George Washington Papers

General Orders, 28 March 1780

General Orders

Head-Quarters Morristown Tuesday March 28th 1780

Parole Kalender— C. Signs Kinsman. Kidnap—

Varick transcript, DLC:GW.

A record in GW’s expense book for this date indicates payment to three workmen “for clearing & Stoning Mrs Fords well” (household account book, 11 April 1776–21 Nov. 1780, DLC:GW, ser. 5). Three receipts for the well project, all signed on this date, totaled $1,300 (Revolutionary War Receipt Book, 1776–1780, DLC:GW, ser. 5).

Christopher Ludwick, superintendent of bakers and director of baking for the Continental army, signed a receipt on this date for $144 received from Maj. Caleb Gibbs for “making two barrels of rusk two barrels of butterd bisquet and Ginger Bread.” Ludwick itemized his payment by ingredients: nine pounds butter, $78; milk, $42; allspice, $8; one pound caraway seed, $4; ginger, $8; and potash, $4 (Revolutionary War Receipt Book, 1776–1780, DLC:GW, ser. 5). Rusk is a kind of toast baked twice for extra crispness. Potash was used in German gingerbread recipes. A account of Ludwick’s life in part reads: “He often dined with the Commander in Chief in large companies, and was always treated by him upon such occasions, with particular marks of attention. He frequently spent two hours at a time with him in private, in conferring upon the business of the baking department. The General appreciated his worth, and occasionally addressed him in company, as ‘his honest friend’” (Rush, Christopher Ludwick description begins Benjamin Rush. An Account of the Life and Character of Christopher Ludwick, Late Citizen of Philadelphia, and Baker-General of the Army of the United States During the Revolutionary War. 1801. Reprint. Philadelphia, 1831. description ends , 15).

GW’s warrant book for this date indicates that Gibbs received $3,000 “for the use of the Commander in Chief” (Revolutionary War Warrant Book 5, 1780–1783, DLC:GW, ser. 5). Gibbs wrote a receipt for this money “for the use of defraying the Expence of His Excellency General Washingtons family” on the same date (Revolutionary War Receipt Book, 1776–1780, DLC:GW, ser. 5).

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