Thomas Jefferson Papers
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Memorandum Books, 1784

1784.

Jan. 1. Paid Mrs. Gheeseland to this day for myself £13–2–6. Note this is a guinea11 a week or 5/ a day for lodging and 2/6 a day for wood.
3. Pd. for corn £2–16–3. Charge 14/1 of it to Colo. Monroe.
4. Pd. Mrs. Gheeseland for servt. to New year’s day £4–7–6. Note this was at half a guinea a week.
Began this day to dine with Mrs. Gheeseland.
5. Pd. Plane the barber 12/6—sundries 9/6 door lock 15/.
Pd. Wm. Coe the taylor for Jos. Dowson £2–16.
Pd. do. for himself 38/8.
7. Pd. Davidson for sundries £3–5–5.
Pd. for 4. shirts for Bob 30/0.
 
8. Pd. barber to Jan. 1. 13/.
Pd. for little house12 £3–15. Charge 37/6 of it to Colo. Monroe.
10. Pd. for shoeing horse 7/6—shoemaker 3/9.
14. Gave Bob to buy 2. blankets 30/.
23. Gave in Charity 1/8.
26. Pd. for book shelves 27/6.
30. Pd. for 3. bush. corn 18.—31. For 2 bush. do. 11/.
Feb. 1. Pd. barber for 1. month 20/.
3. Pd. portage of books from Philada. 3/9.
Bob begins with a barber @ 15/ per month.
5. Pd. Mrs. Gheeseland for 31. days viz. to last of Jan. as follows
lodgg. breakfast &c.  @ 5/ } = 12/6 pr. day £19–7s–6d.
dinner @ 2/6
wood @ 2/6
servt. @ 2/6
Pd. her for makg. 6. cravats 6/—pd. for a chrystal 2/6.
9. Pd. shoeing horse 3/9.
10. Pd. for barber’s apparatus for Bob 30/—chrystal 2/6.
13. Pd. for half a quire lre. paper 1/10½—shavg. box for Bob 7/6.
Pd. towards exp. Colo. Monroe’s servt. to Virginia 37/6.13
Feb. 14. Pd. washing 30/—ribbon 2/.
Recd. from Mr. Ambler (as treasurer) B. Harrison’s bill on Holker14 for 433⅓ Dollars.
17. Sold the sd. bill to Mr. Stone. Recd. 100. Doll. in part.
Bot. B. Harrison’s bill on Holker in favr. Colo. Monroe for 96. Doll. & pd. him 50. Doll. in part.
18. Inclosed the bill for 96. Doll. last mentd. to Saml. House to lodge proceeds in American bank.
Paid for 7. pecks corn 10/6.
21. Paid Mr. Hall for a ton of hay £6.
22. Gave Bob for expences to Baltimore 22/6.
23. Pd. for 1 doz. sticks sealing wax 12/.
25. Moved to Mr. Dulany’s house.15
 
28. Pd. carpenter 3/9.
Mar. 1. Pd. for sundries from Feb. 24. to this day for myself £13–9.
Pd. in same time for houshold expences £15–1–2. Charge half to Col. Monroe.
2. Pd. Mrs. Gheeseland in full from Feb. 1. to 25. as follows. lodgg. breakft. &c. 5/ dinnr. 2/6 wood 5/ servt. 2/6 = 15/ per day, so paid for 25 days £18–15.
On settlemt. accts. with Colo. Monroe to this day I owe him £6–7s–8d.
Pd. for candles 2/6.
4. Borrowed of Colo. Monroe 25⅓ Doll.
Pd. Monroe of the livery stable to this day, viz. 3. horses 1. month 36⅓ D. I still owe him for that time 3⅔.
6. Recd. from B. Harrison junr. his bill on Holker for 333⅓ D. on account of Treasury for my allowance as delegate.
Pd. for candles 3/4.
Recd. of Colo. Stone in part for bill sold 17th. supra 100.D.
Pd. Colo. Monroe in full the two balances of 2d. & 4th. supra £15–17–6.
7. Borrowed Colo. Monroe 4/2—gave in Charity 4/2.
Remember to credit him half of 4. bottles wine from Mann’s in Nov.
Pd. Chalmers16 for silver cover to ivory book £3.
8. Pd. Dowson for 6. knives & forks 15/ tureen 8/4.
Pd. for a cord of hiccory £3—cutting it 4/.
10. Pd. Monroe of the livery stable in full 50/—his horseler 2/6.
11. Pd. pr. of shoes for Bob 12/6—6. ℔ candles 15/—6 ℔ coffee 9/.
13. Pd. for penknife 2/6—3. table cloths £5–15–6—7⅛ ℔ db. refd. sugr. 21/4½.
Pd. for letter paper = 2 quire 20/—apples 7/6.
14. Settled houshold exp. &c. with Colo. Monroe & recd. balance £6–2–10.
Pd. makg. 2. pr. sheets 8/ do. 12 towels 12/.
15. Pd. for 7½ bushels corn 45/.
 
Mar. 16. Recd. of Colo. Stone balce. of my bill 133⅓ Doll.
Pd. necessaries viz.  Clarke a 3 qt. bowl 27/6. 2 qt. do. 20/ cruets 20/
Shoemaker 1½ doz. shal. plates 11/3 ½ doz. deep do. 4/2
Graham’s 2. butter boats 5/
Biggs’s 2. ale glasses 2/6
Randall’s 2. table cloths £4.
17. Gave in charity 22/6—do. for Colo. Monroe 15/.
18. Pd. washg. woman in full 37/6—I am to give 5/ a week.
Pd. 2. doz. eggs 2/6.
19. Pd. 9 ℔ beef @ 8d. 6/—cord hiccory 40/ cording 1/ carting 3/ cutting 4/.
20. Pd. a turkey 7/6—7 pullets 14/.
Delivd. Harrison’s bill for 333⅓ D. on Holker to Mr. James Maury to negotiate, send me 100.D. & place balce. in bank.
21. Pd. making 5. table cloths 10/.
22. Sent Chevalr. D’Anmours17 for 12. spoons £17–16–6 (houshd. exp.).
Houshd. exp. 1/10½.
23.
Pd. houshd. exp. 6. cabbages 2/6 a peck potatoes 1/6 a duck 22½d a pullet 22½d ½ cord oak 12/6 cordg. 5d. cartg. 1/6 }  22/2
14. bush. oats £2–12–6 (stable exp.).
Pd. for sweepg. chimney 3/9 5. wine glasses 3/4.
Pd. houshd. exp. mustard 1/10½ 4. punch glasses 12/ 2. small tureens 8/9 3 ℔ rice 2/. }  24/7½
25. Borrowed of Colo. Monroe 35/.
Pd. barber for the months of Feb. & Mar. 40/.

26.
27.
Pd. houshd. exp. 2. doz. eggs 2/. }  £2–7s–2d
4. yds. oznabr. 5/4 6. ℔ brown sug. 5/7 5. qts. molasses 6/3 1 ℔ flour 6d. yest18 1/
3 doz. bottles 24/ ½ gross corks 2/6
Pd. Register of land office for Fras. Hopkinson,19 Philada. 22/6.
Pd. hhd. exp. 3. ℔ rice 2/—28. Fish 1/3—29. Turkey 6/.
 
Settled with Colo. Monroe & recd. balance £18–12.
30. Gave in charity 15/.
Pd. for great seal to 2. papers for F. Hopkinson 25/6.
Pd. hhd. exp. 13 ℔ sugar 30/4 wood 27/6 cordg. &c.   12. dishes £2–11— fish &c. 15/ oysters 2/6 2 doz. eggs 2/ }  £6–8–4
Corkscrew 5/. rope for halters 5/.
Apr. 1. Pd. hhd. exp. turkey 7/6—basket 1/3 10. bush. corn 50/ 3. ℔ candles 7/6 = 3–6–6.20
Lent Mr. Bannister21 £3–10.
2. Pd. hhd. exp. 1000 nails 18/9 4 ℔ butter 10/.
3. Lent Mr. Bannister £3.
4. Settled with Colo. Monroe balance due me £4–15–9.
Recd. from him £4–8–3. Still due 7/6.
Pd. houshold exp. 14/6.
Apr. 5. Pd. shoeing horse 22½d 5 qts. bottled cherries 10/ milk 1/1.
6. Pd. Partout22 balance of provn. bill 25/—advanced do. 16/8.
Recd. from James Maury 115. Doll. & Turnbull & co.’s note for 200 D. for Harrison’s exch. on Holker (see Mar. 20).
He has pd. out of it
to Dudley for spectacles23 for Jas. Madison 13⅔
to McPherson for a year’s prices current24  4⅔
to Boinod & Gaillard for books 14/6.
7. Pd. for gloves 4/—for 5. pr. cotton stockings £3–5 inkglass 1/.
Pd.  Brewer for James Bannister a tavern acct. £2–15–9.
Isaiah Meade for do. travelling exp. from Baltimore 17/6.
James West for do. horse hire £3–7–6.
Pd. Chalmers for martingal rings & buckle 15/.
Pd. Shaw25 cabinet work £4–2–6.
 
Pd. hhd. exp. viz. decanters &c. £2. pd. baker 150 loaves bread £3–15.
8. Pd. for a China can 7/6—2 decanters 12/6 freight (hhd. exp.) 5/9. pd. for cyder 1/.
9. Inclosed Mr. Curson by Mr. Mercer for liquors £12.
Pd. Wm. McMurray subscrptn. for 2 maps26 20/. Am to pay 30/ more on delivery.
10. Pd. sundries hhd. ex. 2/10½—martingal 2/6.
Settlemt. wth. Col. Monroe (includg. Mann’s bill) due to me £11–17–3.
12. Pd. 2 bush. potatoes 15/—charity 1/.
13. Recd. of Colo. Monroe <balce. above> £12–5. which was 22/3 more than balce.
Pd. houshold expences £1–11–7.
Pd. Partout provision bill 29/—advanced do. 31/.
Pd. for pomatum 2/6 Bob shirts 2/6.
14. Pd. for a turkey 7/6.
15. Pd. houshold exp. £1–14–4½.
16. Pd. do. 13/6.
17. Pd. Shoemaker for do. £1–15–2.
19. Pd. barber teaching Bob 2½ months 35/ owe him 2/6.
Pd. for findg. horses 7/6.
20. Pd. cord hiccory 25/ cording & carting 4/.
Inclosed to Mrs. Hopkinson draught on Turnbull Marmie & co. for 100.D.
22. Pd. for 2. sashes 10/—candles 6/6.
23. Pd. 5. qts. milk 2/6—asparagus 8d.
Pd. 10. bush. corn 52/6.
24. Pd. for cyder 1/6.
25. Recd. 100.D. from J. F. Mercer for balce. of Turnbull & co.’s note.
Pd. hhd. ex. 5/.
26. Pd. do. £2–10–8—charity 11½d—½ quire paper 1/3.
27. Pd. hhd. exp. 21/10—charity 1/.
28. Pd. 3. halters 15/ Partout kitchen furniture £4–6s—wood 25/6—provns. £6–16s–7d.
30. Charity 22½d—3. quire paper 7/6.
Recd. from Treasurer of Virginia Harrison’s bill on Morris 333⅓ D.
 
