Begin a
search

Author

Sort: Frequency / Alphabetical

Show: Top 10 / Top 50

Recipient

Sort: Frequency / Alphabetical

Show: Top 10 / Top 50

Period

Dates From

Dates To

Results 183151-183180 of 183,496 sorted by date (ascending)
The Hague, 10 September 1785. MS ( PCC , No. 135, I, f. 286–320). PRINTED : Miller, Treaties Treaties and Other International Acts of the United States of America , ed. Hunter Miller, Washington, D.C., 1931–1948; 8 vols. , 2:162–184. LbC ( Adams Papers ); APM Reel 111. The undated LbC was done by Charles Storer in early August from the copies brought to London by William Short on 3 Aug. for...
183152Editorial Note (Adams Papers)
In 1784 and 1785 the absence of any treaties between the United States and the Barbary States produced a crisis when Morocco and Algiers seized American ships. Congress’ decision in March 1785 to resolve that problem, at the behest of the commissioners and the emperor of Morocco, opened a new chapter in the nation’s diplomacy. The documents presented here indicate the basis upon which the...
In early September 1786, John Adams returned to No. 8 Grosvenor Square from a whirlwind summer trip to the Netherlands with wife Abigail ( John Adams Visits the Netherlands, 3 Aug. – 6 Sept. , above). Mulling over his political conversations with old friends in the Dutch Patriot Party, which seemed on the verge of victory over the pro-stadholder Orangist Party, Adams plunged into researching...
Generations of H scholars have not been able either to date this letter or to determine its addressee with any certainty. The date has been variously given as 1779 and 1780 without naming a particular month. In the present instance the date assigned has been based on three factors: First, in the next to last paragraph, H writes that he can be reached through James Montague at the post office...
According to his biographer ( Robertson, The Life of Miranda William S. Robertson, The Life of Miranda (Chapel Hill, 1929). , I, 43), Miranda, while in New York City in 1784, devised a plan for the liberation of Venezuela which he revealed to Henry Knox and Hamilton. In the Miranda papers there are four lists of names, three of which are in the writing of Hamilton, and one of which is in an...
These Notes, which Hamilton divided into two parts entitled “Notes on the History of North America” and “Notes on the History of South America,” were prepared for a brief which he used in a case involving a land controversy between Massachusetts and New York. Some students of Hamilton have mistakenly assumed that these notes were prepared while Hamilton was a student in 1773 at the school...
The Assembly of the New York legislature resolved on January 17, 1787, “that a Committee be appointed to consider of and report, ways and means for discharging the debts of the State, and the maintenance of public credit” ( New York Assembly Journal Journal of the Assembly of the State of New York (Publisher and place vary, 1782–1788). , 1787, 10). The Journal , however, did not give the names...
There are five versions of Hamilton’s speech of June 18 to the Constitutional Convention. In the first place, there are Hamilton’s own notes which he presumably used while he was delivering the speech. In the second place James Madison, Robert Yates, John Lansing, Jr., and Rufus King all made notes on the speech while Hamilton was delivering it. Because the several accounts of the speech are...
The Federalist essays have been printed more frequently than any other work of Hamilton. They have, nevertheless, been reprinted in these volumes because no edition of his writings which omitted his most important contribution to political thought could be considered definitive. The essays written by John Jay and James Madison, however, have not been included. They are available in many...
On February 1, 1788, the New York legislature voted to call a convention to ratify or reject the proposed Constitution. Departing from the usual suffrage requirements, the legislature resolved that every free male citizen of twenty-one years or over was to have a vote. In the elections, held on the third Tuesday in April, Hamilton was elected one of the delegates to the New York Ratifying...
Sources for the ideas expressed by Hamilton in his Report Relative to a Provision for the Support of Public Credit are both varied and difficult to assess. Public credit, or the terms on which a state may borrow, had been discussed in Europe by philosophers, government officials, and political pamphleteers for almost a century before Hamilton drew up his famous Report. Many Americans had also...
There are two drafts of this document in the Hamilton Papers, Library of Congress. The final version, which was submitted to the House of Representatives, is the National Archives. The first draft, which is in Hamilton’s handwriting, is printed below in essentially the same form in which it was written by Hamilton. In the margin of the first draft are queries and insertions in the text which...
In preparing his “Second Report on the Further Provision Necessary for Establishing Public Credit,” Hamilton relied heavily on European precedents and theories of banking. The Bank of England and Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations undoubtedly influenced Hamilton’s thinking in varying degrees. It is more difficult, however, to generalize on the effect of earlier American experiments in banking on...
Precedents for Hamilton’s “Report on the Establishment of a Mint,” can be found in the writings of various Europeans and in the American proposals for a national system of coinage that had been submitted to Congress under the Articles of Confederation. During the autumn of 1790 Hamilton made repeated efforts to obtain information concerning practices and policies in other countries, and there...
There are at least eight manuscript versions of this famous document. One of these is an incomplete draft in Hamilton’s handwriting. The other seven are copies. The two versions that are printed below are the draft and that copy which it is assumed is the final version that was sent to George Washington. The seven copies of this document are located as follows: 1. Copy, Mr. John R. Dillard,...
