present Campbell counties, just below the confluence of Judith’s Creek and the James River and within the present limits of the city of Lynchburg, and 280 acres across the James River in Amherst County (Farm Book, p. 7 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s “Farm Book,” 1774-1826. Reproduced in facsimile in Betts, Farm Book. MHi description ends ; MB 1773, miscellaneous memoranda; AlCSurB, i, pt. 1, 42 description begins Albemarle County Surveyor’s Books, Albemarle County Courthouse, Charlottesville, Va. description ends ). TJ sold part of this plantation in 1778 and the remainder, the so-called Tullos’ tract, in 1810 (MB 3 Sep. 1779, 7 Apr. 1810).

72This bond, later assigned to Henderson, McCaul & Co., was for £198–12–7¾. TJ questioned the accuracy of Richard Harvie’s account against him and in 1803 the bond, by adjustments and credits, was reduced to £132–12 principal. Part of TJ’s payments of 15 Oct. 1803 and 24 June 1811 to James Lyle were applied to this debt, which was never paid in full in TJ’s lifetime (MB 4 Mch. 1790, 16 June 1821; “Notes on the account of R. Harvie & co. against me,” 22 July 1795, MHi; TJ to James Lyle, 25 Nov. 1795, 17 Sep. 1803; TJ to Tarleton Saunders, 3 Jan. 1821).

73TJ interlined the phrase “for Poplar forest”; the “which” refers to Mount Pleasant, the Cumberland (now Powhatan) County estate of TJ’s friend, the burgess and jurist William Fleming (1736-1824). It was located on the James River on the large bend opposite present Irwin in Goochland County (TJ MS Map description begins Thomas Jefferson sketch map of roads between Shadwell and Richmond, including taverns, residences, mileages, c. 1760-1784. ViU description ends ). The proposed exchange was never made.

74These notes may have been made at the first launching of the bateau or tobacco boat invented by Anthony J. Rucker (1740-1821), an Amherst County planter, as a means of improving navigation and transportation on the James River, particularly from Richmond upstream. TJ was said to have been a spectator at this event, which took place on the James River “somewhere in Albemarle” (Lynchburg Press, 17 Aug. 1821). These flat-bottomed vessels, forty to sixty feet long, were so constructed that either end could be poled into a bank and the hogsheads rolled on board. They were operated by a crew of three, one to steer and one on each side to pole (Alfred Percy, Piedmont Apocalypse [Madison Heights, Va., 1949], p. 29-32).

75Allycroker, inherited from John Wayles, was one of TJ’s most important breeding mares. Her colt Caractacus was a breeding horse and favorite riding horse (Betts, Farm Book, p. 89-92 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Farm Book, ed. Edwin M. Betts, Princeton, N.J., 1953 description ends ).

76The powder tax was a local levy for raising funds for the purchase of gunpowder (“Virginia Legislative Papers,” VMHB, xv [1907-08], 160-61). See Hening, Statutes, vi, 40-4 description begins William Waller Hening, The Statutes at Large; Being a Collection of All the Laws of Virginia, Richmond, 1809-1823, 13 vols. description ends , for the statute defining tithable persons, essentially everyone over the age of sixteen, with the exception of free white women not married to Negroes, mulattoes, or Indians.

77 John Foese was the new tenant of the Chickahominy River ferry and ordinary formerly kept by Mary Davis and Robert Lorton (Virginia Gazette [D], 7 Jan. 1775 description begins Virginia Gazette (Williamsburg, 1751-1780, and Richmond, 1780-1781). Abbreviations for publishers of the several newspapers of this name, frequently published concurrently, include: D & H (Dixon & Hunter), P & D (Purdie & Dixon), R (Rind) description ends ; MB 29 Sep. 1767, cash accounts).

78The abbreviations used by TJ are: “T.I.”: Thomas Jefferson; “S.W.”: Samuel Williams; “W.”: John Wingo?; “P.F.”: Poplar Forest; “H.C.”: Henry Cox; “I.C.”: Judith’s Creek; and “T.G.”: Thomas Garth.

79The Byrd’s tobacco inspection warehouses in Richmond were behind Shockoe landing along Fourteenth Street (Ward and Greer, Richmond during Revolution, p. 4-5, 129-30).