May 1. Pd. for 1. ℔ butter 2/.
2. Settled with Colo. Monroe & recd. balance £9–7–6.
Pd. Rachael for washing to end of April 30/.
Pd. servt. for cooking 30/—ferrge. London town 2/6.
Gave servt. 3/9—oranges 16d.—post rider 2/6—powder 6d baker 155. loaves £3–17–6 coffee 7/.
Inclosed Harrison’s bill on Morris for 333⅓ Doll. to F. Hopkinson.
4. Bacon 11 ℔ 11/.
5. Side of veal 24 ℔ @ 10d. 20/—6. candles 7/6.
7. 1. ℔ butter 2/.
Le Bas the barber for April 20/—Adam expences 15/.
8. Milk 2/. pd. Coe the taylor 27/9.
9. Houshold exp. 25/5.
10. Recd. of the Intendant of Maryland27 to be repaid 233⅓ Dol.
Pd. Dr. Murray28 in full £35–4.
Pd. Mann in full 31⅓ Dol.
Pd.  Partout provision bill £18–7–7.
his wages from Apr. 1. to May 11. @ 30. guineas a year £5–18s.
Pd. for mending clothes 7/6—shoeing horses 22/6.
11. Balance due me as delegate of Virga. to this day is 407⅓ D.29
Drew order on Treasurer to pay 407⅓ D. to J. Madison. Deductg. price of 2 pr. spectacles 27⅓ D. I still owe him 68⅔ D.
Pd. for straps 5/—washg. 10/—barber 10/—milk 2/.
Sold Colo. Monroe my books & houshold things at Annap. He is to pay Mr. Dulany my house rent £5–6–9½ and Frazer stable rent £6.30
 
Recd. his bill on Pringle for £47–10–7.
Also another bill on do. for 33. Dollars.
This leaves him in my debt 2029 Doll.
Inclosed the bill of £47–10–7. to Mr. Curson to pay balance I owe him for the pretended James Bannister.
Inclosed him also the bill for 33. Doll. to pay portage of my things to Philadelphia & remit balce. to me.
Pd. for padlock 2/6.
Gave Colo. Monroe’s servants 15/.
Left with C. Thomson as specimen of coins 1.8 D.31
Pd. Middleton passage to Rockhall 10.D.
Left Annapolis.
Gave sailors at Rockhall 8/4.
12. Pd. entertt. at Spencer’s Rockhall 31/.
Pd. do. for reins for Phaeton 8/4.
May 13. Pd. entt. at Worral’s Chester 35/—horse-hire 45/—servt. 22½d.
Pd. sadler 2/—oats at the Cross roads 2/4—dinnr. at the Buck32 7/5.
14. Pd. entt. at Bail’s Newcastle 22/8—servt. 1/6.
Breakfast &c. Mrs. Withy’s Chester 6/9—barber 1/10½—servt. 11d.
Pd. ferrge. Schuylkill 1/2—for a lock 2/6—play house 8/4.
Gave Charity 1/6.
15. Pd. for a lock 1/6—apples 1/—book 5/—hairpencils 2/1.
Pd. for oranges 6/—bottles for colours 17/6.
17. Pd. for book 9/—wax taper 3/—bark 3/9—gum 11d.
Pd. for 2 tickets to see balon 15/.33
 
18. Pd. at Bell’s for books 26/3.
19. Pd. the post for bringing my horse from Chester & carrying the hired one back £3–10—Bradford books 30/.
Pd. for trifles 14/9.
Recd. at the bank 100.D. Note this was the balance of the bill Harrison on Morris 333⅓ D. mentd. May 2. the residue 233⅓ D. having been remitted by F. Hopkinson to Annapolis for the Intendant to repay the money borrowed of him May 10.
20. Pd. portage of my baggage by the stage 33/4.
Pd. for a panther’s skin 45/.34
21. Pd. my bill at Lee’s £4–1–3.
22. Pd. Dr. Bass for bark 7/6—pd. January35 book bindg. 25/ Aitken maps £6.
Pd. for 2. bunches match 2d.—gave Patsy 7/6.
23. Pd. silversmith work on travellg. box36 30/—pd. for pincers 3/—map 7/6.
24. Pd. Starr for boots £3.
Settled with the bank & recd. balance 61½ Dollars.
Gave Bob to buy stockings 15/.
Pd. F. Hopkinson 3 years subscription to A. Phil. society 30/.
Recd. from Colo. Monroe 270. Doll.
25. Inclosed back to Colo. Monroe the 270. Doll. as they belonged to S. Hardy.
Pd. for wafers 2/ sand 22½d—Aitken for maps 20/.
Pd. Aitken for Jas. Madison for Blair’s lectures37 35/.
 
Pd. for Bole Armenic38 11d.—repd. Jame his expences 15/.
26. Pd. Boinod & Gaillard in full £4–13–10.
Note  of this was for Colo. Monroe.
Pd. for trunk 35/.
27. Pd. for locks 6/9—putting them on 2/6—green bays 3/4½.
Pd. Dudley £5–19–6—pd. for portmanteau 52/6. washing 27/.
Pd. portage of my baggage to Princetown 19/—washing silk stockgs. 7/.
Pd. Quarrier 15/—portage baggage to N. York <35/> 15/10.
May 28. Recd. frm. Superintendt. of finance 400.D. & order on Jas. Lovell in Boston for 550 D.39
Pd. barber £3–10—Mrs. Hopkinson in full £22–10–6.
Pd. Mrs. House £7–12—McIlhenny the tailor £13-7.
Pd. Heiltzheimer £7–17–6.
Pd. Mr. S. House for Mr. Hardy for obtaing. protest on a note 17/6.
Left with do. for Dr. Shippen 35/.
Left with do. for Bob’s expences on his return 35/. Note he had before 35/ of mine remaining in his hands.
Gave servts. at Mrs. House’s 22/6—pd. work for Patsy 10/.
Left with F. Hopkinson for Wright for drawg. Gl. Washington £17–10.40
Gave Browse Trist41 7/6.
Pd. ferrge. Shamony 2/8—dinner at cross keys Bristol 17/2.
Gave horseler 1/4—ferrge. Trenton 5/3 ferrymen 1/8.
29. Pd. lodging &c. Trenton 30/6 horseler 1/8.
Pd. breakfast &c. Princetown 11/ horseler 1/ barber 1/10.
 
Pd. dinner &c. Brunswick 13/2.
30. Pd. lodging &c. Woodbridge 29/.
Pd. breakft. &c. Eliz. T. horseler 5d.
Pd. ferrge. Second river42 4/3. ferrymen 22d.
Pd. ferrge. & ferrymen Hackinsack 6/.
       New York currency. Dollars 8/ 
Pd. sailors at Pauler’s hook43 8/.
Pd. ferrge. & ferrymen 13/6.
31. Pd. Rivington44 for maps & books £3–4 chessmen 20/ bathg. cap 8/.
Gave Patsy 8/—shoeing horse 3/—oranges 8/.
June 1. Pd. ferrge. to Long isld. 6/. ferrymen 1/9—ferrge. back 6/.
3. Pd. for a box 6/—mendg. harness 2/.
4. Pd. for map 2/—recd. back of money for portage of May 27. 19/2 Pensva. currcy.
5. Pd. Rivington for Span. dict.45 £4. portage baggage to water 1/9 to Providence 8/.
Gave Patsy 1/9—pd. for green bays 3/4—washing 32/.
Pd. for oranges 3/6—hat 56/—pd. barber 14/.
Pd. Mrs. Elsworth46 6. days lodging &c. £17–3–4.
6. Pd. lodging at Wilson’s Fort Washington47 44/—pd. an express 8/.
Pd. breakfast & dinner Mrs. Haviland’s48 Rye 26/.
 
       Connecticut. Dollars 6/ 
7. Pd. lodging Mrs. Wells’s, Stamford 21/.
Pd. breakfast at Buckley’s,49 Fairfeild 8/—gave Patsy 3/.
Pd. dinner Stratford 9/6—ferrge. Stratford river 5/.
8. Pd. at Newhaven50 for 2. oz. bark 6/.
Pd. mendg. lock, harness &c. 3/10.
June 9. Pd. washing 8/9—entertt. at the Coffee house Newhaven 51/6.
Pd. breakfast 8/—dinner at Middletown 20/.
10. Pd. at Hartford for ribbon 2/3—oats at Wethersfeild 1/8 Patsy 1/6.
11. Pd. entertt. at Bull’s51 Hartford £2–2–8—ferrge. Connecticut river 2/.
Pd. breakfast Bolton 6/—oats at Lebanon52 1/4.
Pd. at Norwich mendg. Phaeton 1/6.
12. Pd. dinner, lodgg. &c. Norwich 21/.
Pd. breakfast, dinner &c. at New London 19/10—ferrge. Thames riv. 6/10.
       Rhode island state. 
13. Pd. lodging &c. Pokatuck bridge53 20/.
Pd. at South Kingston mendg. axletree 6/—gave Bob 2/.
14. Pd. lodging &c. 18/2—ferrge. to Conannicut isld. 11/.
Pd. ferrge. to Newport 6/—gave boat man 1/4.
15. Pd. washing 6/—gave Patsy 1/6—expences riding 2/8.
Pd. mending axle 24/—lost in change 4/—pd. washing 1/.
16. Pd. entertt. at Almy’s, Newport £4–4—ferrge. from the island 8/.
 
Pd. breakfast, Burr’s, Warren 12/—ferrge. Patucket river 3/.
17. Pd. entertt. Chace’s Providence £2–14–6.
18.
Pd.  lodging &c. Mann’s 21/4.
breakfast, Ames’s, Dedham 8/9—arrived in Boston.
19. Pd. for gloves 3/—20. Repd. Bob 6d.
21. Recd. of Mr. Lovell for the United States in part of salary 170. Doll.
Pd. for book 10/—portage 6/—Bob ferrge. to Chas. town 9d.
Patsy 36/.—pd. ferrge. to Winnisimet54 9/.
22. Pd. lodging Salem 20/4½ do. for Mr. Campbell55 8/4½.
Pd. breakfast Ipswich 6/ do. Campbell 2/.
Pd. ferrge. Parker river 4/6—oats Newberry 3/—ferrge. Merrimac 4/6.
Pd. dinner Sandburn’s, Hampton 9/.
23. Pd. for powder in Portsmouth 2/.
24. Pd. oats & punch Folsom’s, Exeter 7/—barber 1/3.
Pd. dinner Sandburn’s Hampton 9/.
Pd. ferrge. Merrymac 4/6 barber in Newberry 1/6.
25. Pd. oats Beverley 3/6 ferrge. to Salem 3/4.
Gave in charity Marble head 1/4—oats & servt.’s dinner at do. 4/6.
26. Recd. back from Patsy 6/—gave Bob for shoes 6/.
Pd. Wood horse hire to and from Portsmouth £7–6.
Pd. for pamphlets 10/.
June 29. Gave Patsy 6/—pd. for pamphlet 1/—for postage 18/.
Gave in charity 6/8—pd. for paper, pomatum &c. 13/4.
30. Pd. for gross of bottles 42/—for pr. breeches for Bob 12/.
Sold Assaragoa to Neill Jamieson56 for £30. He is to bear expences of Bob & the horses to N. York, to furnish him there with 30 Dollars to carry him home, to send some porter, fish &c. to F. Eppes & remit balance to Jas. Buchanan for me.
 
