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Leyden, 18 March 1781. RC in John Thaxter’s hand PCC , No. 84, III, f. 78–93. printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 4:306–313. This letter was read in Congress on 19 Nov. and consisted of English translations of the States General’s countermanifesto of 12 March and...
By the Tenth Article of the Treaty of Alliance with France “The most Christian King and the united States agree, to invite or admit other Powers, who may have received Injuries from England, to make common Cause with them and to acceed to that Alliance, under Such Conditions as shall be freely agreed to and Settled between all the Parties.” According to present Appearances, in a few Weeks...
Amsterdam, 1 February 1781. RC in John Thaxter’s hand PCC, Misc. Papers , Reel No. 1, f. 244–254. printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 4:244–248. In this letter, read in Congress on 19 Nov., John Adams provided an English translation of the Convention for an Armed...
Amsterdam, 18 January 1781. RC in John Thaxter’s hand PCC , No. 84, III, f. 87–44. printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 4:235–238. Read by Congress on 19 Nov., this letter consisted of English translations of two placards or edicts of the States General dated 12...
Amsterdam, 15 January 1781. RC in John Thaxter’s hand PCC , No. 84, III, f. 29–32. printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 4:234. Read in Congress on 19 Nov., this letter consisted of a translation, probably from a French text such as that in the Gazette de Leyde of 9...
Zealand is still endeavouring to divert the Republick from its Interest and its Duty, to embarrass its Operations and involve it in disgrace and ruin. The Directors of the Company of Commerce, and that of Insurance, and a great Number of Merchants, established at Middlebourg in Zealand, have presented a Petition to the States General, to supplicate their high Mightinesses to try again the Way...
Congress will not expect me to write upon the Subject of Peace at this time, when the Flames of War are spreading far and wide, with more rapidity than ever: and I have no comfortable Tidings on the Subject of Money. In the first place, I believe there is not so much Money here as the World imagines: in the next place, those who have what there is, have no Confidence in any Nation or...
On the 10 of Nov. 1780 The Memorial of Sir Joseph York to the States General, was presented for a Disavowal, Satisfaction proportioned to the Offence, and Punishment of the Guilty. The 28 Nov. a formal Disapprobation of the States General, of the Conduct of the Regency of Amsterdam. 12. December: Second Memorial of Sir J. York, for a Satisfaction proportioned to the Offence, and the Punishment...
Notwithstanding the Influence of the English Nation; notwithstanding the Influence of old Prejudices and Habits; notwithstanding the Apprehensions that are entertained for immense Sums in the English Funds, and for the sudden destruction of an innumerable Navigation at the Commencement of a War, and above all notwithstanding the Authority and Influence of the Stadtholder, I am confidently...
Amsterdam 1 January 1781. RC in John Thaxter’s hand PCC, Misc. Papers , Reel No. 1, f. 204–211. printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 4:219–222. Read in Congress on 19 Nov., this letter contained the texts of Britain’s manifesto of 20 Dec. 1780, which constituted a...
It will scarcely be believed in Congress, that at a Time when there are the strongest Appearances of War, there has not been a Newspaper nor a Letter recieved in this City from London since the nineteenth or twentieth of the Month. There are Symptoms of a more general War. If Britain adheres to her Maxims, this Republick will demand the Aid of Russia, Sweeden, Denmark and Prussia, in pursuance...
The Province of Zealand having been opposed to the other Provinces in so many Instances and having lately protested against the Resolutions of the States General, which begin to be thought spirited, it may be useful to explain to Congress the Causes which influence that Province to a Conduct, which is generally thought to be opposite to the true Interest of the Republic in general. In the...
The Dutch say that the English are acting the part of the Sailor, having quarrelled with three others as stout as himself, and got his Bones broke and his Eyes beat out in the Squabble, challenged four more to fight him at the same time, that he might have it in his Power to make it up with all seven, with Honour . If the English are not actuated by the same blind and vindictive Passions,...
