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Results 183101-183150 of 183,158 sorted by date (ascending)
On New Year’s Day, 1802, Jefferson stood in the doorway of the President’s House to receive a most unusual gift from the citizens of Cheshire, Massachusetts: an enormous wheel of cheese, measuring more than 4 feet in diameter and weighing an estimated 1,235 pounds. Derisively dubbed the “Mammoth Cheese” by the Federalist press, the giant Cheshire cheese had become a national celebrity by the...
On the first day of the new year, Jefferson prepared the final version of his response to an October address from the Danbury Baptist Association, a group of 26 churches in western Connecticut and eastern New York. He had received the address only two days earlier, almost three months after it was written, on the same day that a wheel of cheese from the citizens of Cheshire, Massachusetts,...
In the spring of 1801, the Miami Indian leader Little Turtle expressed an intention to travel from his home on the Wabash River to see the new president of the United States in Washington. Little Turtle’s interpreter and son-in-law, William Wells, apparently knew Meriwether Lewis, who had served with the army on the frontier, and Wells informed Lewis of the intended visit. “Our friend the...
Jefferson wrote his son-in-law, John Wayles Eppes, on 1 Jan. 1802 that although Republicans held an 18 to 14 majority in the Senate, through absences “hitherto we have been so nearly equal there, that I have not ventured to send in my nominations, lest they should be able to dismast the administration.” Meanwhile, the president was giving thought to the arrangement of the list of more than 120...
A former general in the Continental army and president of the Confederation Congress, Arthur St. Clair had served as governor of the Northwest Territory since its creation by Congress in 1787. With the establishment of a territorial legislature in 1799, St. Clair, a Federalist, found himself repeatedly at odds with the growing Republican presence in the territory, which centered on the town of...
Early in January, during the visit to Washington by the delegation of Miami, Potawatomi, and Wea Indians led by Little Turtle, the secretary of war received word from the quartermaster general, John Wilkins, Jr., at Pittsburgh, that another deputation of Native Americans was on its way to Washington. Dearborn asked Wilkins to help the group, which consisted of “Chiefs of the Delaware and...
183107Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
I. ADDRESS OF HANDSOME LAKE, [10 MCH. 1802] II. HENRY DEARBORN’S REPLY, 13 MCH. 1802 III. ADDRESS OF HANDSOME LAKE, [15 MCH. 1802] IV. ADDRESS OF CORNPLANTER, [15 MCH. 1802] V. ADDRESS OF HANDSOME LAKE, [15 MCH. 1802] VI. ADDRESS OF BLUE EYES, [15 MCH. 1802] VII. HENRY DEARBORN’S REPLY TO HANDSOME LAKE, CORNPLANTER, AND BLUE EYES, 17 MCH. 1802 VIII. CONFIRMATION OF TITLE TO THE SENECA AND...
183108Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
I. HENRY DEARBORN’S PRELIMINARY DRAFT [10 MCH. 1802] II. HENRY DEARBORN’S SECOND DRAFT, WITH JEFFERSON’S REVISIONS [20 APR. 1802] Among the myriad duties that devolved on Jefferson as president of the United States was the periodic review of general courts-martial proceedings. According to federal law, such proceedings were to be forwarded to the president in times of peace if the...
183109Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
I. DESCRIPTION OF METHOD , [18 APR. 1802] II. SAMPLE ENCIPHERMENT : THE LORD’S PRAYER, [18 APR. 1802] III. SAMPLE ENCIPHERMENT : “TO THE PEOPLE OF GREAT-BRITAIN,” [N.D.] Jefferson received Robert Patterson’s letter of 19 Dec. 1801, in which Patterson described the cipher that he had invented, six days after it was written. On 22 Mch. 1802, Jefferson acknowledged the letter and informed...
183110Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
I. OBSERVATIONS ON THE COMMON LAW AND HARDIN’S CASE, 11 NOV. 1802 II. ALBERT GALLATIN’S OPINION ON THE COMMON LAW AND HARDIN’S CASE, [CA. 11 NOV. 1802] III. ROBERT SMITH’S OPINION ON THE COMMON LAW AND HARDIN’S CASE, [CA. 11 NOV. 1802] The case of William Hardin evolved as an adjunct to the ongoing efforts by the Jefferson administration to bring accused Indian murderers John Williams, Martin...