80The London mercantile firm Robert Cary & Co. was the second major creditor of the John Wayles estate, which in 1775 owed them over £1,300 sterling. In 1797, when he executed bonds to Wakelin Welch, Cary’s surviving partner, TJ’s one-third share of this debt had by accumulated interest grown to £981. On resettlement of the debt in 1810 he still owed £684, and there is no record that he made any further payments before his death (MB 20 Jan. 1797, 13 July 1810, 21 Mch. 1823; TJ to Farell & Jones, 9 July 1773; John Wickham to TJ, 8 Dec. 1796).

81Ever since the first of Parliament’s coercive acts, the Boston Port Bill, took effect in June 1774, the county committees of Virginia had eagerly collected money and food for Boston’s distressed population. In Mch. 1775 the Second Virginia Convention passed a resolution urging the continuation of relief for the citizens of Boston “now suffering in the common Cause of American Freedom,” and “Boston money” kept flowing north through 1777 (Revolutionary Virginia, ii, 371 description begins Revolutionary Virginia: The Road to Independence, ed. Robert L. Scribner and others, Charlottesville, Va., 1973-, 7 vols. description ends ; MB 7 Sep. 1777).

82According to the TJ Index, 1775 description begins Thomas Jefferson manuscript indexes for the Memorandum Books, 1767-1826, bound with them, except for 1773 (unlocated), 1776-1778 and 1779-1782 (ViU) description ends , this entry and that of 27 June refer to the South Carolina planter and delegate to Continental Congress, Thomas Lynch, Sr.

83 William Fairlie kept a store in King William Courthouse (Elizabeth Ryland, King William County, Virginia [Richmond, 1955], p. 59).

84TJ probably dined at the tavern at Aylett’s Warehouses (present Aylett) on the Mattaponi River in King William County. It was owned by the King William County burgess, William Aylett (1743-c. 1781) (Colles, Roads, p. 199; Virginia Gazette [P], 12 Jan. 1776 description begins Christopher Colles, A Survey of the Roads of the United States of America, 1789, ed. Walter W. Ristow, Cambridge, Mass., 1961 description ends ).

85 Alexander Spotswood (1751-1818) of New Post and Nottingham, Spotsylvania County, then a major in the Second Virginia Regiment, was active in breeding and racing horses (Oscar H. Darter, Colonial Fredericksburg [New York, 1957], p. 117). For the horse The General, sold in 1783, see Betts, Farm Book, p. 90-1 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Farm Book, ed. Edwin M. Betts, Princeton, N.J., 1953 description ends (MB 30 Sep. 1783).

86 Richard was a hired servant who attended TJ from the time of his departure from Williamsburg for Philadelphia until his return to Virginia in August.

87 George Weedon owned the Rising Sun tavern, still standing at 1306 Caroline Street in Fredericksburg. During Weedon’s service in the Revolution William Smith rented and operated this tavern; it was leased to John Benson after 1789 (George H. S. King, “General George Weedon,” WMQ, 2d. ser., xx [1940], 237-52; Virginia Gazette [P], 5 Apr. 1776 description begins Virginia Gazette (Williamsburg, 1751-1780, and Richmond, 1780-1781). Abbreviations for publishers of the several newspapers of this name, frequently published concurrently, include: D & H (Dixon & Hunter), P & D (Purdie & Dixon), R (Rind) description ends ).

88 Hooe’s ferry crossed the Potomac River from Mathias Point in King George County, Va., to lower Cedar Point in Charles County, Md. (Hening, Statutes, iv, 93 description begins William Waller Hening, The Statutes at Large; Being a Collection of All the Laws of Virginia, Richmond, 1809-1823, 13 vols. description ends ).

89 Anne Halkerston’s ordinary was in Port Tobacco, Md., then a commercial center of Charles County on the post road to Annapolis (Charles County Court and Land Records, 1778-1780, Ledger D, 1775, p. 32, Hall of Records of Maryland, Annapolis).

90 Margaret Gibson kept the ordinary in Upper Marlboro (Levy Book, 1760-1780, Liber B, p. 51, Prince Georges County, Md., Hall of Records of Maryland, Annapolis).

91Londontown was a mercantile center on the South River about five miles southwest of Annapolis (Henry J. Berkley, “Londontown on South River, Anne Arundel County, Maryland,” MdHM, xxv [1930], 1-27).