The public Papers of this Morning inform Us, that Sir Joseph Yorke left the Hague on the Morning of the twenty fourth, without taking Leave of any body, and bent his Course to London by the Way of Antwerp and Ostend. Sometime in the Month of April last, a certain British Ambassador, who had an Inclination to take a few of the Pleasures of Paris in his Way to Germany, said in that City, where I...
The Dispute between Great Britain and the United Provinces is now wrought up to a Crisis. Things must take a new Turn, in the Course of a few Days; but whether they will end in a War, or, in the Retractation of one Party or the other, Time alone can determine. I have before transmitted to Congress, the two Memorials of Sir Joseph York, against Mr. Van Berkel and the Burgomasters of Amsterdam....
It is very difficult to discover, with Certainty the secret springs which actuate the Courts of Europe, but whatever I can find with any degree of Probability, I Shall transmit to Congress, at one Time or another. The Prince of Orange is himself of the Royal Family of England: his Mother was a Daughter of King George the Second, and this Relation is no doubt one, among the Several Motives,...
Affairs are Still in Suspence. This Day being Chrismas and Yesterday a sunday, there was no publick Exchange held, on either. But Business, and especially, Stock Jobbing goes on, without ceasing, being done at the Coffee houses, on Sundays and holy days, when it cannot be held upon Change. The English Mail which had been interrupted by contrary Winds, for three Posts, arrived on Saturday. The...
The Sentiments and Affections of a People, may be learned from many little Circumstances, which few Persons attend to. The Poets and orators, are generally considered as the Surest Repositories of popular Ideas both in ancient and modern nations. The Clergy may be classed among the latter: and it is very certain that most publick Preachers, accommodate both their Sermons and their Prayers, in...
War is to a Dutchman the greatest of Evils. Sir Joseph Yorke is so sensible of this, that he keeps alive a continual Fear of it by Memorials after Memorials, each more affronting to any Sovereignty of delicate Notions of Dignity, than the former. By this means he keeps up the Panick and while this Panick continues, I shall certainly have no Success at all. No Man dares engage for me—very few...
I am every day accepting the Bills of Exchange, which were drawn upon Mr. Laurens: but I have no prospect of obtaining Money to discharge them, from any other Person, than Dr. Franklin. For some Years before I came to Holland, every Person I saw from this Place assured me, that in his Opinion Money might be borrowed, provided Application was made, with proper Powers directly from Congress to...
Amsterdam, 1 Dec. 1780. Dupl in John Thaxter’s hand ( PCC , No. 84, II, f. 321–324). LbC almost entirely in JQA ’s hand ( Adams Papers ). printed: Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 4:176–177. This letter, received by Congress on 19 Nov. 1781, contained the order of battle of...
The State of Parties in this Republick is still critical. Many anonymous Pamphlets appear on both Sides. Those which proceed from the English Party, are virulent against Mr. Van Berkel. The Republick itself wavers, according to Events and Causes which are impenetrable. A few days ago, the Plan appeared to be to acceed to the armed Neutrality, in order to satisfy one Party, and to disavow the...
It is now certain that the States General, have by a Plurality of five Provinces determined to acceed to the armed Neutrality. Zealand and Guelderland, have agreed to it likewise, but upon Condition of a Warranty of the Possessions of the Republick. If the Intention of Sir J. Yorks Memorial, was to intimidate their high mightinesses from this measure, he has missed his aim. Nor will the...
The Prince was ill advised, when he undertook, what he was not obliged to do, in producing Mr. Laurens’s Papers, which he did too in a manner justly offensive to the United States. It was the part of Sir Joseph Yorke, to have produced them, not to the Prince, but to their High Mightinesses. His Serene Highness, therefore, in this Work of Supererogation, gave himself the Air of an Instrument of...
From the Time, of the Arrival of my Commission, I have been constantly employed in forming Acquaintances, making Inquiries and asking Advice; but am Sorry to be obliged to Say that I hitherto See no certain Prospect of borrowing any Money, at all. For Some Years past, all the Information I could obtain from this Country led me to think, that America had many Friends in this Republick, and that...