183111Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
At the close of the first session of the Seventh Congress in May 1802, the House of Representatives and the Senate adjourned to the first Monday in December, which would fall on the 6th ( Annals Annals of the Congress of the United States: The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States…Compiled from Authentic Materials , Washington, D.C., Gales & Seaton, 1834-56, 42 vols. All...
August 2 Commissions 25— George Wentworth Surveyor for the District of Portsmouth and Inspector of the Revenue for the same. { do. Joseph Farley—Collector for the District of Waldoborough and Inspector of the Revenue for the same. do. Joseph Wilson, Collector for the District of Marblehead and Inspector of the Revenue for the same— 28th. do. Abraham Bloodgood, Surveyor for the Port of Albany &...
The enclosed list contains all the alterations which seem necessary in the President’s list , so far as relates to this department. The errors in that list were 1st. That in every case where an officer is at once, either collector & surveyor of a port, and inspector of the revenue for the same port; he receives two distinct commissions, one as collector or surveyor, as the case may be, and the...
183114Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
Among the papers that Jefferson sent to the House of Representatives on 22 Dec. was a copy of William C. C. Claiborne’s letter of 28 Oct. to Manuel de Salcedo, the Spanish governor of Louisiana, questioning the suspension of the deposit at New Orleans. The State Department received a copy of Salcedo’s reply to Claiborne by 30 Dec., and on that day Jefferson wrote a brief message to the House...
for the enlargement, encouragement and continuation of the Winchester Triumph of Liberty and more particularly for the desirable purpose of procuring a Quantity of beautiful long primmer type—We , whose names are hereunto annexed, agree, to pay in advance the respective sums, by us subscribed, to accomplish the above laudable design. The object of the Editor is, to raise the sum of One Hundred...
183116Plan of a Dry Dock (Jefferson Papers)
Discription of the Drawing A The wet Dock, B twelve dry Docks, each to contain one Ship, C the upper Lock, by which the Ships are to pass in and out of the wet Dock, F the Canel to supply the Docks with water, E a branch of it leading into the wet Dock, D two other branches which surrounds the dry Docks and by gates opening into each, any one of them can be filled without the others. The water...
183117Description of the Physiognotrace (Jefferson Papers)
Explanation of Mr. Jno. I. Hawkins Physiognotrace A is a board that mooves up and down in the frame B, B. which is fastened to the wall with brackets C, C,— This moovement is convenient to suit the heigth of different persons, and it is secured to its place by means of a screw on the back part,—D, is a hollowed board projecting 2½ Inches, to allow the Pentagraph to moove behind it. The person...
50. ℔ de Maccaroni. 50. ℔ de meme composition de differentes façons pour les potages. 6. paniers d’huile de la meilleure qualité. 8. caisses d’olives. 4. idem de capres fines. 2. idem d’Anchois. 20. ℔ de thon mariné. 8. douzaines de petites boetes historiés de 6. ou 7. fruits. 3. caisses de pruneaux. 3.
183119Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
On 12 Mch., Robert R. Livingston began a letter to the president that reported on his activities in general terms, mentioning his efforts to influence Napoleon Bonaparte about Louisiana, his discussions with the Spanish ambassador concerning the Floridas, and French attitudes toward the United States and Great Britain. The next day, a Sunday, Livingston interrupted his writing to attend an...
183120Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
A brief, undated set of four comments jotted in pencil by James Madison is the earliest evidence of Jefferson’s drafting of official instructions to Meriwether Lewis for the expedition to the Pacific ( Document I ). Due to an alteration that Jefferson made in his endorsement on that document, the date of its receipt is not clear but could be as early as 12 or 13 Apr. Jefferson’s practice,...
183121Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
On 8 Apr., the president posed a question to the four heads of departments and the attorney general: was it time to make “overtures to England” to ensure American access to the Mississippi River waterway? The French government had not given Robert R. Livingston assurance that the 1795 treaty between the United States and Spain—particularly those sections that pertained to American commerce...
183122Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
In his instructions for the expedition to the Pacific, Jefferson anticipated that Meriwether Lewis might find opportunity to send dispatches back by way of western army posts, “putting into cypher whatever might do injury if betrayed” (see Document IV of the group of documents on drafting instructions for Lewis, at 13 Apr. above). Two undated manuscripts, in Jefferson’s handwriting and among...
183123Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
In the spring of 1802, confronting an expenditure by William Eaton of $16,000 primarily for the charter of a vessel to carry dispatches to the United States, James Madison wrote to remind the consul that he must submit a full statement of his accounts. Eaton complied reluctantly, agreeing in November 1802 to send the information but contending that he could not always obtain receipts, even...