92 William Aikman (1751-1784) operated a bookstore and circulating library on West Street in Annapolis (Joseph Towne Wheeler, “Booksellers and Circulating Libraries in Colonial Maryland,” MdHM, xxxiv [1939], 117-26).

93TJ viewed the legislative chambers in the third and present Maryland capitol located on State House Circle, Annapolis (Morris L. Radoff, Buildings of the State of Maryland at Annapolis [Annapolis, 1954], p. 81-110, plate no. 9).

94Middleton’s tavern was the present Middleton-Randall building on the corner of Randall Street and Market Space, Annapolis (Papenfuse, Maryland, p. 327 description begins Maryland: A New Guide to the Old Line State, comp. and ed. Edward C. Papenfuse and others, Baltimore, 1976 description ends ). Various Anne Arundel County Middletons operated ferryboat lines across Chesapeake Bay from Annapolis to Rock Hall in Kent County, Md.

95 Isaac Greentree kept an ordinary at Rock Hall (Court Minute Book, 1774-1782, Kent County, Md., Hall of Records of Maryland, Annapolis).

96 William Down kept an ordinary at Down’s Cross Roads, present Galena in Kent County, Md. (W.P.A. Writers’ Project, Maryland: A Guide to the Old Line State [New York, 1940], p. 365).

97 David Witherspoon ii kept the Middletown Hotel on King’s Road in Middletown, Del. (Henry C. Conrad, History of Delaware [Wilmington, Del., 1908], i, 547-8).

98John Marshall was proprietor of the tavern, The Sign of the Ship, located at the corner of Third and Market streets in Wilmington. In 1789 Patrick O’Flinn became the proprietor and renamed it the Happy Retreat (J. Thomas Scharf, History of Delaware, 1609-1888 [Philadelphia, 1888], ii, 650, 810).

99From 1766 to 1794 Mary Withy (Withey) presided over what was reputed to be the best-kept tavern in America at the corner of Market and Fifth streets in Chester, Pa. (Henry Graham Ashmead, History of Delaware County, Pa. [Philadelphia, 1884], p. 368-9).

1This was TJ’s first visit to Philadelphia since he travelled there in 1766 to be inoculated against smallpox. During this and subsequent visits in 1775 and 1776, TJ lodged with the cabinetmaker Benjamin Randolph, whose house was on Chestnut Street between Third and Fourth streets. George Washington had taken lodgings with Randolph earlier in the year (Bjerkoe, Cabinetmakers, p. 181-2 description begins Ethel Hall Bjerkoe, The Cabinetmakers of America, New York, 1957 description ends ; Diaries of George Washington, iii, 329 description begins The Diaries of George Washington, ed. Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig, Charlottesville, Va., 1976-1979, 6 vols. description ends ). TJ’s movements in Philadelphia can be followed on the Grant Simon map in Historic Philadelphia description begins Historic Philadelphia from the Founding until the Early Nineteenth Century, ed. Luther P. Eisenhart, Philadelphia, 1953 description ends , and Benjamin Easburn’s 1776 Plan of the City of Philadelphia, reproduced in 1976 by Historic Urban Plans, Ithaca, N.Y.

2 Thomas Mullen had recently opened a summer tavern called Vauxhall in Passyunk, near the Lower (Gray’s) ferry on the Schuylkill River (Joseph Jackson, “Washington in Philadelphia,” PMHB, lvi [1932], 122).

3 David Hall, Jr., a printer on Market Street between Front and Second streets, was also a partner in Hall & Sellers (with William Hall and William Sellers), printers near the Jersey Market, and publishers of the Pennsylvania Gazette (Brown, Philadelphia Book Trade, p. 56-7 description begins H. Glenn Brown and Maude O. Brown, A Directory of the Book-Arts and Book Trade in Philadelphia to 1820, New York, 1950 description ends ).

4 William Bradford and his son Thomas were printers and booksellers at the London Coffee House on the corner of Front and Market streets (Brown, Philadelphia Book Trade, p. 23 description begins H. Glenn Brown and Maude O. Brown, A Directory of the Book-Arts and Book Trade in Philadelphia to 1820, New York, 1950 description ends ).