Like Hamilton’s other major state papers, the “Report on Manufactures” is distinguished not so much by originality of thought as by the cogency and persuasiveness of its arguments, its far-reaching implications, and its ennobling vision of the destiny of the United States. Indeed, it contains few, if any, specific proposals that even the most enthusiastic supporters of Hamilton could maintain...
This letter concerns the problem of the so-called lost million. As early as September, 1775, Pierre August Caron de Beaumarchais, the French writer and courtier, had attempted to persuade the French government of the desirability of aiding the American colonies in their revolt against England. When, in the spring of 1776, the French government agreed to send supplies from France to the...
The completion of the census of 1790 offered Congress its first opportunity to reapportion representation to conform to the population. The Constitution provided that each state should have at least one representative, that the membership of the House of Representatives should “not exceed one for every 30,000,” and that for purposes of representation the slave population should be counted as...
On March 5, 1792, George Hammond, the British Minister to the United States, submitted to Jefferson a detailed account of the failure of the United States to abide by the provisions of the treaty of peace of 1783. On May 29, Jefferson wrote an extensively documented reply to Hammond’s charges. Jefferson had completed the draft of his letter to Hammond by May 15, 1792, but he delayed sending it...
This letter marks the beginning of a protracted dispute between Mercer and Hamilton. In 1792 Mercer was a candidate for reelection to the House of Representatives from Maryland’s Second District. He was opposed by John Thomas of Susquehanna. During the campaign Mercer made a series of speeches in which he criticized Hamilton’s administration of financial affairs. Mercer contended that the...
Although Hamilton’s “View of the Commercial Regulations of France & Great Britain in reference to the United States” is undated, it is clear that the documents which comprise it were written by Hamilton at different times during the early part of Washington’s Administration. As early as 1789 it was apparent to many Americans that in spite of the apparent prosperity of United States commerce...
This letter from Latimer, a Philadelphia merchant, concerns one phase of the involved question of using portions of the debt owed France by the United States for the relief of Santo Domingo. After the outbreak of the slave insurrection in Santo Domingo in August, 1791, the plight of the French colonists on the island became increasingly desperate. In September, 1791, Jean Baptiste de Ternant,...
According to Gouverneur Morris, United States Minister Plenipotentiary to France, Edmund Charles Genet had sailed from France in February, 1793, “with … three hundred blank commissions, which he is to distribute to such as will fit out cruisers in our ports to prey on the British commerce.” In July, 1793, Genet told Thomas Jefferson that on his arrival at Charleston on April 8 “he was...
This letter from Andrew Fraunces initiated a controversy over the payment of two warrants issued by the Board of Treasury in 1787 and 1789. Although Fraunces maintained that he had purchased these warrants in early May, 1793, it cannot be stated with certainty just how he obtained them or whether he ever actually owned them. During June, July, and August, 1793, Fraunces wrote to both Hamilton...
Throughout 1792 and the early months of 1793 the Washington Administration had received reports of Indian depredations and Spanish intrigue on the southern frontier. In 1790 the Creek Nation under the leadership of Alexander McGillivray had signed a treaty of peace and friendship with the United States at New York, which among other stipulations had provided for a survey of the boundary...
This letter marks Hamilton’s initial involvement in a protracted and acrimonious dispute between Rufus King and John Jay on the one hand and Edmond C. Genet on the other. Briefly stated, the controversy centered on whether Genet on July 6, 1793, at the height of the crisis over the sailing of the Little Sarah , had or had not told Alexander Dallas Alexander J. Dallas that “he would appeal from...
In the period immediately preceding George Washington’s Fifth Annual Address to Congress on December 3, 1793, the President and the members of his cabinet held a series of meetings at which the contents of the message were discussed. Thomas Jefferson’s accounts of these meetings in the “Anas” indicate that he and Edmund Randolph disagreed with Hamilton on several occasions and that the...
On December 16, 1793, the Speaker of the House of Representatives “laid before the House a Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, requesting that a new inquiry into his official conduct may be instituted, in some mode most effectual for an accurate and thorough investigation; which was read, and ordered to lie on the table.” Because of Republican criticism of the manner in which the 1793...
The threat of war with Great Britain in the spring of 1794 was met in the United States with proposals for reprisals, for strengthening American defenses, and for negotiation. Most individuals who urged negotiation also advocated that the task be entrusted to a special envoy. Secretary of State Edmund Randolph stated on April 6 that he was “among the first, if not the first, who suggested this...
183180Introductory Note (Hamilton Papers)
This report is among the more significant and neglected of Hamilton’s state papers. Its significance arises from at least two factors. As James Madison stated, it was Hamilton’s “Valedictory Rept.,” and as such it contains both a summary of where the Treasury Department had been under his direction and his views on where it should go after he had left the Government. More important, although...