On the 10th of this month, Sir Joseph York, presented to the States General, the following Memorial. The King, my Master, has discovered, during the whole Course of his Reign, the most Sincere desire, to maintain the Union, which has Subsisted for more than a Century, between his Crown and this Republick. This Union rests, upon the immoveable Basis, of reciprocal Interest, and as it has...
The British Ministry, by the terrible Examples of the Rioters, have So intimidated the Nation, and by their Success in the late Elections have So great a Majority in Parliament, that they think themselves secure for Seven Years, and Seem determined to go on, with more Vigour than ever. The Letters from their Generals Clinton, Cornwallis &c. shew that they are now adopting a new system. These...
It seems to be now certain, that Some of Mr. Laurens Papers were taken with him. There have been Sent to his most Serene Highness the Prince of orange, Copies of Letters from Mr. De Neufville, Mr. Gillon, Mr. Stockton and Col. Derrick, and a Copy of the Plan of a Treaty projected between the City of Amsterdam and Mr. W. Lee. The Prince was much affected, at the Sight of those Papers, and laid...
I have recieved several Letters from London, concerning Mr. Laurens. It is certain that he has been treated with great Insolence by the Populace in his Journey from Dartmouth to London, and that he is confined to a mean Appartment in the Tower, denied the Use of Pen and Ink, and none of his Friends have been able to obtain Leave to visit him, excepting his Son and Mr. Manning, and those...
Repeated Letters from London, confirm the Account of Mr. Laurens’s being confined to the Tower, so close a Prisoner, that neither his old Correspondents, nor even his Refugee Relations, are Suffered to Speak to him. There have been So many Precedents of Exchanges, Mr. Lovell as well as the Major Generals Sullivan, Stirling, Lee and others having been exchanged, as Prisoners of War, that it is...
Amsterdam, 11 Oct. 1780. Dupl in John Thaxter’s hand ( PCC , No. 84, II, f. 289–304). printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 4:88–95. The copy cited here was received by Congress on 29 Jan. 1781, but the original (not found) was received and read on 27 Dec. ( JCC...
Amsterdam, 6 Oct. 1780. Dupl in John Thaxter’s hand ( PCC , No. 84, II, f. 285–287). printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 4:83–84. Received by Congress on 29 Jan. 1781, this letter consisted of an English translation of the decree of 30 Aug. by Maria I, Queen of...
Amsterdam, 5 Oct. 1780. Dupl in John Thaxter’s hand ( PCC , No. 84, II, f. 277–280). printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 4:81–82. Received by Congress on 29 Jan. 1781, this letter reported that on 6 Sept. the Dutch plenipotentiaries at St. Petersburg, Baron Willem van...
Amsterdam, 5 Oct. 1780. Dupl in John Thaxter’s hand ( PCC , No. 84, II, f. 281–282). printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 4:82. In this letter, received by Congress on 29 Jan. 1781, John Adams indicated that he had no news regarding his commission to negotiate a Dutch...
Amsterdam, 28 Sept. 1780. Dupl ( PCC , No. 84, II, f. 273–276). printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 4:72. Received by Congress on 29 Jan. 1781, this letter contained the statements exchanged by Baron Willem van Wassenaer-Starrenburg and Catherine II, when...
There are Persons, in this Republick, who have been Attentive to this War, and who know somewhat of the History of the Rise and Progress, of the united States of America: but it is Surprizing that the Number Should be So Small. Even in the City of Amsterdam, which is the most Attentive to our Affairs, and the best inclined towards Us there are few, who do not consider the American Resistance,...
Since the Receipt of the Dispatches, by the Honourable Mr. Searle I have been uninteruptedly employed in attempting to carry into Execution the Designs of Congress. The first Inquiry, which arose, was, whether it was prudent to make any Communication of my Business, to the States General, or to the Prince. Considering that my Errand was Simply an Affair of Credit, and that I had no political...
Your Excellencys Letter of 12 July, I have received and thank you, sir, for recommending this Gentleman to me. And shall on all future occasions be obliged to you for recommending to me such Persons as you shall think proper coming to Europe. The Current of popular Hopes and Fears in Europe has been lately much turned by the favourable News from America. But the public opinion is of no...