5 Michael Hillegas (1729-1804), prominent Philadelphia merchant, gifted amateur musician, and soon to be first Treasurer of the United States, sold music and instruments at his residence on Second Street (Brown, Philadelphia Book Trade, p. 61; Cripe, Jefferson and Music, p. 16 description begins H. Glenn Brown and Maude O. Brown, A Directory of the Book-Arts and Book Trade in Philadelphia to 1820, New York, 1950 description ends ).

6Sangaree was a punch made from Madeira wine, water, sugar, and nutmeg.

7The Center House Tavern was a popular gathering place for sportsmen on the west side of Center Square, at the site of present Broad Street Station (Jackson, Encyclopedia of Philadelphia, ii, 407-8 description begins Joseph Jackson, Encyclopedia of Philadelphia, Harrisburg, Pa., 1930-1933, 4 vols. description ends ).

8 John Dickinson, author of Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania and delegate to the Continental Congress, lived at Fair Hill two miles north of Philadelphia on the Germantown Road. On this date TJ and Dickinson had been added to the committee to draw up a Declaration of the Causes and Necessity for Taking Up Arms. Their joint authorship of this manifesto, adopted by the Congress on 6 July 1775, is discussed in Papers, i, 187-219 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends .

9Daniel Smith’s City Tavern on the west side of Second Street, between Walnut and Chestnut streets, was housed in one of the few buildings in the colonial period designed to meet a public need. Situated at the “cross-roads” of the Revolution, it probably served more famous Americans than any other eighteenth-century building (Historic Philadelphia, p. 320, 322-4 description begins Historic Philadelphia from the Founding until the Early Nineteenth Century, ed. Luther P. Eisenhart, Philadelphia, 1953 description ends ).

10Several Byrnes kept taverns in Philadelphia in the late eighteenth-century. This was probably the tavern kept by James Byrne on Market Street above Eleventh Street, variously called Byrne’s “in the Fields” or “on the Commons” (Diaries of George Washington, iii, 335 description begins The Diaries of George Washington, ed. Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig, Charlottesville, Va., 1976-1979, 6 vols. description ends ; “Journal of Samuel Rowland Fisher,” PMHB, xli [1917], 170; Joseph Jackson, “Washington in Philadelphia,” PMHB, lvi [1932], 125).

11James Bringhurst (1730-1810) was a prominent Quaker ironmonger and hardware merchant (Josiah G. Leach, History of the Bringhurst Family [Philadelphia, 1901], p. 30-2).

12Private charity was still the only resource for providing anything beyond the barest necessities to prisoners, who were housed in the stone jail on Third and Market streets. A new prison on Walnut Street, later world-famous for its penal reforms, was completed later in this year (Carl and Jessica Bridenbaugh, Rebels and Gentlemen [New York, 1962], p. 249-52; Historic Philadelphia, p. 326-7).

13John Sparhawk was an apothecary and bookseller on Second Street (Brown, Philadelphia Book Trade, p. 112 description begins H. Glenn Brown and Maude O. Brown, A Directory of the Book-Arts and Book Trade in Philadelphia to 1820, New York, 1950 description ends ).

14Jacob Hiltzheimer (1729-1798) was an active horseman and trader, member of the Committee of Safety, and later a state legislator (see Jacob P. Cox, ed., Extracts from the Diary of Jacob Hiltzheimer, of Philadelphia, 1765-1798 [Philadelphia, 1893]).

15A night bolt is a door latch or bolt which opens from the outside with a key and from the inside with a knob.

16TJ visited William Hamilton (1745-1813) at The Woodlands on the west bank of the Schuylkill River just north of Gray’s ferry. TJ’s friendship with this wealthy Philadelphian centered on their mutual interest in plants and landscape gardening. Especially after the remodeling of the house in the late 1780s, The Woodlands was one of the most notable estates in the country and TJ thought its landscaped grounds the only American rival of the gardens he saw in England in 1786 (TJ to Hamilton, July 1806; Eberlein and Hubbard, Philadelphia, p. 447-54 description begins Harold Donaldson Eberlein and Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Portrait of a Colonial City: Philadelphia, 1670-1838, Philadelphia, 1939 description ends ; Sarah P. Stetson, “William Hamilton and His ‘Woodlands,’” PMHB, lxxiii [1949], 26-33; Eye of TJ, no. 563 description begins William Howard Adams, ed., The Eye of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1976 description ends ).