July 1. Pd. for mailpelon57 6/—gave Bob 37/—pd. for 4. doz. hock £7–4s.
Recd. of James Lovell in part of R. Morris’s order 130. Doll.
2. Pd. for apples 1/6—for repairs to Phaeton £3–17.
Pd. for medecines 18/—pd. Thayer for bedding on shipboard £19–12s–7d.
Pd. for apples 36/—oranges 18/—Patsy 12/—basons & glasses 11/.
Pd. for washing 37/10—pd. taylor £3–8–2.
3. Recd. James Lovell balance Rob. Morris’s order 250. Dollars.
Pd. a taylor 10/—chamb. pots 5/—portage 4/.
Recd. from Mr. Thos. Russell 700. Dollars for a bill drawn on Rob. Morris for so much.
Pd. lodging &c. Colo. Ingersol58 £22–17.
Pd. for a table, chair, &c. £7–10.
Repd. Mr. Campbell for expences to Portsmouth £3–12.
Pd. for Capillaire 12/—Patsy 18/—a servt. 6/.
Pd. for washing 2/6—gave servt. 3/6.
4. Pd. ferrge. to Charlestown 1/3.
Pd. Wood for express to Colo. Humphries59 £12—ferrge. back 2/6.
Pd. for 4. pillow cases 12/.
Gave Mr. Williamos60 for servts. at Ingersol’s 12/.
July 5. Sailed from Boston at 4. o’clock A.M. in the Ceres61 Capt. St. Barbe.
Note Boston is in Lat. 42°–25′ & Longitude from London 70°–56′.
 
at Noon of every day.
 Latitude   Longitude  miles  thermom.   Wind Miscellaneous circumstances.
6.  148.
7.    42–12   63–25 114.   59½  SSW.  saw gannets & pettrils.
8.    42–   59–45 158.   65.  SW.  pettrels. hagdowns or sheerwaters.
9.    42–46   55–40 185.   64.  WSW.  pettrels. hagdowns.
10.    44–19   52– 3 182.   59.  S.W.  pett. hagd. soundings on the Grand bank.
11.    44–57   50– 8 85.   55.  W.S.W.  pett. hagd. myrhs.62 caught cod. saw whales.
12.    45–34   48– 1 97.   54.  N.b.W.  hagd. left the bank.
13.    46– 7   46– 5 87.   50.  W.bN. to S.W.  hagd. myrh.
14.    46–27   44–25 73.   54.  SW. & W.  hagd.
15.    47– 7   41–29 129.   57.  SbW. SSE. SSW.  pettr. hagd.
16.    48–24   36–55 192.   62.  SSW. to WSW.  pettr. hagd. shark.
17.    48–33   32–28 168.   64.  WSW to WNW.  pettr. hagd.
18.    48–37   28– 3 177.   64.  W. to WNW.  pettr. hagd. sharks.
19.    48–11   23–42 176.   60.  WNW. to NW.  hagd. gulls. portuguese man of war.
20.    48–18   20–20 135.   61.  NW. NbE. W. & S.W.   hagd. saw 2 sail.
21.    48–29   15–29 196.   59.  WbN. to N.W.  hagd. a sail & spoke her.
22.    48–51   11–14 171.   61.  W.  hagd. a sail.
23.    49–37    8–36 116.   62.  W.  hagd. 2 sharks. a whale spout.
24.    49–57    5– 5  139.
2728.
  61.  S.W.  pettrils. gannet. 6 sail. soundings in 50. fathom water at 4. o’clock A.M. being 19. days complete from weighing anchor at Boston.
 at 10. P.M. made the light house at Silly.
26.   landed at West Cowes.
 
Note the above 2728 miles are geographical & show the distance by the log from noon to noon, except the 6th. which gave our run from Cape Cod (from which the departure was taken at 3. P.M. of the 5th.) to noon of the 6th. After making the lighthouse at Silly no observations were taken. The winds were so favourable through the whole passage that we never deviated from the direct course more than was necessary to avoid shoals &c. of course. It gives the distance of the run from Cape Cod to soundings in 50. fathom off the mouth of the channel.
25. Gave servants on board the Ceres 12. dollars.
       Sterling money. 
26. Paid barber at Cowes 1/. breakfast at do. 1/.
 
Paid in part for Custom house fees at Cowes, passage & portage to Portsmouth, & entertainmt. there 30/6.
27. Pd. balance of do. to this morning 21/.
Pd. Dr. Meek63 a visit to Patsy 21/ pamphlet 2/6 nuts 6d.
28. Pd. Dr. Meek 21/ pd. for knife, lock & other trifles 32/10 nurse 2/.
Pd. for washing 10/6 newspaper 3d.
29. Pd. barber 2/ nuts 10½d turnpikes to Farnham,64 Titchfeild, Gosport 2/ gave postillion 2/—ferrge. Gosport to Portsmouth 1/ newspaper 3d.
30. Pd. for purses 9/ barber 1/ apothecary 2/6 chaise hire 22/5.
Pd. entt. at Bradley’s (Crown inn) £5–16—servts. 18/6—portage 10/6.
Pd. seastores 7/6—cups & saucers 1/6.
31. Pd. Capt. Grey passage to Havre de grace £8–8 do. for port duties 32/0.
       French coin. viz. Livres65 or francs, sous & deniers 
July 31. Pd. portage from water side at Havre to the inn 11f8.
Pd. for coffee 12.s. broker attendg. me to Commandant 6f.
Pd. coffee & liqueurs 1f. mendg. phaeton 6f4. books 4f10.
Aug. 1. Pd. barber 1f4 coffee 14s. for an Umbrella 19f.
Gave James to bear expences &c. to Rouen 72f.
2. Pd. for cord 3s. fruit 2s. ribban 1f6 coffee 1f barber 12s.
3. Pd. for 4. portmanteau straps 6f4—gave servts. 7f12.
Pd. entertt. at Mahon’s (l’aigle d’or) 102f8—coffee 12s. servt. 12s.
Pd. posthorses66 to  la Botte 7f10
Bolbec 5f12½
Aliquerville  3f15
Yvetot 5f12½
Barentin 7f10
Rouen 7f10
 
Gave the several postilions 13f1.
Gave in charity 15s.
Recd. back from James of the money given him 36f.
4. Pd. for books 5f10—knife 2f15—lock 10s.—coffee & servt. 14s.
Pd. portage 1f4—do. to Paris 36f5—nuts &c. 6s.
5. Pd. entt. at Hays’s (Pomme de pin) Rouen 30f12 servts. 4f16.
Pd. for coffee 1f8.
Pd. Pont-Saint-Ouen horses 5f12½—postillion 1f17½ charity 1f10.
Vaudreuil. horses 5f12½—postillion 1f17½.
Gaillon. horses 7f10—postillion 2f10—charity 10s.—fruit 6s.
Vernon. horses 5f12½—postillion 1f17½—charity 10s.—fruit 12s.
Bonnieres. horses 5f12½—postillion 1f17½—charity 2f8.
Mantes. horses 5f12½—postillion 1f17½—seeing church67 1f10.
Meulan. horses 7f10—postillion 2f10.
Triel horses 3f15—postillion 1f5.
6. Do. supper & lodging 11f2—servts. 18s.
St. Germain’s. horses 5f12½—postillion 1f17½.
Marly for seeing works68 2f8.
Nanterre. horses 5f12½—postillion 1f17½—charity 1f4.
Paris. horses 7f10—postillion 4f10.
Pd. for clothes for Patsy 167f.—for a map 3f.
Pd. for 1½ aune cambrick 22f10—for 14. aunes edging @ 4f = 56f.
 
Pd. for a pr. lace ruffles 120f.
Aug. 7. Pd. for a hat 24f.—pd. Molini69 for books 58f.
Pd. Gaspard houshold expences 15f17.
8. Book 12f—Gaspard hhd. xpenc. 6f14.
9. Gaspard hhd. xp. 17f.
10. Do. for shaving apparatus 15f—ferrge. to & from Passy70 1f4.
Pd. for sword 96f—belt 3f.
Pd. house rent for 6. days in the Hotel d’Orleans rue Richlieu71 72f.
Pd. for a book 3f—clothes for Patsy 27f8.
Gave servts. 31f12—clothes for Patsy 58f18—servt. 1f2.
Pd. portage of my baggage to the Hotel d’Orleans rue Petits Augustins72 3f.
I am to give 20. Louis a month for my rooms there.
Pd. the Traiteur73 47f the garçon 1f2.
Pd. Gaspard hhd. xp. 26f18.
11. Pd. for a box of wicks for lamps 18s.—books 13f.
12. Pd. for books 16f2.
13. Pd. for clothes for Patsy 36f—Gaspard hhd. xp. 37f.
Pd. for a cane & string 13f10.
14. Pd. Dubuquoy for clothes &c. in full 681f5 garçon 1f5.
Gave another garçon 2f8.
Pd. Milon for kneebuckles 24f—shoebuckles 48f.
16. Put into hands of W. T. Franklin to buy copying press74 & books in London 16½ English guineas.
 
Pd. for 6 pr. cambrick ruffles & making 27f.
Pd. for a pr. of lace ruffles 120f—garçon 1f4.
18. Gave in charity 36f.
19. Pd. for 6 shirts & making 185f8—garçon 1f12.
20. Employed Valet de Chambre @ 40 Louis a year & he feeds himself. Named Marc.75
Recd. from Mr. Barclay76 2 doz. Madeira, 1½ doz. Frontignac & 1½ doz. Muscat.—pd. duty of do. & portage 27f.
Recd. of Monsr. Grand77 on acct. of United States 5000f.
Pd. for books 18f—paper &c. 3f—cheese 14f13—Patsy 1f4.
Pd. for 18 doz. Bourdeaux @ 2f5 & the portage 498f12.
Aug. 21. Pd. for a seal 42f.
Pd. for 12 coffee cups & saucers, 8 teacups & saucers & teapot 91f.
Pd. for table furniture, viz. glasses, plated ware &c. 592f12 garçon 8s.
Pd. for 6. shirts & making 132f.—house linen 113f.
Pd. for 12 spoons & 12 silver forks78 600f.
23. Pd. for 1. doz. silver forks 300f—1 doz. table spoons 300f 2. ragout spoons 100f—a soup ladle 100f.
Pd. for 2. pr. shoes 14f.
Pd. Gaspard hhd. xp. 207f4.
Pd. do. 17. days wages 34f—gave him 20f.
 
Pd. Marc  apparatus for shaving & combing79 48f18
paper &c. 13s—for pd. barber 15f12
for pd. garçon 1f4—candles 3f15
hhd. exp. 65f.
24. Pd. for knives & forks 60f (Note the 2 dble. dozen cost 168f. but I retd. a cruet stand which made 108f of the price.).
Pd. for plated ware 360f—garçon 15f—Patsy 1f16.
25. Pd. for a book 30f—pd. Aury for stockgs. 308f.
Pd. for 3 doz. phosphoretic matches80 6f.
26. Pd. year’s subscription Journal de Paris81 30f.
Recd. of Mr. Grand for United States 3000f.
Gave Capt. Joel82 12f—pd. his passage to London 120f.
Repd. Marq. de Chastellux sbscrptn. for Encyclopedie83 36f.
Pd. at the Abbaie de Panthemont84 for Patsy 1500f.—charity 12s.
28. Pd. for 4 teacups & saucers 24f.
Pd. for sugar tongs, coolers &c. 81f—a book 8s—charity 4s.