The day before yesterday, Mr. Dana arrived here from Paris with the dispatches which came by Mr. Searle. I am very sensible of the Honour that is done me by this Appointment and yesterday morning I set myself seriously about discharging the Duties of it; and this day I have been some Leagues into the Country upon the same Service. There are good Reasons for concealing the Names of the...
I have the Honour to send by this Opportunity, a few Pamphlets and Papers. The Pamphlets relate to Subjects which interest the United States, and therefore ought to be communicated to Congress, for their Consideration. The Attention of Mankind is now turned next to the Congress of America upon that at Petersbourg. The last Letters from London say they have Information that one of the first...
As Eloquence is cultivated with more Care in free Republicks, than in other Governments, it has been found by constant Experience that such Republicks have produced the greatest purity, copiousness and perfection of Language. It is not to be disputed that the Form of Government has an Influence upon Language, and Language in its Turn influences not only the Form of Government but the Temper,...
Amsterdam, 4 Sept. 1780. RC ( MdHi : Gilmor Papers). A note attached to this letter by Robert Gilmor, a Baltimore merchant, indicates that he received it from Jared Sparks on 24 Dec. 1827. printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 4:45. In this letter, received by Congress...
I have only time by this Vessell to inclose the declarations of Sweeden and Denmark; but the chance of her going safe is so small that I should not send any thing very material, if I had more time. I have the Honour to be &c. LbC ( Adams Papers ); notation: “recd in congress Decr. 3.” According to the Journal of Congress, this letter was read on 4 Dec. ( JCC Worthington C. Ford and others,...
The Errand of Mr. Cumberland to Madrid, is a mere finesse of the British Ministry, intended to aid the Stockjobbers, keep up the Stocks, aid the Loan and the Canvas for an Election, and lull the belligerent Powers, while they prepare their measures for future Enterprizes and another Campaign. They have carried this Plot so far, that I see some paragraphs in the foreign Papers, which seem...
Amsterdam, 22 Aug. 1780. RC ( PCC , No. 84, II, f. 241–244). printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 4:36–38. This letter, read by Congress on 20 Nov., began with France’s reply of 4 Aug. to the Swedish declaration of 30 July acceding to the armed neutrality, the text of...
On the twenty seventh of July. I set out from Paris on a Journey to Amsterdam. I left Mr. Dana and Mr. Thaxter at Paris, who will regularly transmit to Congress whatever shall occur of Importance to the United States to know—they will also inclose all the English, French and Dutch Gazettes. They are exerting themselves in this Republick, to mann their Ships of War, in which they have great...
Since your Arrival in Europe I have been favoured with your several Despatches of the 11. and 16. of December last, the 16. of January, the 15. 17. 19. 20. 25. 27. and 29. of February, the 8. 18. 19. and 23. of March. It is probable the Committee of foreign Affairs may have acknowledged the Receipt of these Despatches, and several Duplicates which have been also received. I presume they have...
I have been amused sometime with dark and unintelligible hints in Letters from London of some Messenger sent from Lord North to Madrid. Three weeks ago, I waited on the Comte de Vergennes at Versailles to acquaint him that I had an intention of making a Journey to Amsterdam for a few weeks, as I flattered myself I might form some Acquaintances or Correspondences there and collect some...
Paris, 22 July 1780. Dupl in John Thaxter’s hand ( PCC , No. 84, II, f. 211–218). printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 3:873–875. This letter, read in Congress on 26 Dec., contains a series of newspaper reports, the first of which concerned George III’s speech of 8...
Paris, 19 July 1780. RC in John Thaxter’s hand ( PCC , No. 84, II, f. 201–206). printed : Wharton, ed., Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. Francis Wharton, ed., The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , Washington, 1889; 6 vols. , 3:867–869. This let­ ter, read in Congress on 26 Dec., begins with brief reports from St. Petersburg and Copenhagen concerning preparations of the...