17Province Island at the mouth of the Schuylkill River was the site of a pesthouse and truck gardens. At this time one could dine there at the ferryhouse tavern kept by Joseph Rudolph (Joseph Jackson, “Washington in Philadelphia,” PMHB, lvi [1932], 121).

18John Hale operated a livery stable on Lombard Street (Pennsylvania Gazette, 18 Oct. 1775).

19TJ’s contribution was possibly to the German Reformed Church on Market Street or the Lutheran Church on Barren Hill (J. T. Faris, Old Churches [Philadelphia, 1926], p. 8; John F. Watson, Annals of Philadelphia [Philadelphia, 1850], ii, 25-6).

20Capillaire is a flavoring syrup made principally from maidenhair ferns; when mixed with water it produces a refreshing warm-weather drink.

21Caleb Way, Jr., was a coachmaker “at the Sign of the Wagon on the Lancaster Road” (Pennsylvania Gazette, 20 Sep. 1775).

22James Burgh, Political Disquisitions (Philadelphia, 1775) was purchased from Robert Bell, a bookdealer on Third Street next to St. Paul’s Church (Brown, Philadelphia Book Trade, p. 17 description begins H. Glenn Brown and Maude O. Brown, A Directory of the Book-Arts and Book Trade in Philadelphia to 1820, New York, 1950 description ends ; Sowerby, no. 2720 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

23There were two waxworks in Philadelphia during this period. Dr. Abraham Chovet (1704-1790), in Vidal’s Alley off Second Street, had a museum of wax models of anatomical specimens, including male and female human figures with removable parts. Rachel Lovell Wells (d. 1795) displayed in her rooms dramatic and Biblical scenes in wax, as well as some wax portraits by her more famous sister Patience Wright (Adams, Diary, ii, 152 description begins Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, ed. L. H. Butterfield, Cambridge, Mass., 1961, 4 vols. description ends ; Charles Coleman Sellers, Patience Wright, American Artist and Spy in George III’s London [Middletown, Conn., 1976], p. 34-8, 119-20, 225-6).

24John Stille was a churchwarden and treasurer of the Gloria Dei Church, but a tailor by trade (“Wicacoa Congregation,” PMHB, xxxi [1907], 243-4).

25The Falls of the Schuylkill River, a popular site for a day’s outing five miles above Philadelphia, were submerged by the building of the Fairmount Dam in 1821. TJ evidently took advantage of the excellent fishing at the Falls in 1776 (MB 23-24 Aug. 1776; Edwin Iwanicki, “The Village of Falls of Schuylkill,” PMHB, xci [1967], 326-41).

26John Biddle and his wife were the proprietors of the “staid old” Indian King Tavern, which had been in operation since the early years of the century. It was on the south side of Market Street between Second and Third streets (Historic Philadelphia, p. 320 description begins Historic Philadelphia from the Founding until the Early Nineteenth Century, ed. Luther P. Eisenhart, Philadelphia, 1953 description ends ).

27TJ would have crossed the Christiana River at Wilmington, Del.

28Ann Curtis (Mrs. Slator) Clay (d. 1789) kept an inn on the site of present 30 The Strand, New Castle, Del. (Jeannette Eckman, “The Strand,” 1947-1949, typescript report in Historical Society of Delaware, Wilmington, Del.; J. Thomas Scharf, History of Delaware, 1609-1888 [Philadelphia, 1888], ii, 1016).

29Now Chestertown, Md.

30James Hodges operated the “White Rock-Hall ferry,” which crossed the Chesapeake Bay from Rock Hall to Annapolis, and kept the ferryhouse where TJ breakfasted (Maryland Gazette, 30 Nov. 1775; Circuit Court Minute Book, 1774-1782, Kent County, Md., Hall of Records of Maryland, Annapolis).

31William Buckner kept a tavern at Port Royal on the Rappahannock River in Caroline County (Thomas E. Campbell, Colonial Caroline: A History of Caroline County, Virginia [Richmond, 1954], p. 219, 413).