29.
Pd. Marc for  articles of hhd. furniture 42– 10 } his acct. from 23d. to 28th. inclusive
hhd. xp. includg. the traiteur  180–  8
washing 9 
ribbon 1–  4
233–  2
 
30. Pd. Molini for books 58f—Frouillé85 do. 15f.
Sep. 1. Pd. for gloves 2f5—Courier de l’Europe & Leyden gazette86 84f.
Pd. coach hire @ 16 Louis pr. month to Aug. 31. inclusive 310f.
Pd. coach man @ 2f pr. day to do. 48f.
Pd. house rent @ 20. Louis pr. month to do. 352f.
Pd. Legrand @ 50f pr. month to do. 16f (Note 1f5 a day of this is for dieting.).
Pd. Marc @ 40 Louis pr. year to do. 29f.
Overpaid do. 3f.
Sep. 2. Pd. tickets to Italian comedy87 18f.
3. Pd. for books 17f4.
4. Ticket to Italian comedy88 6f.
5. Pd. Le Gras89 for books 40f.—pd. for do. 62f10.
6. Pd. for 1. doz. teaspoons 86f–15s–6d.
Pd. Marc for the Traiteur from Aug. 30. to Sep. 5. inclusive 112f.
Pd. do. for other hhd. xp. from Aug. 29. to Sep. 5. inclus. 152f17.
Pd. for lace ruffles 48f—for muslin do. 8f.
7. Pd. at French comedy90 6f—at Palais royal91 4f8.
 
8. Pd. for92 ruffles 48f—concert spirituel93 6f.
9. Pd. for books 11f—10. Pd. for do. 15f—do. 6f4.
11. Pd. for handkerchiefs 72f.
12. Gave Patsy 6f10.
13. Pd. for books 1f10.
Pd. Marc from Sep. 5 to 12 inclusive viz.
    s    
    for the Traiteur 75–  6
 houshd. exp. 97– 14
 washing 10– 13
 coach license 9–
 gloves 6–  6
 books 1– 16
200– 15
Pd. for books 33f—for do. 18f—for do. 45f12—do. 9f.
14. Pd. for books 10f16—do. 9f.
15. Pd. for seeing gardens at Versailles94 6f.
16. Pd. for books 171f—do. 37f17.
17. Pd. Lafontaine subscription for two locks95 36f.
 
Pd. Royez96 for books 10f6—pd. for do. 4f.
18. Pd. for books 8f—do. 10f—do. 6f.
Pd. for ticket to see balon97 6f—pd. for books 12f.
20. Recd. of Mr. Grand for the U. S. 5000f.
Pd. Angenend taylor his bill 766–18s–9d.98
22. Pd. March expences Sep. 13—19 inclusive viz.
       s
traiteur 82– 10
hhd. exp. 99– 17–6
pomatum 6– 12
postage 2– 16
writg. apparat.  6– 10
chain 69– 10
267– 15–6
Sep. Given in Charity at different times 3f.
23. Pd. for books 77f.
24. Pd. for books 25f4.—do. 9f—do. 24f—do. 18f10.
Pd. for paper 20f.—gave Patsy 3f—pd. for books 286f.
25. Pd. for books 4f10—gave taylor’s garçon 1f4.
26. Pd. engraver 24f.
Pd. Mark expences Sep. 20—27 breakfast viz.
  
traiteur 32
hhd. exp.  99 –5
131 –5
28. Gave Patsy 30f.
30. Pd. Gouyon loueur de carosse for this month 384f.
Oct. 1.
Pd. Marc  his wages for last month  80f
do. for Legrand’s do.  50f
do. for Vendome’s do.  60
do. for Mrs. Mayen house hire  480
670f
 
4. Pd. linen merchant’s acct. 192f.
5.
6.
Pd. for handirons 1. pr. 70f. f   s
Pd. Marc for  traiteur Sep. 27—Oct. 3 inclus.  143–  2
hhd. expen. Sep. 27—Oct. 3. 157– 15
houshold furniture 36–  9
washing 18–  6
fuel 24– 10
gazettes99 45–
425–  2
Do. for James 9f6.
Pd. bookbinder 45f10—paid for books 8f10.
8. Pd. for 59 bottles Bourdeaux 208f—Molini for books 21f.
11.
Pd.  bookbinder 26f18.      
Pd. Marc for traiteur  81–16
hhd. expences 101–15
183–11
12. Paid for books 8f8—for do. 9f.
Pd. in part for a pr. of bed candlesticks 6f.—pd. for thermometer 2f.
Gave Patsy 24f.
13. Pd. M. La Marche in part for sheets 1176f.1
15. Recd. of Monsr. Grand for United states 4000.f.
Recd. of Monsr. Le Couteu2 in part for Mr. Adams’s bill of 6000 florins on Holland 6000f. to be credited to United states.
 
Oct. 15. Pd. M. La Marche balance for sheets 69f.
16. Pd. Notary for writing lease3 &c. 72f.
Pd. for houshold furniture4 to  Favier 720 f
Bouché 240
Le Clerc  432
Prudot 72
Law 168
1632
Pd. portage of do. to the hotel Tetebout 10f16.
17. Pd. Madme. Mayan house rent in full hotel d’Orleans 256f.
Pd. for 2 pr. large candlesticks 144f 3. pr. small do. 108f.
Gave servts. on leaving hotel d’Orleans 24f.

18.
Pd. balance for pr. of bed candlesticks 6f.   
Pd. Marc for  brooms & other small affairs for the house  123– 18
other trifles 3– 17
nurse who attended James 97– 10
Traiteur 54– 15
other hhd. exp. 88–  8
368–  8
Pd. for a coal grate 105f12.
Gave the poor woman at Tetebout 12f.
Pd. for garters 3f.—spunges 6f.
* discontinued.5
19. Pd. for book 4f—lamps 1f16.
Pd. for  2 small laughing busts 21–
2. pictures of heads  7–4
2. do. half lengths, viz. an Ecce homo6 & another  18–
Paid garçons 1f4.
 
20. Paid at Concert spirituel7 6f.
21. Paid for making mattrasses 75f12.
Pd. a Menuisier for nothing 48f.
Pd. for a pr. handirons 108f.—for 2 pr. do. 72f.

22.
Pd. Marc  30 voies8 of wood @ 22f10  675  }
753
portage @ 1f4 36 
cutting 24 
drink money 18 
small utensils for house 6
small necessaries abt. do. 36 –17
servants hire 54
portage 9 –18
postage 1 –16
washing 26
Traiteur 18th. & 19th. 54
drink money 13 – 4
954 –15
Pd. Daguere9 for lamps 91f8.
Pd. for 6½ doz. china plates, a sallad dish & 3. doz. caraffes 166f18.
Oct. 25. Paid Royez for books 40f10.
26. Pd. for a fountain & cistern 100f.
Pd. for colours 12f.
Pd. for 11. first livraisons of the Encyclopedie 295f10.
Pd. for a Hercules10 in plaister 36f.
Pd. for books 39f.
27. Pd. Marc from Oct. 18—29. towit
 
  
   postage 20– 15
fitting house 18– 10
potences for a table  24– 18
Traiteur 60–
hhd. exp. 136– 17
261 
28. Pd. Doctr. McMahon11 for attendg. James 120f.
29. Pd. the Chirurgeon for do. 300f.
Recd. back for candlesticks returned 36f.
Pd. for two stoves & fitting up 486f12.
Pd. for five paintings (heads) 11f16.
Pd. for pr. shoes 7f.
30. Pd. chariot hire for this month 384f.
Pd. for books 12f.
31. Repd. Colo. Humphries for Mrs. Barclay 24f.12

Nov.

2.
Pd. for books 30f8. f 
Pd. Marc.  armoire for house linen   20
postage –15
Traiteur 91 –13
hhd. exp. 85 –17
198 – 5
Pd. do. wages of servants for last month viz.
   Marc  80f
Le Grand  50f
Vendome  62f
Le frotteur13    50f
242
Nov. 3. Gave Patsy 27f. charity at different times 9f.
4. Paid a Menuisier 132f.
 
5. Pd. Mr. Williams14 for 21. bottles Madeira 63f.
Pd. for a chaffg. dish 18f. 1 bottle Spir. wine15 3f10.
Pd. for thimbles of bed sconces 2f.—pr. pumps 7f.
Pd. Mme. La Marche lingere in full 600f.
9. Pd. for carpet for ding. room & do. for bedside 234f.
10. Pd. Marc for Nov. 1—7. to wit
   charity 9f   s
postage 2– 14
washing 13– 14
hhd. furniture  24–
Traiteur 107–  4
hhd. exp. 61– 17
218–  9
11. Gave Patsy 12f.
12. Lent Colo. Le Maire 400f. and gave him an order on Mr. Madison junr. of Orange for 10. guineas.16
Recd. in part for Mr. Adams’s bill on Holland 4400f.
13. Pd. Frouillé for books 66f.
Pd. a Menuisier in part for beaufets & bookshelves 120f.
14. Pd. for pr. shoes 12f.
17. Pd. Aury for hats & silk stockgs. in full 159f.
Gave Patsy 6f.
Pd. Marc Nov. 8—14 to wit
   f   s
books 35– 14
drink money 7–  4
kitchen utensils   24–  8
Traiteur 74–  2
hhd. exp. 113– 12
255–  0
22. Pd. for 2. Military charts 72f.
Recd. of Monsr. Grand for United states 4000.f.
23. Gave Patsy 12.f.
Nov. 24. Pd. Marc from 15th.—21st. to wit
 
   f    s
postage 5–  7
dress 6– 10
hhd. furniture 10–
hhd. expences  84– 17
Traiteur 124–
230– 14
Pd. Mrs. Barclay for China, tea & brandy 1054f.17
25. Pd. Guireaud rent, advance for last 6 months of lease 3000f.
Pd. Royez for books 12f—Mr. Jackson18 for do. 63f.
27. Pd. Royez for books 62f—pd. for grate 18f.
Pd. for clothes for James 186f.
29. Pd. for blankets, hair, feathers &c. in part 1000f.19
30. Pd. Chariot hire for the month 384f.
Pd. for Night table in part 60f.
Pd. Royez for books 60f—pd. for fiddle strings 7f4.

Dec.

1.
 f
Pd. servants wages  Marc 100–  for the month.
Le Grand   50–
Vendome  60–
Frotteur  50–
260.
Pd. Marc 22d.—28th. inclusive to wit
   f    s
postage 6– 15
hhd. furniture 3– 12
medecine 5–  8
washing 18–  7
traiteur 138–  0
hhd. expences  92– 14
264– 16
Gave James 12f.
Pd. a Menuisier in full 126f.
 
