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Thomas Jefferson to John Minor, 30 August 1814, including Thomas Jefferson to Bernard Moore, [ca. 1773?]

To John Minor, including an earlier letter to Bernard Moore

Monticello Aug. 30. 14.

Dear Sir

I have at length found the paper of which you requested a copy. it was written near 50. years ago for the use of a young friend whose course of reading was confided to me; and it formed a basis for the studies of others subsequently placed under my direction, but curtailed for each in proportion to his previous acquirements and future views. I shall give it to you without change, except as to the books recommended to be read; later publications enabling me in some of the departments of science to substitute better, for the less perfect publications which we then possessed. in this the modern student has great advantage. I proceed to the copy.

 

‘Th: Jefferson to Bernard Moore.

[ca. 1773?]

Before you enter on the study of the law a sufficient ground-work must be laid. for this purpose an acquaintance with the Latin and French languages is absolutely necessary. the former you have; the latter must now be acquired. Mathematics and Natural philosophy are so useful in the most familiar occurrences of life, and are so peculiarly engaging & delightful as would induce every person to wish an acquaintance with them. besides this, the faculties of the mind, like the members of the body, are strengthened & improved by exercise. Mathematical reasonings & deductions are therefore a fine preparation for investigating the abstruse speculations of the law. in these and the analogous branches of science the following elementary books are recommended.

Mathematics. Bezout, Cours de Mathematiques. the best for a student ever published.

Montucla or Bossu’s histoire des Mathematiques.

Astronomy. Ferguson, and Le Monnier, or de la Lande.

[Geography. Pinkerton.]1

Nat. Philosophy. Joyce’s Scientific dialogues. Martin’s Philosophia Britannica.

Mussenbroek’s Cours de Physique.

This foundation being laid, you may enter regularly on the study of the Law, taking with it such of it’s kindred sciences as will contribute to eminence in it’s attainment. the principal of these are Physics, Ethics, Religion, Natural law, Belles lettres, Criticism, Rhetoric and Oratory. the carrying on several studies at a time is attended with advantage. variety relieves the mind, as well as the eye, palled with too long attention to a single object. but, with both, transitions from one object to another may be so frequent and transitory2 as to leave no impression. the mean is therefore to be steered, and a competent space of time allotted to each branch of study. again, a great inequality is observable in the vigor of the mind at different periods of the day. it’s powers at these periods should therefore be attended to in marshalling the business of the day. for these reasons I should recommend the following distribution of your time.

Till VIII. aclock in the morning employ yourself in Physical studies, Ethics, Religion, natural and sectarian, and Natural law, reading the following books.

Agriculture. Dickson’s husbandry of the antients. Tull’s horse-hoeing husbandry.
  Ld Kaim’s Gentleman farmer. Young’s Rural economy.
  Hale’s body of husbandry. De-Serres Theatre d’Agriculture.
Chemistry. Lavoisier. Conversations in Chemistry.
Anatomy. John and James Bell’s Anatomy.
Zoology. Abregé du Systeme de Linnée par Gilibert.
Manuel d’histoire Naturel par Blumenbach.
Buffon, including Montbeillard & La Cepede.
Wilson’s American Ornithology.
Botany. Barton’s elements of Botany. Turton’s Linnaeus. Persoon Synopsis plantarum.
Ethics. & Natl Religion. Locke’s Essay. Locke’s Conduct of the mind in the search after truth.
Stewart’s Philosophy of the human mind. Enfield’s history of Philosophy.
Condorcet, Progrès de l’esprit humain.
Cicero de officiis. Tusculana. de senectute. somnium Scipionis. Senecae Philosophica.
Hutchinson’s Introduction to moral Philosophy. Ld Kaim’s Natural religion.
Traité elementaire de Morale et Bonheur. La Sagesse de Charron.
Religion, sectarian. Bible. New Testament. Commentaries on them by Middleton in his works, and by Priestley in his Corruptions of Christianity, & Early opinions of Christ.
Volney’s Ruins. the Sermons of Sterne, Massillon & Bourdaloue.
Natural law. Vattel Droit des Gens. Reyneval, Institutions du droit de la3 Nature et des Gens.