32Jesse was a slave of Patrick Henry (TJ Index, 1775 description begins Thomas Jefferson manuscript indexes for the Memorandum Books, 1767-1826, bound with them, except for 1773 (unlocated), 1776-1778 and 1779-1782 (ViU) description ends ). TJ stopped in Richmond for about two weeks to attend part of the Virginia Convention, which met from 17 July to 26 Aug. (Malone, Jefferson, i, 208-9 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends ).

33These were fourteen glazed mahogany windows for Monticello, 6’6” by 3’3”, with mullions of an astragal and hollow form and each with eighteen lights, twelve inches square. They were made by Adam Dennis of 13 St. Clements Lane in London and were shipped to TJ by Robert Cary & Co. at a total cost of £87. TJ thought them “excellently done” and, when ordering new sash in 1792, hoped that Dennis could be the maker (enclosure, TJ to Alexander Donald, 11 Nov. 1792; Nichols, Nos. 107, 145, p. 15 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Architectural Drawings, ed. Frederick D. Nichols, 4th ed., Charlottesville, Va., 1978 description ends ; Wakelin Welch to TJ, 31 May 1783; MB 1 Apr. 1786, note 66). TJ had ordered the windows in May 1774 when only the import of tea was prohibited. Because they arrived after the Virginia and Continental Associations of Aug. and Oct. 1774, TJ had to buy them back at auction (TJ to Archibald Cary and Benjamin Harrison, 9 Dec. 1774, in which TJ gives his reasons for not countermanding the window order after the Virginia Association; TJ to Littleton W. Tazewell, 10 Apr. 1800).

34The seemingly facetious bargain TJ had made in 1771 with Attorney General John Randolph provided that if Randolph survived TJ, he was to have £100 sterling worth of books from TJ’s library; if TJ outlived Randolph, he was to receive Randolph’s violin and its music or £60 worth of books from Randolph’s library (“Agreement with John Randolph,” 11 Apr. 1771, Papers, i, 66-7). In 1775, when Randolph, a Loyalist, was preparing to leave the colony for England, he offered to sell the violin to TJ and the 1771 bargain was dissolved (TJ to Randolph, 25 Aug. 1775; Randolph to TJ, 31 Aug. 1775; Malone, Jefferson, i, 159, 209-10 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends ). For speculations on the value and origin of this violin, which may have been a very fine one, see Cripe, Jefferson and Music, p. 43-7 description begins Helen C. Cripe, Thomas Jefferson and Music, Charlottesville, Va., 1974 description ends .

35Old Anderson was the father of Joseph Anderson, a mason who laid stone at Monticello in late 1775 (Fee Book: Anderson account description begins Thomas Jefferson’s “Fee Book,” 1767-1774, containing entries pertaining to his law practice. Indexed. Miscellaneous accounts, 1764-1794. 187 bound quarto leaves. CSmH description ends ).

36The payment was for a spinning wheel (Fee Book: Jane Jefferson account description begins Thomas Jefferson’s “Fee Book,” 1767-1774, containing entries pertaining to his law practice. Indexed. Miscellaneous accounts, 1764-1794. 187 bound quarto leaves. CSmH description ends ).

37“Gold by tale” was distinguished by number and not weight.

38Wool in the dirt is unwashed wool.

39For purchase of the Indian Camp lands (see MB 28 Jan. 1774, legal notations).

40William Bell kept an ordinary at Orange Courthouse (Orange County Court Order Book, vii, 442, Orange County Courthouse, Orange, Va.).

41Porter’s house was about thirteen miles northeast of Orange Courthouse on the Orange County side of the Rapidan River, near present State Route 522 and almost two miles west of Porter’s mill at old Raccoon Ford (Scheel, Map of Culpeper County description begins Historical map, Culpeper County, surveyed and drawn by Eugene M. Scheel, Washington, D.C., 1975 description ends ; MB 11 Sep. 1791).

42Elk Run Church in Fauquier County was the site of an ordinary about twelve miles southeast of Fauquier Courthouse, now Warrenton (Scheel, Map of Fauquier County description begins Historical map, Fauquier County, surveyed and drawn by Eugene M. Scheel, Washington, D.C., 1974 description ends ; TJ to MJR, 3 June 1802).