3. Gave a garçon 1f10.
5. Pd. for sword chain 6f.
Pd. Mr. Williamos  things bought for A. S. Jefferson    556f
do. bought for my children &c.  771f
1327
Dec. 6. Pd. an Eboniste20 balce. for Night table 60f.
Pd. mending Chess-men 18f.
8. Pd. Marc Nov. 29—Dec. 6. viz.
   f    s
thermometer 2–  8
fuel 5–  8
dress 6–  8
bathing 17–  4
hhd. furniture   23–  2
Traiteur 144–
hhd. exp. 107– 11
306–  1
Recd. by Mr. Williamos from Le Couteux on Mr. Adams’s bill on Holland 2000f.
The balance still due is 940f–7s–6d.21
Gave Patsy 6f.
9. Pd. W. T. Franklin balce. for copying press &c. 88f2.
13. Pd. for books from Royez 97f paid bookbinder 113f12.
16. Pd. Marc. Dec. 6—12 viz.
   f   s
washing 6– 11
postage 2– 12
Charity 9–
Traiteur 152–
hhd. exp.   164–  4–6
334–  7–6
Pd. the Traiteur 150f being the half of what I am to pay him for teaching James, the other half to be paid when he is taken away.22
 
Pd. Goldsmith for Royez for books 43f10.
Recd. of Mr. Williamos in part for Mr. Adams’s bill sold Couteux 300f.
17. Pd. at Panthemont for Patsy 1000f.
20. Recd. of Mr. Grand for the United states 4000f.
Pd.  Marc Dec. 13—19
  
postage 6– 19
washing   4– 10
traiteur 117–
hhd. xp. 92– 11
221–
Dec. 20. Pd. Hotel de Jabac23 for toile de Jouy (red) 621f.
Recd. of Mr. Williamos balance due from Le Couteux for Mr. Adams’s bill 240–7s–6d.
Repd. Mr. Williamos for sundries for Patsy 24f18.
22. Pd. Bailly24 for books 22f14.
23. Pd. do. for do. 12f.
25. Pd. mending sleeve buttons 15f.
26. Pd. book binder 51f15.
27. Pd. for books 6f.
28.
Pd.  Marc. Dec. 20—26
    s
postage 2–  6
servts. clothes 24–
hhd. repairs 12–
hhd. furniture   40– 19
hhd. exp. 97– 12
Traiteur 68 
244– 17
Pd. for books 10f8.
29. Pd. La Forest25 pedicure 12f.
30. Borrowed of Mr. Short 1000f.26
 
Pd. Bohain tapisseur in part 1500f.
Pd. Mr. Williamos for etrennes for Patsy 78f.
31. Pd. for pr. shoes 6f.
Pd. Gueraud a quarter’s rent 1500f.
Pd. Guyon coach hire for the month 384f.
wages etrennes amt.
Pd.  Marc 100 + 24 124
Legrand 50 + 12 62
Vendome 62 + 12 74
the Frotteur 50 + 12 62
Colo. H.’s27 servt.  12 12
Mr. Short’s do. 12 12
garçon traiteur 12 12
poor woman     12 12
262  +  108  =  370
Gave the frotteur for clothing himself 3. months 18f.
Gave James 12f.

11TJ refers here to the English guinea coin which was worth thirty-five shillings in Maryland. TJ paid Mary Wilkins Ghiselin for five weeks lodging, dating evidently from his arrival in Annapolis. Mrs. Ghiselin’s boarding house was at present 28-30 West Street (Dumbauld, Jefferson Tourist, p. 57; Papenfuse, Maryland, p. 333 description begins Edward Dumbauld, Thomas Jefferson, American Tourist, Norman, Okla., 1946 description ends ).

12A “little house” was a privy (OED description begins A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, ed. Sir James Murray and others, Oxford, 1888-1933 description ends ). TJ’s accounts with James Monroe for joint expenses while in Annapolis are in ViU.

13Monroe’s servant Adam was no doubt the “express” dispatched by the Virginia delegates to Congress to carry home news of their pressing need for remittances from the treasury (TJ to James Madison, 20 Feb. 1784; Joseph Jones to TJ, 28 Feb. 1784).

14 Jean Holker (1745-1822), who had been French consul general in the middle states during the Revolution, was a financier and land speculator in Philadelphia. TJ’s financial distress was eased somewhat by this remittance. With the exception of the coins of 30 Sep. 1783 it was the first he received as a delegate to Congress. His salary was eight dollars per day (see his account of expenses, Papers, vii, 243 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

15The house which TJ shared with James Monroe for eleven weeks has not been identified with certainty. His landlord was probably Daniel Dulany (1722-1797) and the most likely house site, according to Jean B. Russo of Historic Annapolis, Inc., is one of the Dulany family holdings on Bloomsbury Square behind the State House (TJ to Dulany, 22 Feb. 1784; Hogendorp to TJ, c. 6 Apr. 1784; MB 11 May 1784; Russo to Editors, 14 Dec. 1983).

16 John Chalmers was a silversmith, common councilman, and member of the committee to find housing for the delegates to the Congress (Bevan, “TJ in Annapolis,” p. 120).

17 Charles François d’Anmours, “a man of science, good sense, and truth,” was the French consul in Baltimore (TJ to John Vaughan, 5 May 1805; Papers, iii, 84, xiv, 64 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

18Probably yeast.

19Here and at 30 Mch. TJ was assembling papers required in a law suit for his friend, the jurist, political satirist, and musician Francis Hopkinson (Hopkinson to TJ, 14 and 31 Mch. 1784).

20Correctly £3–6–3.

21This individual, posing as the son of TJ’s friend, John Banister (1734-1788) of Battersea near Petersburg, cost TJ more than £60; in addition to the money from TJ at Annapolis, the imposter received, on TJ’s authorization, a considerable sum from the Baltimore merchant Richard Curson (MB 11 May 1784; TJ to Curson, 3 Apr. 1784; John Banister to TJ, 15 Apr. 1784).

22 Partout was TJ’s and James Monroe’s maître d’hôtel.

23These spectacles made by Benjamin Dudley were for James Madison’s mother (Madison to TJ, 16 Mch., 15 May 1784; Madison to James Madison, Sr., 13 May 1784, Madison, Papers, viii, 33).

24 Philadelphia Price Current, a biweekly folio sheet, was published by John Macpherson from 1783 to 1785 (Brigham, History, ii, 948 description begins Clarence S. Brigham, A History and Bibliography of American Newspapers, 1690-1820, Worcester, Mass., 1920, 2 vols. description ends ).

25Cabinetmaker John Shaw (1745-1829) made the furnishings in the Maryland Senate chamber (Bjerkoe, Cabinetmakers, p. 197-8 description begins Ethel Hall Bjerkoe, The Cabinetmakers of America, New York, 1957 description ends ).

26William McMurray’s map, The United States according to the Definitive Treaty of Peace signed at Paris, Septr. 3d. 1783, was published in Dec. 1784 (James C. Wheat and Christian F. Brun, Maps and Charts Published in America before 1800 [New Haven, 1960], p. 22).

27The intendant of Maryland revenues was Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer (1723-1790).

28The payment, to Dr. James Murray (1739-1819), was probably for attendance during TJ’s entire residence at Annapolis. Soon after his arrival he entered a period of “very ill health,” which was attended by fever and was aggravated in February by an attack of his “periodical” headache. In mid-March he reported that he was mending, but his continued purchases of Peruvian bark indicate that symptoms persisted until his arrival in Paris, when the unknown Annapolis ailment returned with increased severity (TJ to James Madison, 1 Jan., 16 Mch. 1784; TJ to Francis Hopkinson, 18 Feb. 1784; TJ to William Short, 1 Mch. 1784).

29TJ’s itemized account with the state of Virginia for his service as a delegate to Congress is printed in Papers, vii, 243-4 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends . TJ’s legislative career was over; on 7 May he had been named a minister plenipotentiary for negotiating treaties of amity and commerce with European nations. Without returning to Virginia, he headed north, stopping in Philadelphia and New York, to take passage to France from Boston.

30TJ’s account with James Monroe for this date and a list of the books sold, most of them French titles recently purchased from Boinod & Gaillard, are printed in Papers, vii, 240-1 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends . See also TJ’s memoranda of household accounts, 24 Feb. to 10 May 1784, in ViU.

31TJ gave to Charles Thomson, secretary of Congress, a set of silver coins received on 7 May from Robert Morris. They were struck by Benjamin Dudley as specimens of Morris’ proposed coinage (Morris to TJ, 1 May 1784, and note; some of the coins are illustrated in Papers, vii, facing p. 165 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ). For TJ’s influential role in the effort to create a national coinage, see Papers, vii, 150-203 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends .

32The Buck tavern was about eleven miles south of Newark in New Castle County, Del. (Diaries of George Washington, iii, 274 description begins The Diaries of George Washington, ed. Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig, Charlottesville, Va., 1976-1979, 6 vols. description ends ).

33American experiments with balloons multiplied after word arrived of the manned ascents made in France in late 1783 in the hot air and hydrogen balloons of the brothers Montgolfier and J. A. C. Charles. TJ probably heard the lecture on pneumatics by Dr. John Foulke in the Hall of the University at four o’clock on this date. Foulke exhibited a number of balloons and suggested their application (Pennsylvania Journal, 15 May 1784). Soon after, TJ reported that he had had “the pleasure of seeing three balons here. The largest was 8.f. diameter, and ascended about 300 feet” (TJ to James Monroe, 21 May 1784). The first successful manned ascent in America did not occur until 1793, when the flight of the Frenchman J. P. Blanchard was witnessed by TJ and other citizens of Philadelphia (Jackson, Encyclopedia of Philadelphia, i, 216-20 description begins Joseph Jackson, Encyclopedia of Philadelphia, Harrisburg, Pa., 1930-1933, 4 vols. description ends ; MB 9 Jan. 1793). His imagination captured by the prospect and implications of manned flight, TJ closely followed the careers of the pioneer aeronauts and witnessed balloon ascents whenever possible (TJ to Francis Hopkinson, 18 Feb. 1784; TJ to Philip Turpin, 28 Apr. 1784).

34Seeing this “uncommonly large panther skin” in front of a hatter’s shop, TJ immediately bought it to take to Paris for the Comte de Buffon, who in TJ’s opinion had “confounded” the panther with the cougar; he presented the skin to Buffon at the end of 1785. The North and South American cat variously called panther, cougar, mountain lion, and puma, is now recognized as a single species, Felis concolor (Webster, Papers, i, 376 description begins Charles M. Wiltse and Harold D. Moser, eds., The Papers of Daniel Webster: Correspondence, Hanover, N.H., 1974-1976, 4 vols. description ends ; Buffon to TJ, 31 Dec. 1785; TJ to Francis Hopkinson, 23 Dec. 1786).

35 Benjamin January was a bookbinder, stationer, and publisher on Front Street, between Market and Chestnut streets (Brown, Philadelphia Book Trade, p. 66 description begins H. Glenn Brown and Maude O. Brown, A Directory of the Book-Arts and Book Trade in Philadelphia to 1820, New York, 1950 description ends ).

36This may be the portable writing desk which TJ, on the eve of his departure for France, presented as a token of friendship to Elbridge Gerry (TJ to Gerry, 2 July 1784; Gerry to TJ, 24 Aug. 1784).

37 Hugh Blair, Lectures on Rhetoric and Belle Lettres (Philadelphia, 1784). TJ bought this title for himself in Paris (Sowerby, No. 4658 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

38Bole armeniac is an astringent earth from Armenia formerly used as an antidote, styptic, and toothpowder (OED description begins A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, ed. Sir James Murray and others, Oxford, 1888-1933 description ends ).

39These payments by Robert Morris and the money received in Boston on 3 July were part of an advance to TJ of one quarter’s salary authorized by Congress on 11 May. TJ’s annual salary as minister plenipotentiary was $11,11919; on 31 July it was reduced to $9,000, at which figure it remained throughout his service in France (Papers, vii, 290 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; Account with U.S. 1792 description begins “Account with U.S. of America as their Minister Plenipotentiary in Europe. Exact copy as given in to the Auditor July. 1792” DLC: TJ Papers, 13286-94. See Papers, XXIV, 175-89. description ends ).