From VIII. to XII. read Law. the general course of this reading may be formed on the following grounds. Ld Coke has given us the first view of the whole body of law worthy now of being studied: for so much of the admirable work of Bracton is now obsolete that the student should turn to it occasionally only, when tracing the history of particular portions of the law. Coke’s Institutes are a perfect Digest of the law as it stood in his day. after this, new laws were added by the legislature, and new developements of the old laws by the Judges, until they had become so voluminous as to require a new Digest. this was ably executed by Matthew Bacon, altho’ unfortunately under an Alphabetical, instead of Analytical arrangement of matter. the same process of new laws & new decisions on the old laws going on, called at length for the same operation again, and produced the inimitable Commentaries of Blackstone. In the department of the Chancery, a similar progress has taken place. Ld Kaims has given us the first digest of the principles of that branch of our jurisprudence, more valuable for the arrangement of matter, than for it’s exact conformity with the English decisions. the Reporters from the early times of that branch to that of the same Matthew Bacon are well digested, but alphabetically also in the Abridgment of the Cases in Equity, the 2d volume of which is said to have been done by him. this was followed by a number of able reporters, of which Fonblanque has given us a summary digest by commentaries on the text of the earlier work ascribed to Ballow, entitled ‘a Treatise of equity.’ the course of reading recommended then in these two branches of Law is the following.

Common law. Coke’s institutes.
select cases from the subsequent reporters to the time of Matthew Bacon.
Bacon’s abridgment.
select cases from the subsequent reporters to the present day.
select tracts on Law, among which those of Baron Gilbert are all of the first merit.
the Virginia laws. Reports on them.
Chancery. Ld Kaim’s Principles of Equity. 3d edition.
select cases from the Chancery reporters to the time of Matthew Bacon.
The Abridgment of Cases in Equity.
select cases from the subsequent reporters to the present day.
Fonblanque’s Treatise of Equity.
  Blackstone’s Commentaries (Tucker’s edition) as the last perfect Digest of both branches of law.

In reading the Reporters, enter in a Common-place book every case of value, condensed into the narrowest compass possible which will admit of presenting distinctly the principles of the case. this operation is doubly useful, inasmuch as it obliges the student to seek out the pith of the case, and habituates him to a condensation of thought, and to an acquisition of the most valuable of all talents, that of never using two words where one will do. it fixes the case too more indelibly in the mind.

From XII. to I. read Politics.

Politics general. Locke on government. Sidney on Government.

  Priestley’s First principles of Government. Review of Montesquieu’s Spirit of laws. Anon.
De Lolme sur la constitution d’Angleterre. DeBurgh’s Political disquisitions.
Hatsell’s Precedents of the H. of Commons. select Parliamy debates of England & Ireland.
Chipman’s Sketches of the principles of government. The Federalist.
Political Economy. Say’s Economie Politique. Malthus on the principles of population.
Tracy’s work on Political Economy. now about to be printed. (1814.)

In the Afternoon. read History.

History.  Antient. the Greek and Latin originals.
select histories from the Universal history. Gibbon’s decline of the Rom. empire.
Histoire Ancienne de Millot.
Modern. Histoire moderne de Millot. Russel’s History of Modern Europe.
Robertson’s Charles V.
English. the original historians. to wit. the Hist. of E. II. by E. F.Habington’s E. IV. More’s R. III. Ld Bacon’s H. VII. Ld Herbert’s H. VIII. Goodwin’s H. VIII. E. VI. Mary. Cambden’s Eliz. & James. Ludlow. McCaulay. Fox. Belsham.
Baxter’s History of England. (Hume republicanised & abridged.) Robertson’s Hist. of Scotland.
American. Robertson’s History of America.
 Gordon’s History of the independance of the US. Ramsay’s Hist. of the Amer. revolution.
  Burke’s Hist. of Virginia. Continuation of do by Jones & Girardin. nearly ready for the press.

From Dark to Bed-time. Belles letters. Criticism. Rhetoric. Oratory. to wit.