43One leaf (TJ’s pages 19 and 20) of the original manuscript, covering the period 26 Sep. to 13 Oct., is missing. According to the TJ Index, 1775 description begins Thomas Jefferson manuscript indexes for the Memorandum Books, 1767-1826, bound with them, except for 1773 (unlocated), 1776-1778 and 1779-1782 (ViU) description ends , page 19 dealt entirely with the rest of TJ’s journey to Philadelphia, which continued via Dumfries, Occoquan, Georgetown, Baltimore, and Wilmington. He reached Philadelphia by 30 Sep., when he began attending Congress (Fee Book: Treasury of Virginia account description begins Thomas Jefferson’s “Fee Book,” 1767-1774, containing entries pertaining to his law practice. Indexed. Miscellaneous accounts, 1764-1794. 187 bound quarto leaves. CSmH description ends ). The entries on page 20 contained references to a number of Philadelphia merchants as well as to Thomas Mann Randolph, Edward Rutledge, and Thomas Willing. TJ returned to his lodgings at Benjamin Randolph’s house on Chestnut Street, where he shared housekeeping expenses with Peyton and Elizabeth Harrison Randolph and Thomas and Lucy Grymes Nelson (Malone, Jefferson, i, 211 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends ).

44Thomas Nelson, Jr.

45Alexander Bartram was a general merchant next to the Indian King Tavern on Market Street (Pennsylvania Gazette, 8 June 1775).

46Durance was a stout woolen fabric (Fairchild’s Dictionary of Textiles, p. 207 description begins Isabel B. Wingate, Fairchild’s Dictionary of Textiles, 6th ed., New York, 1979 description ends ).

47This may be the Blue Bell tavern on the road to Darby (present Woodland Avenue) about four miles southwest of Philadelphia (“The Diary of Robert Morton,” PMHB, i [1877], 29).

48TJ was present at the death of Peyton Randolph at the country house of the Philadelphia wine merchant, Henry Hill (1732-1798). Hill’s Roxborough plantation, presently known as Carlton, was located on Indian Queen Lane between Germantown and the Schuylkill Falls (TJ to Joseph Delaplaine, 26 July 1816; Eberlein and Hubbard, Philadelphia, p. 404-5 description begins Harold Donaldson Eberlein and Cortlandt Van Dyke Hubbard, Portrait of a Colonial City: Philadelphia, 1670-1838, Philadelphia, 1939 description ends ). An invitation from Hill to TJ for a Sunday dinner, possibly the dinner on this date, survives in MHi (Nichols, no. 64 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Architectural Drawings, ed. Frederick D. Nichols, 4th ed., Charlottesville, Va., 1978 description ends ).

49This is probably the Indian Queen on the southeast corner of Fourth and Market streets (Historic Philadelphia, p. 324 and end map description begins Historic Philadelphia from the Founding until the Early Nineteenth Century, ed. Luther P. Eisenhart, Philadelphia, 1953 description ends ).

50 The Pennsylvania Evening Post was established 24 Jan. 1775 as a triweekly by Benjamin Towne (Brigham, History, ii, 931-3 description begins Clarence S. Brigham, A History and Bibliography of American Newspapers, 1690-1820, Worcester, Mass., 1920, 2 vols. description ends ).

51Christopher Binks (Phila. Dir., 1793 description begins Philadelphia Directory, issued annually with varying imprints description ends ).

52The express carried TJ’s missing letter of 26 Oct. 1775 to Charles Lynch in Bedford County, Va. It was written at the request of Congress in order to gain information on reported saltpeter deposits in present Wythe County, Va. (Lynch to TJ, and to the Virginia delegates, 20 Nov. 1775).

53This was probably Levi Hollingsworth, a merchant and member of the American Philosophical Society (Oliver M. Gambrill, “John Beale Bordley and the Early Years of the Philadelphia Agricultural Society,” PMHB, lxvi [1942], 438).

54John Little and Benjamin Flower were general merchants (Pennsylvania Gazette, 10 Jan. 1776).

55Joseph Crukshank was a printer and bookseller on Market Street between Second and Third streets (Brown, Philadelphia Book Trade, p. 36 description begins H. Glenn Brown and Maude O. Brown, A Directory of the Book-Arts and Book Trade in Philadelphia to 1820, New York, 1950 description ends ).