40TJ bought from Joseph Wright an unfinished replica of a 1784 life study of George Washington, took it to Paris, and had John Trumbull finish it (Papers, vii, xxvii description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; Francis Hopkinson to TJ, 30 May 1784). He thought this half-length portrait “a wretched peice of painting” but a fair likeness of the general “in his most gloomy moments.” It later hung in the parlour at Monticello and is now in the Massachusetts Historical Society (TJ to Thevenard, 5 May 1786; Catalogue of Paintings, No. 33 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s “Catalogue of Paintings &c. at Monticello,” c. 1815. ViU description ends ).

41 Hore Browse Trist (c. 1778-1804), son of Eliza House Trist and father of Nicholas Philip Trist, was appointed by TJ in 1803 as collector for the Mississippi district (Monticello Association Papers, p. 100-1 description begins Collected Papers to Commemorate Fifty Years of the Monticello Association of Descendants of Thomas Jefferson, ed. George Green Shackelford, Princeton, N.J., 1965 description ends ; Madison, Papers, iv, 251 description begins The Papers of James Madison, ed. William T. Hutchinson and others, vols. 1-10, Chicago, 1962-1977, vols. 11-, Charlottesville, Va., 1977- description ends ; Jackson, Letters of Lewis and Clark, i, 132 description begins Donald Jackson, ed., Letters of the Lewis and Clark Expedition with Related Documents 1783-1854, 2d ed., Urbana, Ill., 1978, 2 vols. description ends ).

42Passaic River.

43At Paulus Hook, now covered by Exchange Place, Jersey City, TJ took a ferry across the Hudson River to New York City (Traveller’s Directory, “Road from Philadelphia to New York,” map 15 description begins S. S. Moore and T. W. Jones, The Traveller’s Directory, or a Pocket Companion: Shewing the Course of the Main Roads from Philadelphia to Washington, Philadelphia, 1802 description ends ).

44 James Rivington (1724-1802), the well-known English printer, bookseller, and merchant, had a store at this time at 1 Queen Street, New York City (Gottesman, Arts and Crafts, p. 5 description begins Rita Susswein Gottesman, The Arts and Crafts of New York 1777-1799, New York, 1954 description ends ).

45It is not known which Spanish dictionary TJ purchased here, but he was evidently already planning to learn the language on his transatlantic crossing. This he did, according to John Quincy Adams, with the help of a borrowed copy of Don Quixote and a grammar (TJ to Cabot, 24 July 1784, note). At this time TJ considered that “our future connection with Spain renders that the most necessary of the modern languages, after the French” (TJ to Peter Carr, 19 Aug. 1785).

46This is probably Dorothy (Mrs. Vandine) Elsworth, who kept a boardinghouse at 19 Maiden Lane (Madison, Papers, xiii, 297 description begins The Papers of James Madison, ed. William T. Hutchinson and others, vols. 1-10, Chicago, 1962-1977, vols. 11-, Charlottesville, Va., 1977- description ends ).

47The Fort Washington community was then eleven miles from the center of New York City. The site of the fort, which had fallen to the British in Nov. 1776, was at present West 183d Street (Colles, Roads, p. 121 description begins Christopher Colles, A Survey of the Roads of the United States of America, 1789, ed. Walter W. Ristow, Cambridge, Mass., 1961 description ends ; Diaries of George Washington, vi, 93 description begins The Diaries of George Washington, ed. Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig, Charlottesville, Va., 1976-1979, 6 vols. description ends ). Accompanied by his daughter Martha and slaves James and Robert Hemings, TJ left New York and pursued an indirect course to Boston, in order to acquaint himself with the commercial needs of the New England states (TJ to Edmund Pendleton, 25 May 1784; “Notes on Commerce of the Northern States,” Papers, vii, 323-55).

48 Mrs. Tamar Haviland kept a tavern on the post road to Boston just beyond Rye, Westchester County, N.Y. (Colles, Roads, p. 123 description begins Christopher Colles, A Survey of the Roads of the United States of America, 1789, ed. Walter W. Ristow, Cambridge, Mass., 1961 description ends ; R. W. Fromm, New York State Historical Association, to Editors, 9 July 1973).

49 Joseph Bulkley kept a tavern at the head of Beach Lane facing the Fairfield Green (Marian Dickinson Terry, ed., Old Inns of Connecticut [Hartford, 1937], p. 185-6).

50While in New Haven TJ paid a visit to the president of Yale College, Ezra Stiles (see “Extracts from the Diary of Ezra Stiles,” Papers, vii, 302-4).

51 David Bull kept the most noted tavern in Hartford, at the sign of the Bunch of Grapes, on Main Street opposite the courthouse (John Warner Barber, Connecticut Historical Collections [New Haven, 1836], p. 48).

52The tradition that TJ lodged at the house of Jonathan Trumbull (1710-1785) in Lebanon is certainly untrue (same, p. 319-20; Dumbauld, Jefferson Tourist, p. 58 description begins Edward Dumbauld, Thomas Jefferson, American Tourist, Norman, Okla., 1946 description ends ). It is possible that he did stop to pay his respects to the retired governor, but no evidence can be found to substantiate this, and the almost fifty-mile journey from Hartford to Norwich would have left little time for social visits.

53Present Westerly, on the Rhode Island side of the Pawcatuck River.

54Now part of Chelsea. Finding at Boston no vessel bound for France, TJ determined either to return to New York to take the French packet on 15 July or, if he learned that he could disembark in France, to sail on 3 July in Nathaniel Tracy’s ship the Ceres bound for London. Seizing the opportunity provided by the additional days at his disposal, TJ left Patsy with the family of the jurist John Lowell (1743-1802) and set off for Massachusetts and New Hampshire port cities to continue his investigation of New England commerce (TJ to David Humphreys, 21 and 27 June 1784; TJ to Elbridge Gerry, 2 July 1784; MJR “Reminiscences,” ViU).

55TJ’s travelling companion, Mr. Campbell, has not been identified.

56 Neil Jamieson, former prominent merchant of Norfolk, Va., and a Loyalist in the Revolution, was now a merchant in New York City (James H. Soltow, The Economic Role of Williamsburg [Williamsburg, Va., 1965]; Diaries of George Washington, iv, 317-18 description begins The Diaries of George Washington, ed. Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig, Charlottesville, Va., 1976-1979, 6 vols. description ends ).

57Probably mail pillion, a pad mounted behind a saddle for carrying baggage (TJ to TMR, 18 Aug. 1795).

58TJ probably stayed at the house of Joseph Ingersoll at the corner of Tremont and Court streets, Boston (Dumbauld, Jefferson Tourist, p. 58 description begins Edward Dumbauld, Thomas Jefferson, American Tourist, Norman, Okla., 1946 description ends ).

59The express had carried to New Haven TJ’sletter of 27 June 1784 to David Humphreys, urging him to come to Boston to take passage with TJ in the Ceres. Humphreys (1752-1818), former aide-de-camp to George Washington, had been appointed secretary to the commissioners for negotiating treaties. He had left New Haven before the arrival of the express, evidently took the French packet from New York and reached Paris some time in August (TJ to Humphreys, 4 July 1784; Journal of Miss Adams, i, 16 description begins Journal and Correspondence of Miss Adams, ed. [Caroline Amelia de Windt], New York, 1841-1849, 3 vols. description ends ).

60 Charles Williamos (d. 1785), a Swiss by birth, arrived in Paris late in 1784 and became “a very great intimate” in TJ’s household (Letters of Mrs. Adams, p. 238 description begins Letters of Mrs. Adams, ed. Charles Francis Adams, 4th ed., Boston, 1848 description ends ). For a full biographical sketch, including an account of TJ’s break with Williamos on the grounds that he was possibly a British spy, see Papers, viii, 269-73 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends .

61The Ceres was a new vessel owned by Nathaniel Tracy of Newburyport. Of the six other passengers, only Tracy himself and Alexander Moore, a British merchant, can be identified with certainty. TJ’s passage was paid by the government (Martha Jefferson to Mrs. Trist, [after 24 Aug. 1785]; TJ to James Monroe, 25 May 1784; TJ to Robert Morris, 3 July 1784).

62Murres.

63Dr. Thomas Meik (d. 1811) was physician to the garrison at Portsmouth (W. Johnston, Roll of Commissioned Officers in the Medical Service of the British Army [Aberdeen, 1917], p. 45). TJ had intended at Cowes to transfer immediately to a vessel bound for France, but Martha’s fever detained them several days on English soil (TJ to James Monroe, 11 Nov. 1784).

64TJ no doubt meant Fareham. He tried unsuccessfully to visit his old friend Elizabeth Blair Thompson at Titchfield (TJ to Mrs. Thompson, 19 Jan. 1787).

65The livre tournois was the official money of account in France until 1795, when it was replaced by the franc. Twelve deniers made a sou and twenty sous made a livre tournois, which was at this time the approximate equivalent of ten pence sterling. TJ used the symbols f and interchangeably.

66TJ and Martha travelled in TJ’s phaeton, drawn by three horses at a rate of twenty-five sous per horse per post; he seems to have paid the postilion twenty-five sous per post—more than the fifteen to twenty sous recommended by a contemporary guidebook. The French postilion in his blue and red uniform and huge iron-bound jackboots impressed all visitors to the continent, and TJ was no exception (Dutens, Itinéraire; TJ to Madame de Tott, 5 Apr. 1787; Journal of Miss Adams, i, 8-11 description begins Journal and Correspondence of Miss Adams, ed. [Caroline Amelia de Windt], New York, 1841-1849, 3 vols. description ends ; Letters of Mrs. Adams, p. 198 description begins Letters of Mrs. Adams, ed. Charles Francis Adams, 4th ed., Boston, 1848 description ends ).

67Martha, in the only surviving account of the Jeffersons’ first days in France, reported that they saw the twelfth-century church of Notre-Dame at Mantes (Martha Jefferson to Elizabeth Trist, [after 24 Aug. 1785]).

68The Machine de Marly, one of the engineering feats of the reign of Louis XIV, supplied water to the fountains of royal pleasure gardens. One of TJ’s contemporaries described it: “The fourteen huge wheels, which with the most awful uproar, noise of ironwork, and creaking, to be compared only to a concert in the infernal regions, worked 225 pumps at three different elevations, threw every day more than 27,000 hogsheads of water up a height of 600 feet into the aqueduct, which carried them to the Marly reservoirs and afterwards to those of Trianon and of Versailles” (The Memoirs of Baron Thiébault, trans. Arthur John Butler [New York, 1896], i, 44).

69 Jean Claude Molini on the Rue Mignon sold primarily Italian books (Lottin, Catalogue, p. 126 description begins [Augustin Martin Lottin], Catalogue chronologique des libraires et des libraires-imprimeurs de Paris, 1789, repr. Amsterdam, 1969 description ends ).

70This may have been TJ’s first visit to pay his respects to Benjamin Franklin at his residence in the Hôtel de Valentinois in Passy. The first official meeting of the American commissioners took place at Passy on 30 Aug. 1784 and they continued to meet there through the spring of 1785 (Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 91 description begins Howard C. Rice, Jr., Thomas Jefferson’s Paris, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends ).