 Belles letters. read the best of the Poets, epic, didactic, dramatic, pastoral, lyric Etc but among these Shakespear must be singled out by one who wishes to learn the full powers of the English language. of him we must advise, as Horace did of the Grecian models, ‘vos exemplaria Graeca Nocturnâ versate manu, versate diurnâ.’
Criticism. Ld Kaim’s Elements of criticism. Tooke’s Diversions of Purley.
of Bibliographical criticism the Edinbg Review furnishes the finest models extant.
Rhetoric. Blair’s lectures on Rhetoric.
Sheridan on Elocution. Mason on Poetic and Prosaic numbers.
Oratory. this portion of time (borrowing some of the afternoon when the days are long and the nights short) is to be applied also to acquiring the art of writing & speaking correctly by the following exercises. Criticize the style of any books whatever, committing your criticisms to writing.—translate into the different styles, to wit, the elevated, the midling, and the familiar. Orators and Poets will furnish subjects of the first, historians of the second, & epistolary and Comic writers of the third.—undertake, at first, short compositions, as themes, letters Etc paying great attention to the correctness and elegance of your language.—read the Orations of Demosthenes & Cicero. analyse these orations, and examine the correctness of the disposition, language, figures, states of the cases, arguments Etc.—read good samples also of English eloquence. some of these may be found in Small’s American speaker, and some in Carey’s Criminal Recorder, in which last the defence of Eugene Arum is distinguishable as a model of logic, condensation of matter, & classical purity of style.—exercise yourself afterwards in preparing orations on feigned cases. in this observe rigorously the disposition of Blair into Introduction, Narration Etc. adapt your language & figures to the several parts of the oration, and suit your arguments to the audience before whom it is supposed to be spoken. this is your last and most important exercise. no trouble should therefore be spared. if you have any person in your neighborhood engaged in the same study, take each of you different sides of the same cause, and prepare pleadings according to the custom of the bar, where the pl. opens, the def. answers, and the pl. replies.—it would farther be of great service to pronounce your orations (having before you only short notes to assist the memory) in the presence of some person who may be considered as your judge.

Note, under each of the preceding heads, the books are to be read in the order in which they are named. these by no means constitute the whole of what might be usefully read in each of these branches of science. the mass of excellent works going more into detail is great indeed. but those here noted will enable the student to select for himself such others of detail as may suit his particular views and dispositions. they will give him a respectable, an useful, & satisfactory degree of knolege in these branches, and will themselves form a valuable and sufficient library for a lawyer, who is at the same time a lover of science.’

 

So far the paper; which I send you, not for it’s merit, for it betrays sufficiently it’s juvenile date; but because you have asked it. your own experience in the more modern practice of the law will enable you to give it more conformity with the present course; and I know you will recieve it kindly with all it’s imperfections, as an evidence of my great respect for your wishes, and of the sentiments of esteem and friendship of which I tender you sincere assurances.

Th: Jefferson

RC (PU-L: Special Collections); with undated letter to Moore, written decades earlier but containing subsequent revisions, included in its body; at foot of first page: “General Minor.” PoC (DLC).

No earlier version of the letter to bernard moore has been found. The original letter was likely written for the namesake son of TJ’s friend Bernard Moore. The elder Moore (d. ca. 1775) lived at Chelsea plantation in King William County, married the daughter of Governor Alexander Spotswood, and sat regularly in the House of Burgesses. TJ served as a trustee for Moore in a 1771 property sale to benefit his creditors. After the death of Dabney Carr (1743–73), TJ’s brother-in-law and a fellow attorney, TJ extended the younger Moore credit toward the purchase of books from Carr’s estate. Moore represented King William County in the House of Delegates for four sessions, 1782 and 1786–88. The highly conjectural date assigned above to TJ’s original letter to Moore is based on the assumption that it was written shortly before or after Moore’s purchase of Carr’s books (Virginia Gazette [Dixon & Hunter], 15 Apr. 1775; Morris L. Cohen, “Thomas Jefferson Recommends a Course of Law Study,” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 119 [1971]: 823–32; Louise Pecquet du Bellet, Some Prominent Virginia Families [1907; repr. 1976], 2:703–7; Leonard, General Assembly description begins Cynthia Miller Leonard, comp., The General Assembly of Virginia, July 30, 1619–January 11, 1978: A Bicentennial Register of Members, 1978 description ends ; PTJ description begins Julian P. Boyd, Charles T. Cullen, John Catanzariti, Barbara B. Oberg, and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, 1950– , 34 vols. description ends , 1:59–60, 64–5, 6:431, 11:623, 15:627, 639; MB description begins James A. Bear Jr. and Lucia C. Stanton, eds., Jefferson’s Memorandum Books: Accounts, with Legal Records and Miscellany, 1767–1826, 1997, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Second Series description ends , 1:62, 82, 206, 290).

