James Madison Papers
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To James Madison from Thomas Appleton, 10 August 1801 (Abstract)

§ From Thomas Appleton

10 August 1801, Leghorn. Sent previous dispatch of 9 July1 by way of Paris, covering dispatches from Cathcart, who is now in Leghorn. Forwards copy of circular letter received from Tunis;2 has distributed it to foreign consuls in Leghorn and American consuls in Italy, Trieste, Smyrna, France, Spain, Holland, Hamburg, and London. His receipt of timely information from Barbary States and transmittal of same to American consuls prevented any American vessels being taken by Tripolitan cruisers before the blockade was established. Reports cession of Tuscany on 28 July to king of Etruria. Encloses Florentine gazette containing royal proclamation and General Murat’s address on the same event.3 Murat’s command now extends from Turin through Kingdom of Naples. Army of Italy will be increased to wartime strength, but Appleton sees this as a defensive, not offensive, measure. Thinks the establishment of a king in Tuscany will not improve government or conditions but merely add the burden of supporting the court. Believes intrigues in Rome will not preserve pope’s temporal power. Notes rumor that Admiral Ganteaume has landed an army at Derna. Encloses a letter for the president.

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