71This Hôtel d’Orleans was adjacent to the Palais Royal at the site of present No. 30 Rue de Richelieu (Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 13-14, 127 description begins Howard C. Rice, Jr., Thomas Jefferson’s Paris, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends ).

72This hotel, one of the most elegant and expensive in Paris, was on the eastern side of present Rue Bonaparte at the corner of present Rue Visconti; it adjoined the garden of the Hôtel de la Rochefoucauld (Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 133 description begins Howard C. Rice, Jr., Thomas Jefferson’s Paris, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends ; for a description of the Hôtel d’Orléans and its proprietress, see Journal of My Journey to Paris in the Year 1765 By the Rev. William Cole, ed. Francis Griffin Stokes [New York, 1931], p. 33-8).

73TJ had his meals provided by the traiteur Combeaux until he hired a cook at the end of 1785.

74In 1783 TJ had ordered one of the letter copying machines patented by James Watt in 1780, but it had arrived after his departure. This machine, purchased for him in London by Benjamin Franklin’s grandson and secretary, William Temple Franklin, cost £17–3–6, including paper and ink, and did not arrive in Paris until May 1785. TJ charged its cost, as an article of stationery, to the United States and left it in Paris for the American mission when he returned to America. He was delighted to acquire a means of preserving his correspondence and continued to use presses of this type until he adopted the polygraph during his presidency. The method of copying with a Watt press required writing the letter with a special ink and pressing it, together with dampened copying paper, between two rollers operated by a crank. The positive copy could be read through the very thin copying paper (TJ to Robert Morris, 15 Aug. 1783; TJ to James Madison, 1 Sep. 1785; TJ to William Short, 6 Apr. 1790; Account with U.S. 1792; H. W. Dickinson, Matthew Boulton [Cambridge, 1937], p. 107-9; Silvio Bedini, Thomas Jefferson and His Copying Machines [Charlottesville, Va., 1984], p. 10-19). The books Franklin bought for TJ in London are listed in a John Stockdale invoice, 7 Sep. 1784, MHi.

75Especially after TJ’s move to his own house in October, Marc actually served as TJ’s maître d’hôtel until his dismissal in June 1786.

76The Philadelphia merchant Thomas Barclay (1728-1793) was at this time American consul general in France and commissioner for settling public accounts of American officials in Europe. TJ paid 123 livres for the wine (TJ to Barclay, 3 Aug. 1787, enclosure).

77 Ferdinand Grand (1726-1794), banker to the United States on the Rue des Capucines, was in TJ’s opinion “a very sure banker, but a very timid one” (TJ to John Adams, 23 July 1787). Grand’s reluctance to advance money on the account of the penurious American republic caused TJ some distress while he was in Paris; nevertheless, their relationship was a pleasant one and TJ made frequent use of Grand’s contacts in the French scientific world.

78Thirteen silver forks TJ bought in Paris, in a simple fiddle pattern, are now at Monticello. They bear marks of Pierre Nicolas Sommé and Louis Julien Anthiaume.

79 Abigail Adams recorded TJ’s attitude toward one of the daily rituals demanded by Parisian etiquette: “His Hair too is an other affliction which he is tempted to cut off. He expects not to live above a Dozen years & he shall lose one of those in hair dressing. Their is not a porter nor a washer woman but what has their hair powderd and drest every day” (Mrs. Adams to [Cotton Tufts], 8 Sep. 1784, MHi: Adams Family Papers).

80TJ described these matches, dozens of which he sent to American friends, in a letter to James Madison, 11 Nov. 1784.

81The Journal de Paris, founded in 1777, was the first French daily newspaper (Hatin, Bibliographie, p. 76-8 description begins Eugene Hatin, Bibliographie historique et critique de la presse periodique française, 1866, repr. Turin, 1960 description ends ; Histoire de la Presse, i, 241-6 description begins Histoire Générale de la presse française, ed. Claude Bellanger and others, Paris, 1969-1976, 5 vols. description ends ).

82 Beesly Edgar Joel was an adventurer of indeterminate nationality (see TJ to Thomas Nelson, 16 Jan. 1781).

83TJ subscribed to the Encyclopédie methodique, Charles Joseph Panckoucke’s expansion and rearrangement by subject of the great encyclopedia of Diderot and d’Alembert. At this time advertised at a cost of 751 livres for about sixty volumes, it comprised 166½ volumes of text when publication stopped in 1832. Despite the mounting costs, TJ remained a faithful subscriber until he sold his library in 1815 (TJ to James Monroe, 11 Nov. 1784; Sowerby, No. 4889 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

84The Abbaye Royale de Panthemont, parts of which still stand at the corner of the rues de Grenelle and Bellechasse, was an establishment of Bernardine nuns who operated a fashionable boarding school for fifty or sixty French and English girls. The cost for a pensionnaire was 700 to 1,000 livres per year (Thiéry, Guide, ii, 568-69 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends ). TJ paid about 3,000 livres per year for Martha and 5,400 livres when Mary joined her in 1787; the additional expense was probably for Patsy’s special instructors in Italian, drawing, dancing, and harpsichord. In her four and a half years at the convent, Martha visited her father at least once a week, usually on Sundays, took occasional dinners and teas with close family friends, and attended concerts and plays. For accounts of her convent life, see her letter to Elizabeth Trist, [after 24 Aug. 1785]; Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 64-8; and Worthy Women of Our First Century, ed. Mrs. O. J. Wister and Miss Agnes Irwin (Philadelphia, 1877), p. 12-20.

85 Jacques François Froullé, on the Quai des Augustins, became TJ’s favorite bookseller (Lottin, Catalogue, p. 67 description begins [Augustin Martin Lottin], Catalogue chronologique des libraires et des libraires-imprimeurs de Paris, 1789, repr. Amsterdam, 1969 description ends ; TJ to James Monroe, 26 May 1795). Many of Froullé’s invoices, with titles, are preserved in MHi.

86The Courrier de l’Europe, a semiweekly Boulogne reprint of a London newspaper consisting mainly of extracts from a number of British newspapers, was the best source of British news available on the continent. Nouvelles extraordinaires de divers endroits, published in Leyden by Jean Luzac and commonly known as the Gazette de Leyde, was one of the most respected European newspapers and in TJ’s opinion “the only one in Europe worth reading.” TJ forwarded the Gazette de Leyde to John Jay at the office for foreign affairs and so charged its annual cost of thirty-six livres to the United States (TJ to C. W. F. Dumas, 31 July 1788; TJ to Jay, 17 June 1785; Account with U.S. 1792 description begins “Account with U.S. of America as their Minister Plenipotentiary in Europe. Exact copy as given in to the Auditor July. 1792” DLC: TJ Papers, 13286-94. See Papers, XXIV, 175-89. description ends ; Histoire de la Presse, i, 309-11 description begins Histoire Générale de la presse française, ed. Claude Bellanger and others, Paris, 1969-1976, 5 vols. description ends ; Eugène Hatin, Les Gazettes de Hollande [Paris, 1865], p. 146-55).

87The Comédie-Italienne occupied the site of the present Opéra-Comique on the Boulevard des Italiens. TJ saw two comic operas by André Grétry: Aucassin et Nicolette, with libretto by Michel Jean Sedaine; and Silvain, with libretto by Jean François Marmontel (Journal de Paris, 2 Sep. 1784).

88TJ saw two more operas by Grétry and Marmontel: Zemire et Azor and La Fausse Magie (Journal de Paris, 4 Sep. 1784; Sowerby, Nos. 4566, 4569 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

89 Gaspar Théodore Le Gras was a bookseller on the Quai de Conti (Lottin, Catalogue, p. 107 description begins [Augustin Martin Lottin], Catalogue chronologique des libraires et des libraires-imprimeurs de Paris, 1789, repr. Amsterdam, 1969 description ends ).

90The present Odéon is a reconstruction, on the same site, of the home of the Comédie-Française, which on this date presented two comedies, La Métromanie by Alexis Piron, and Crispin rival de son maître by Alain René Lesage (Journal de Paris, 7 Sep. 1784).

91The Duc de Chartres, later Duc d’Orléans and Philippe-Égalité, had recently turned the Palais Royal into a kind of permanent fair by closing in the garden with arcades full of restaurants, cafés, clubs, amusements, and luxury shops. From 1785 the Café Mécanique at No. 121 Galerie de Valois was a particular attraction for foreigners. It had no waiters; a system of dumb-waiters carried the orders from a lower floor up through the bases of the tables. The Palais Royal also housed the finest art collection in Paris at this time; it was dispersed in 1792 (Thiéry, Guide, i, 236-87 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends ; Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 14-18 description begins Howard C. Rice, Jr., Thomas Jefferson’s Paris, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends ; Shelby T. McCloy, French Inventions of the Eighteenth Century [Lexington, Ky., 1952], p. 109-10; for a particularly vivid description of the Palais Royal at its height, see Karamzin, Letters, p. 181-2, 215 description begins N. M. Karamzin, Letters of a Russian Traveler, 1789-1790, New York, 1957 description ends ).

92At a point halfway between this line and the one above, over the space between “for” and “ruffles,” TJ placed an asterisk, evidently keyed to the notation of 18 Oct. 1784. Its meaning remains obscure.

93About thirty times a year, on religious holidays, a concert spirituel was given in the Salle des Machines of the Château des Tuileries. Works of recent composition were performed by noted soloists and a permanent orchestra and chorus drawn from the Paris opera company. The program of TJ’s first concert included works by Handel, Pasquale Anfossi, Giacomo Rust, J.P.A.J. Janson, L. B. Desormery, J. L. Duport, and J. B. Davaux. There was also a demonstration of a new sostenente piano, on which TJ reported in his missing letter to Francis Hopkinson of 11 Nov. 1784 (Journal de Paris, 8 Sep. 1784).

94On this date, a Wednesday, TJ and John Adams went to Versailles to present to the Comte de Vergennes their commission for negotiating a commercial treaty with France. Tuesday was Ambassadors’ Day at the French court. For five years TJ made the weekly trip to Versailles, where he had audiences with members of the royal family, dined with the entire diplomatic corps at Vergennes’ table, and tried to discuss American business with this elusive foreign minister (Papers, vii, 420 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; Adams, Diary, iv, 93 description begins Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, ed. L. H. Butterfield, Cambridge, Mass., 1961, 4 vols. description ends ).

95 Claude Lafontaine’s secret locks, which had recently been approved by the Académie des Sciences, are described in Journal de Paris, 25 July 1784 (see also Sowerby, No. 1237 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends , and Packing List 1790, Crate No. 40 description begins Itemized invoice of Grevin, maitre layetier, 17 July 1790. DLC: William Short Papers description ends ).