hist. of e. ii. by e. f.: Elizabeth Cary, Viscountess Falkland, The History of The Life, Reign, and Death of Edward II. King of England, and Lord of Ireland. With The Rise and Fall of his great Favourites, Gaveston and the Spencers (London, 1680; Sowerby, description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, 1952–59, 5 vols. description ends no. 347; for authorship, see ODNB description begins H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison, eds., Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004, 60 vols. description ends ). habington’s e. iv.: William Habington, The Historie of Edvvard the Fourth, King of England (London, 1640; Sowerby, description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, 1952–59, 5 vols. description ends no. 349). more’s r. iii.: Sir Thomas More, The history of king Richard the thirde (unfinished) writen … about the yeare of our Lorde. 1513, in The workes of Sir Thomas More Knyght … wrytten by him in the Englysh tonge (London, 1557; Sowerby, description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, 1952–59, 5 vols. description ends no. 350). bacon’s h. vii.: Francis Bacon, The Historie of the Reigne of King Henry The Seventh … Whereunto is now added a very usefull and necessary Table (London, 1641; Sowerby, description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, 1952–59, 5 vols. description ends no. 352). ld herbert’s h. viii.: Edward Herbert, The Life and Reign of King Henry the Eighth (London, 1683; Sowerby, description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, 1952–59, 5 vols. description ends no. 353). goodwin’s h. viii. e. vi. mary: Francis Godwin, Annales of England. Containing the Reignes of Henry the Eighth. Edward the Sixt. Queene Mary. Written in Latin … Thus Englished, corrected and inlarged with the Author’s consent, by Morgan Godwyn (London, 1630; Sowerby, description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, 1952–59, 5 vols. description ends no. 354). cambden’s eliz. & james: William Camden published the first important biography of Elizabeth I, 1615–25, and he kept notes for a similar chronicle of James I that was published posthumously in 1691 (ODNB description begins H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison, eds., Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004, 60 vols. description ends ). TJ does not seem to have owned either work. vos exemplaria graeca nocturnâ versate manu, versate diurnâ: “For yourselves, handle Greek models by night, handle them by day” (Horace, Ars Poetica, 268–9, in Fairclough, Horace: Satires, Epistles and Ars Poetica, 472–3).

1Preceding two words interlined in PoC and lacking in RC.

2Preceding two words interlined.

3Manuscript: “las.”