56Nicholas Brooks was a printer, book and map seller, and general merchant on Second Street between Market and Chestnut streets (Brown, Philadelphia Book Trade, p. 24 description begins H. Glenn Brown and Maude O. Brown, A Directory of the Book-Arts and Book Trade in Philadelphia to 1820, New York, 1950 description ends ).

57The London Coffee House on the southwest corner of Front and Market streets, kept by the printer William Bradford, was a popular meeting place for patriots (Historic Philadelphia, p. 320-1 description begins Historic Philadelphia from the Founding until the Early Nineteenth Century, ed. Luther P. Eisenhart, Philadelphia, 1953 description ends ).

58On 8 Nov., when the new postal service of the rebelling colonies was just getting under way, Congress resolved to grant its members the privilege of sending and receiving letters free of postage during its sessions. By later acts the franking privilege was extended to federal legislators and executive officers, including heads of departments, so that during all the years that TJ held federal office, he could mail or receive letters and packets free of postage. By an act of Congress of 28 June 1809, his franking privilege was continued after his retirement from the presidency (Journals of the Continental Congress [Washington, D.C., 1905], iii, 342; Jennings B. Sanders, Evolution of Executive Departments of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789 [Chapel Hill, N.C., 1935], p. 169-71; Edward Stern, History of the “Free Franking” of Mail in the United States [New York, 1936], p. 1-3; U.S. Statutes at Large, ii, 552 description begins The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America from the Organization of the Government in 1789 to March 3, 1845, ed. Richard Peters, Boston, 1848, 8 vols. description ends ).

59Robert Aitken was an engraver, printer, and bookseller on Front Street across from the London Coffee House. His short-lived monthly, The Pennsylvania Magazine, employed Thomas Paine as an editor (Brown, Philadelphia Book Trade, p. 11 description begins H. Glenn Brown and Maude O. Brown, A Directory of the Book-Arts and Book Trade in Philadelphia to 1820, New York, 1950 description ends ; Mott, American Magazines, i, 87-91 description begins Frank L. Mott, A History of American Magazines, 1741-1850, New York, 1930, 2 vols. description ends ).

60A message card was a plain white, or sometimes printed, card of varying sizes for inscribing messages, invitations, etc. Nicholas Brooks advertised “blank and printed visiting and message cards with gilt or plain edges, and of various patterns” (Pennsylvania Packet, 31 July 1775).

61There were a number of marble quarries near Norristown which produced white and black and white marble for Philadelphia chimney pieces. The Bird in Hand tavern was about twelve miles northwest of Philadelphia near present Gulph Mills, Montgomery County (La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Travels, i, 28-30 description begins Duc de La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Travels through the United States . . . in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797, London, 1799, 4 vols. description ends ; Fred. Perry Powers, “Tales of Old Taverns,” Publications of the Germantown Historical Society, i, 222-3). This may be the year in which TJ took to Philadelphia for polishing some samples of marble from the vein running through central Virginia (TJ to Benjamin H. Latrobe, 16 July 1817).

62 Samuel Smith, The History of the Colony of Nova-Caesaria, or New-Jersey (Philadelphia, 1765; Sowerby, No. 458 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

63 Robert Morris, Philadelphia merchant banker and partner in the firm Willing, Morris & Co., had just taken his seat as a delegate in the Continental Congress and in several years would become celebrated as the financier of the American Revolution.

64TJ bought the remainder of the term of service of the stonecutter William Rice, who was probably an indentured servant and who was free by 1778. Rice made some of the columns at Monticello (Fee Book: Rice account description begins Thomas Jefferson’s “Fee Book,” 1767-1774, containing entries pertaining to his law practice. Indexed. Miscellaneous accounts, 1764-1794. 187 bound quarto leaves. CSmH description ends ).

65Mud, or Fort, Island was in the Delaware River just below the mouth of the Schuylkill River. The fortifications, which were begun in 1772, became Fort Mifflin in the Revolution.

66 Michael Duff kept a tavern on Second Street (Joseph Jackson, “Washington in Philadelphia,” PMHB, lvi [1932], 117).

67Now Elkton, Md.

68 William Stephenson kept a tavern at Perryville, Cecil County, Md., which was the site of the Lower Ferry on the Susquehanna River (Diaries of George Washington, iii, 328 description begins The Diaries of George Washington, ed. Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig, Charlottesville, Va., 1976-1979, 6 vols. description ends ).

Index Entries