96 Jean François Royez was a bookseller on the Quai des Augustins (Lottin, Catalogue, p. 152).

97The balloon ascension of the Robert brothers and Colin Hullin actually took place on 19 Sep. Before an immense crowd in the Tuileries gardens the three aviators began a voyage that ended almost seven hours later near Bethune, about 150 miles north of Paris (Journal de Paris, 20, 21, 23, 24 Sep. 1784; Journal of Miss Adams, ii, 18-19 description begins Journal and Correspondence of Miss Adams, ed. [Caroline Amelia de Windt], New York, 1841-1849, 3 vols. description ends ; Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 27-8 description begins Howard C. Rice, Jr., Thomas Jefferson’s Paris, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends ). TJ sent a printed account of the voyage to many American friends (Sowerby, No. 1212 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

98Part of this payment may have been for the silk mourning suit TJ had to buy when a period of court mourning was declared, from 2 to 12 Sep., for an eight-year-old prince of Deux-Ponts. On Tuesday, 7 Sep., TJ and David Humphreys, “full trimmed in awfull Sable,” went to Auteuil to accompany John Adams to court. There they learned that there was no levee that day and had to return to Paris, to “lay by their mourning untill the next death” (Abigail Adams to [Cotton Tufts], 8 Sep. 1784, MHi: Adams Family Papers; Letters of Mrs. Adams, p. 193 description begins Letters of Mrs. Adams, ed. Charles Francis Adams, 4th ed., Boston, 1848 description ends ; Journal de Paris, 3 Sep. 1784).

99Probably the Gazette de France and the Mercure de France (see MB 5 and 22 Oct. 1785).

1This payment, labeled for “house linen” in another TJ account, indicates the costliness of good quality fabric in Paris in this period. In his first year in France TJ spent only about 2,700 livres on standing furniture for his house; for house linen, hangings, and upholstery, however, he spent a quarter’s salary, or almost 13,000 livres (TJ account with U.S. “For Outfit,” DLC: TJ Papers, 8997-8998).

2The Paris banker handling this bill was Laurent Le Couteulx of the prominent Norman family of financiers (TJ to Ralph Izard, 18 Nov. 1786). Because the American account was exhausted, Ferdinand Grand would not give TJ the rest of the advance on salary authorized by Robert Morris. For cash necessary for his move to the Cul-de-sac Taitbout, TJ turned to John Adams, who drew on the Dutch bankers to the United States for 6,000 florins, or 12,940–7–6. This advance put TJ, as he felt it, “in debt” to Congress and sparked in him the first agonized outcry in a steadily intensifying campaign to be allowed a year’s salary (48,600 livres) as an “outfit,” that is, for the costs of clothes, carriage and horses, and household furniture. When TJ submitted his European accounts in 1792, he included a year’s allowance for an outfit (TJ to James Monroe, 11 Nov. 1784; TJ to Samuel Osgood, 5 Oct. 1785; TJ to Commissioners of Treasury, 5 Aug. 1787; TJ to John Jay, 15 May 1788; TJ to James Madison, 25 May 1788; Account with U.S. 1792; TJ account with U.S. “For Outfit,” DLC: TJ Papers, 8997-8998). In addition to his salary, TJ was allowed to charge Congress for his house rent and the expenses of stationery, postage and couriers, as well as extra articles such as printing and translating, travel expenses, and charities to American citizens.

3According to this lease, printed in Papers, vii, 442-3 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends , TJ rented for 6,000 livres per annum a hôtel belonging to François Guireaud de Talairac on the Cul-de-sac Taitbout, near the corner of present Boulevard Haussmann and Rue du Helder (Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 37-9 description begins Howard C. Rice, Jr., Thomas Jefferson’s Paris, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends ). Including six-month notice payments and taxes, TJ actually paid 9,238–8 for one year’s residence, charging to the United States only 3,025 livres for the five-and-a-half-month period he was resident minister plenipotentiary (Account with U.S. 1792, 15 Oct. 1785, 17 Jan. 1786 description begins “Account with U.S. of America as their Minister Plenipotentiary in Europe. Exact copy as given in to the Auditor July. 1792” DLC: TJ Papers, 13286-94. See Papers, XXIV, 175-89. description ends ).

4According to another TJ account these payments were for “standing furniture,” which certainly included chairs, as Leclerc, Prudot, and Law were tapissiers-garnisseurs (TJ account with U.S. “For Outfit,” DLC: TJ Papers, 8997-8998; Guillaume Janneau, Les ateliers parisiens d’ébénistes et de menuisiers aux xvii e et xviii e siècles [n.p., 1975]). The Packing List 1790 description begins Itemized invoice of Grevin, maitre layetier, 17 July 1790. DLC: William Short Papers description ends , the best record of TJ’s Paris furniture, includes five sofas, forty-eight chairs, and a variety of tables and chests of drawers. An architect’s table made by D. L. Ancellet and now at Monticello is one of a very few surviving pieces of TJ’s French furniture.

5Interlined and evidently related to the asterisk of 8 Sep. 1784.

6This is probably the Ecce Homo after Guido Reni, No. 1 in TJ’s Catalogue of Paintings description begins Thomas Jefferson’s “Catalogue of Paintings &c. at Monticello,” c. 1815. ViU description ends . Two further lists of paintings, undoubtedly compiled while TJ was in Paris, have survived: a descriptive list in ViU and printed in Kimball, Jefferson, iii, 323-7, and a title list in MHi. These catalogues reveal that two-thirds of the over sixty paintings TJ acquired while in Paris portrayed religious subjects and thirteen were portraits. More than half were copies of works of masters of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, with Guido Reni a particular favorite.

7This entry interlined. There was no concert spirituel on this date, the only concerts in this period being those of 4 Oct. and 1 Nov. TJ did attend the former, with young Abigail and John Quincy Adams, and heard François André Philidor’s oratorio, Carmen Saeculare (Journal de Paris, 4 Oct. 1784; Journal of Miss Adams, i, 20 description begins Journal and Correspondence of Miss Adams, ed. [Caroline Amelia de Windt], New York, 1841-1849, 3 vols. description ends ).

8The voie de bois was the approximate equivalent of half a cord. TJ used beech in his fireplaces and the cheaper raftwood in his stoves.

9 Dominique Daguerre was a prominent marchand-mercier in the Rue Saint-Honoré (F.J.B. Watson, Louis XVI Furniture [London and New York, 1973], p. 79-80).

10Perhaps this was a copy of the Farnese Hercules, now in the Museo Nazionale, Naples; it appears on an early TJ list of desiderata, “Statues, Paintings &c.” in a building notebook in MHi (Nichols, No. 108 description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Architectural Drawings, ed. Frederick D. Nichols, 4th ed., Charlottesville, Va., 1978 description ends ).

11 I. MacMahon, physician and instructor at the École Militaire, was the Jefferson family doctor until TJ’s discovery of Richard Gem (I. Minis Hays, Calendar of the Papers of Benjamin Franklin [Philadelphia, 1908], i, 321 and passim). James Hemings’ illness is not known, but TJ at this time “relapsed into the state of ill health” which he had suffered while in Annapolis earlier in the year. He was severely indisposed for most of the winter, hardly leaving his house and not resuming his normal activities until the late spring of 1785. Not until May 1786 did he declare his health to be firmly reestablished (TJ to Van Hogendorp, 20 Nov. 1784; TJ to James Monroe, 18 Mch. 1785; TJ to Henry Skipwith, 6 May 1786; Letters of Mrs. Adams, p. 216 description begins Letters of Mrs. Adams, ed. Charles Francis Adams, 4th ed., Boston, 1848 description ends ).

12This payment was for discharging from prison the black servant of Mary (Mrs. Thomas) Barclay (TJ to Thomas Barclay, 3 Aug. 1787, enclosure).

13TJ’s frotteur was Saget. The sole duty of this indispensable functionary of a French household was to wax the floors on foot-brushes (Letters of Mrs. Adams, p. 189, 195 description begins Letters of Mrs. Adams, ed. Charles Francis Adams, 4th ed., Boston, 1848 description ends ). In MHi is an apothecary’s bill, 17 Oct. 1784, listing the glues and pigments used to color TJ’s floors.

14 Jonathan Williams (1750-1815) was at this time pursuing various private mercantile ventures; he returned to America with his great-uncle Benjamin Franklin in 1785.

15Spirit of wine, or alcohol, for the chafing dish.

16Colonel Jacques Le Maire (c. 1741-1791), who had served in the Virginia dragoons during the Revolution, was going to America to prosecute his claims for back pay and land bounty (TJ to James Madison, 11 Nov. 1784; Madison to TJ, 22 Jan. 1786; Madison, Papers, i, 233-4, viii, 130, 271 description begins The Papers of James Madison, ed. William T. Hutchinson and others, vols. 1-10, Chicago, 1962-1977, vols. 11-, Charlottesville, Va., 1977- description ends ). There is no record of Le Maire’s repayment of these loans.

17Thomas Barclay sent TJ from Lorient three cases of china with a blue border costing 725 livres. The tea, ten pounds of Hyson and two pounds each of Pekoe and Souchong, cost 81 livres. Two casks of brandy were shipped to Francis Eppes and Henry Skipwith in Virginia (TJ to Eppes, 11 Nov. 1784; Barclay to TJ, 17 Nov. 1784; Barclay to Benjamin Franklin, 10 Dec. 1784, PPAP: Franklin Papers; William Macarty to TJ, 25 Jan. 1788).

18 Jonathan Jackson (1743-1810), merchant of Newburyport and brother-in-law of Nathaniel Tracy, had recently arrived from London. He was a great favorite of the family of John Adams, who spoke of him as “the Sir Charles Grandison of this age” (Journal of Miss Adams, i, 33-4 description begins Journal and Correspondence of Miss Adams, ed. [Caroline Amelia de Windt], New York, 1841-1849, 3 vols. description ends ; Charles Coleman Sellers, “Charles Willson Peale with Patron and Populace,” Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., n.s., lix, pt. 3 [1969], 67).

19See MB 21 Apr. 1785 for final payment.

20The ébéniste was probably Jacques Upton, who made furniture to TJ’s specifications for the next five years. None of this furniture is known to have survived, but two TJ table designs of this period are preserved in ViU and MHi. That at MHi, possibly this night table, specifies a very small mahogany table with marble top, pull-out slides, and a shelf of unusual shape for holding large books (Comte de Salverte, Les Ébénistes du xviii e siècle [Paris, 1962], p. 322).

21Correctly 540–7–6.

22After his apprenticeship to the traiteur Combeaux, James Hemings was given lessons in pâtisserie. One of his teachers was in the household of the Prince de Condé. In the fall of 1787 James became TJ’s chef de cuisine and began to receive a monthly wage of twenty-four livres (Philip Mazzei to TJ, 17 Apr. 1787; TJ to Mazzei, 6 May 1787; Perrault to TJ, 9 Jan. 1789).

23The Hôtel de Jabach was at the site of present No. 110 Rue Saint-Martin; a contemporary guidebook recommended it for buying “expensive toys, such as gold snuff-boxes, watches, and trinkets for ladies” (The Gentleman’s Guide in his Tour through France [London, 1788], p. 83).

24 Guillaume Luc Bailly was a bookseller on the Rue Saint-Honoré (Lottin, Catalogue, p. 5 description begins [Augustin Martin Lottin], Catalogue chronologique des libraires et des libraires-imprimeurs de Paris, 1789, repr. Amsterdam, 1969 description ends ).

25TJ owned L’Art de soigner les pieds by “M. Laforest, Chirurgien-Pédicure de sa Majesté & de la Famille Royale” (Sowerby, No. 855 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

26 William Short had arrived in Paris on 29 Nov. and had taken up residence with TJ at the Hôtel de Landron. From Sep. 1785 Short acted as TJ’s private secretary at an annual salary of 7,245 livres, paid by the American government (TJ to Benjamin Harrison, 12 Jan. 1785; TJ to Short, 24 Sep. 1785; Short account with U.S., DLC: Short Papers, 1: 76).

27David Humphreys.

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