183124Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
“I think it will be safer not to permit the enlargement of the Union but by amendment of the constitution,” Jefferson wrote to his secretary of the Treasury in January 1803. The president was responding to Gallatin’s rebuttal of arguments from the attorney general about the desired purchase of New Orleans and the Floridas. Jefferson, Levi Lincoln knew, thought that an amendment to the...
183125Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
EDITORIAL NOTE The news that had arrived on the evening of 3 July, of the cession of Louisiana to the United States, confirmed for the Jefferson Administration the correctness of its pacific approach to the crisis in the West. Much uncertainty remained, however, on just what the acquisition would entail. The exact boundaries of the vast territory, a very different expanse than that initially...
Spurred by dissension in Republican ranks in Philadelphia over Federalists who remained in lucrative offices, Jefferson decided to study the party affiliation of those who had received presidential appointments. Writing Peter Freneau on 20 May, he reviewed his administration’s patronage policy, noting that when he took office the Federalists “possessed all.” By removing those Federalists who...
The geographic limits of the purchase of Louisiana were ill-defined. Although Jefferson could rightly rejoice that Americans now controlled the entire Mississippi valley, including of course the prize of New Orleans, little else was known about what bounded the acquisition. The purchase treaty merely quoted the vague language of the Treaty of San Ildefonso, which defined Louisiana by “the Same...
Jefferson’s summoning of the new Congress to convene on 17 Oct. and his desire that the legislators be ready to take up the acquisition of Louisiana without delay meant that he would have to prepare his annual message earlier than had been the case in 1801 or 1802. He could, however, rely on the procedures for building the message that he had honed in the previous years. As he had done in...
Joel Barlow introduced David Williams to James Monroe “as an old friend of Dr. Franklin.” On 20 Sep., Monroe informed the president that he was forwarding Williams’s 1802 London publication, Claims of Literature: The Origin, Motives, Objects, and Transactions of the Society for the Establishment of A Literary Fund . Monroe agreed to present any response Jefferson wished to make to the author....
After Jefferson hosted the newly arrived British Minister Anthony Merry and his wife, Elizabeth, for dinner at the President’s House on 2 Dec., a debate over diplomatic protocol ensued. The British consul took umbrage when the widowed president did not accompany his wife to the dining room, but instead escorted Dolley Madison, whom he seated at his side. Secretary of State James Madison...
183131Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
In crafting his response to James Fishback’s letter of 5 June 1809, Jefferson completed a draft that argued passionately and at length against intolerance and forced conformity in religion. Possibly reflecting that his letter was outspoken enough to create controversy and that he knew very little about Fishback or his discretion, Jefferson then substituted a briefer and less revealing version,...
183132Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
James Madison was on poor terms with James Monroe after the latter’s abortive bid for the presidency in 1808 and accompanying flirtation with the Richmond Junto and the Tertium Quids led by John Randolph of Roanoke . Ever since his final departure from Washington , Jefferson had been anxious to see an end to this rift. He assured Madison on 30 March that Monroe had severed most of his ties to...
183133Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
In composing his response to William Baldwin’s letter of 7 Jan. 1810 , Jefferson completed a draft that forthrightly criticized the practices of organized Christianity and accused the Society of Friends of hypocrisy, if not treason. Recognizing the controversial nature of what he had written and unable to count on the discretion of Baldwin , with whom he had not corresponded previously,...
183134Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
Using the French manuscript that he received from the author in 1809, Jefferson undertook to see into print an English edition of Destutt de Tracy’s commentary on Montesquieu’s Esprit des Lois . He recruited Philadelphia printer and journalist William Duane for the task with the letter and sample translations printed below. Duane engaged his own translator, even for the portions Jefferson had...
183135Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
The material printed below documents the failure of Edward Livingston’s attempt to make Jefferson personally liable for the loss Livingston had sustained when the president ordered him expelled from the Batture Sainte Marie in New Orleans in 1807. Ever since Livingston had filed a lawuit lawsuit in May 1810 claiming $100,000 in damages, Jefferson had been anxiously gathering evidence and legal...
183136Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
By the latter part of the 1790s Thomas Jefferson and John Adams had become bitter political opponents. The friendship they had forged as congressional and diplomatic colleagues, fellow revolutionaries, and members of George Washington’s administration did not survive the strain of Jefferson’s victory in the 1800 presidential election. Adams left the nation’s capital just before Jefferson’s...
183137Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
In the summer of 1805 William Wirt asked Jefferson to supply him with information for a prospective work on the famed Virginia revolutionary Patrick Henry . In his reply Jefferson agreed to help but warned that his evaluation of his onetime friend and later political adversary would bear a “mixed aspect.” Although he regarded Henry as “the best humored man in society I almost ever knew, and...
Craven Peyton in account for Henderson’s lands, with Th: J. D r
Craven Peyton on a contract for corn in acc t with Th: Jefferson D r
183140Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
Thomas Jefferson had long advocated sending an American-sponsored expedition to explore the region between the Missouri River and the Pacific Ocean . Although frustrated by the inability of George Rogers Clark in 1783–84, John Ledyard in 1788, and André Michaux in 1793 to fulfill this mission, Jefferson finally saw his dream become a reality with the dispatch in 1804 and safe return two years...
183141Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
On 12 Jan. 1803 the Virginia General Assembly passed “An Act to establish an academy in the county of Albemarle , and for other purposes.” Although it never educated a single student, the Albemarle Academy is important because it served as midwife to one of Jefferson ’s proudest achievements, the founding of the University of Virginia a few miles west of Monticello . The legislature named...
183142Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
Having learned through the newspapers of the British destruction on 24 Aug. 1814 of the 3,000-volume Library of Congress , Jefferson quickly decided to offer his large personal library as a replacement. On 21 Sept. he sent his proposal and a manuscript catalogue to his old friend Samuel H. Smith , federal commissioner of the revenue and former publisher of the Washington National Intelligencer...
183143Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
In composing his response to Peter H. Wendover ’s letter of 30 Jan. 1815 , Jefferson completed a draft that criticized the discussion of public affairs from the pulpit by religious leaders. Realizing the controversial nature of what he had written and being unable to count on the discretion of its intended recipient, with whom he had not corresponded previously, Jefferson wrote a briefer and...
183144Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
In composing a letter to his boyhood friend James Maury , a longtime expatriate serving as United States consul at Liverpool, England , Jefferson included a request that Maury locate an agent who could purchase books for him in Great Britain. The retired statesman was seeking to rebuild his collection after the recent sale of his library to the United States Congress . He intended to supply a...
183145Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
In the latter part of 1815 Jefferson made two lengthy visits to his Bedford County estate, Poplar Forest , a principal goal of which was observing and calculating the height and latitude of the nearby Peaks of Otter . This group of travel receipts documents a portion of the first of these trips. Jefferson had arrived at Poplar Forest on 21 Aug. 1815 for a prolonged stay. On about 10 Sept. he...
183146Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
Following his September visit to Bedford County and surrounding areas with José Corrêa da Serra and Francis W. Gilmer , Jefferson returned in November 1815 to expand on his earlier scientific observations and make more extensive geometrical calculations of the altitude of the Peaks of Otter . For this purpose he brought surveying tools from Monticello , including a theodolite made by the...
183147Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
While drafting his 10 Jan. 1816 response to Horatio G. Spafford’s letter of 25 Dec. 1815 , Jefferson digressed from comments on Spafford ’s enclosed manuscript to what he here describes to Thomas Ritchie as a “tirade” on a religious publication sent to him by Benjamin Waterhouse on 14 Dec. 1815 . The work in question, Lyman Beecher ’s pamphlet On the Importance of Assisting Young Men of Piety...
183148Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
Virginia adopted its first written constitution by a unanimous vote on 29 June 1776 at a convention held in Williamsburg . Not surprisingly, considering the new state’s experiences as a British colony, the charter greatly restricted executive power and gave the legislature the authority not only to pass laws, but to appoint the governor, Council of State , attorney general, and all state...
183149Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
In 1806 an act of the Virginia General Assembly established the Rivanna Company in order to improve the navigation of the Rivanna River between Milton and Charlottesville . This section of the river included property owned by Jefferson. After receiving title to this tract under his father ’s will, he spent many years and thousands of dollars building a canal, mills, and a dam along the Rivanna...
183150Editorial Note (Jefferson Papers)
The bill establishing Central College became law on 14 Feb. 1816, and on 25 Mar. of that year Frank Carr , who had served as secretary for the trustees of the Albemarle Academy , submitted recommendations to Virginia governor Wilson Cary Nicholas for appointments to the new college’s Board of Visitors . Carr told Nicholas that several former Albemarle Academy trustees had drawn up the list,...