Index Entries

  • Abrégé du Système de la Nature, de Linné, Histoire des Mammaires (J. E. Gilibert) search
  • A Compleat Body of Husbandry (T. Hale) search
  • A Course of Lectures on Elocution (T. Sheridan) search
  • A general system of nature, through the three grand kingdoms of animals, vegetables, and minerals (C. Linnaeus; trans. W. Turton) search
  • agriculture; books on search
  • agriculture; TJ lists works on search
  • A History of the Early Part of the Reign of James the Second (C. J. Fox) search
  • American Ornithology (A. Wilson) search
  • anatomy; books on search
  • Anatomy of the Human Body (John Bell) search
  • An Essay concerning Human Understanding (J. Locke) search
  • An Essay on the First Principles of Government (J. Priestley) search
  • An Essay on the principle of population (T. R. Malthus) search
  • A New Abridgment of the Law (M. Bacon) search
  • A New and Impartial History of England (J. Baxter) search
  • An History of Early Opinions Concerning Jesus Christ (J. Priestley) search
  • Annales of England. Containing the Reignes of Henry the Eighth. Edward the Sixt. Queene Mary (F. Godwin; trans. and rev. M. Godwin) search
  • Aram, Eugene; Defense at his Trial for Murder search
  • A Short Introduction To Moral Philosophy (F. Hutcheson) search
  • Astronomical Tables and Precepts, For calculating the true Times of New and Full Moons (J. Ferguson) search
  • Astronomie (Lalande) search
  • astronomy; books on search
  • Astronomy explained upon Sir Isaac Newton’s principles (J. Ferguson) search
  • A Treatise of Equity (Fonblanque) search
  • A Treatise on Political Economy (Destutt de Tracy) search
  • Bacon, Francis; The Historie of the Reigne of King Henry The Seventh search
  • Bacon, Mathew; A New Abridgment of the Law search
  • Barton, Benjamin Smith; Elements of Botany search
  • Baxter, John; A New and Impartial History of England search
  • Bell, John (surgeon); Anatomy of the Human Body search
  • belles lettres; books on search
  • Belsham, William; TJ recommends search
  • Bézout, Étienne; Cours De Mathématiques search
  • Blackstone, William; Blackstone’s Commentaries (ed. S. G. Tucker) search
  • Blackstone, William; Commentaries on the Laws of England search
  • Blackstone’s Commentaries (S. G. Tucker) search
  • Blair, Hugh; Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres search
  • Blair, Hugh; TJ references search
  • Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich; Manuel D’Histoire Naturelle search
  • books; on agriculture search
  • books; on astronomy search
  • books; on belles lettres search
  • books; on botany search
  • books; on chemistry search
  • books; on criticism (literary) search
  • books; on economics search
  • books; on ethics search
  • books; on geography search
  • books; on government search
  • books; on history search
  • books; on law search
  • books; on mathematics search
  • books; on natural law search
  • books; on natural philosophy search
  • books; on oratory search
  • books; on politics search
  • books; on religion search
  • books; on rhetoric search
  • books; on zoology search
  • books; TJ recommends to B. Moore search
  • books; TJ recommends to J. Minor search
  • Bossut, Charles; Essai sur l’Histoire Génerale des Mathématiques search
  • botany; books on search
  • Bourdaloue, Louis; Sermons search
  • Bracton, Henry de; Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliæ search
  • Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de; Histoire Naturelle, Générale et Particulière search
  • Burgh, James; Political Disquisitions search
  • Burk, John Daly; The History of Virginia search
  • Camden, William; biographies by search
  • Carey, Mathew; publisher search
  • Cary, Elizabeth, Viscountess Falkland; The History of The Life, Reign, and Death of Edward II search
  • Cato Maior de senectute (Cicero) search
  • Charron, Pierre; De La Sagesse search
  • chemistry; books on search
  • Chipman, Nathaniel; Sketches of the Principles of Government search
  • Cicero, Marcus Tullius; Cato Maior de senectute search
  • Cicero, Marcus Tullius; De Officiis search
  • Cicero, Marcus Tullius; Somnium Scipionis search
  • Cicero, Marcus Tullius; TJ recommends search
  • Cicero, Marcus Tullius; Tusculan Disputations search
  • Coke, Sir Edward; The First Part of the Institutes of the Lawes of England: or a Commentary upon Littleton search
  • Commentaries on the Laws of England (W. Blackstone) search
  • Commentary and Review of Montesquieu’s Spirit of Laws (Destutt de Tracy); TJ on search
  • Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, marquis de; Outlines of An Historical View of the Progress of the Human Mind search
  • Constitution de L’Angleterre (J. L. de Lolme) search
  • Conversations on Chemistry: in which the elements of that science are familiarly explained (J. H. Marcet) search
  • Cours De Mathématiques (É. Bézout) search
  • Cours de Physique Experimentale et Mathematique (P. V. Musschenbroek) search
  • criticism (literary); books on search
  • De La Sagesse (P. Charron) search
  • Demosthenes; TJ on search
  • De Officiis (Cicero) search
  • Destutt de Tracy, Antoine Louis Claude; A Treatise on Political Economy search
  • Destutt de Tracy, Antoine Louis Claude; Commentary and Review of Montesquieu’s Spirit of Laws search
  • Dickson, Adam; The Husbandry of the Ancients search
  • Diversions of Purley (J. H. Tooke) search
  • Edinburgh Review search
  • Elements of Botany (B. S. Barton) search
  • Elements of Criticism (Kames) search
  • Elements of General History (C. F. X. Millot) search
  • Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind (D. Stewart) search
  • Elizabeth I, queen of England; W. Camden’s biography of search
  • Enfield, William; The History of Philosophy search
  • Essai sur l’Histoire Génerale des Mathématiques (C. Bossut) search
  • Essays on poetical and prosaic numbers, and elocution (J. Mason) search
  • Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion (Kames) search
  • ethics; books on search
  • Ferguson, James; Astronomical Tables and Precepts, For calculating the true Times of New and Full Moons search
  • Ferguson, James; Astronomy explained upon Sir Isaac Newton’s principles search
  • Fonblanque, John de Grenier; A Treatise of Equity search
  • Fox, Charles James; A History of the Early Part of the Reign of James the Second search
  • geography; books on search
  • Gérard de Rayneval, Joseph Mathias; Institutions du Droit de la Nature et des Gens search
  • Gibbon, Edward; The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire search
  • Gilbert, Sir Geoffrey; TJ recommends works by search
  • Gilibert, Jean Emmanuel; Abrégé du Système de la Nature, de Linné, Histoire des Mammaires search
  • Girardin, Louis Hue; and J. D. Burk’s History of Virginia search
  • Godwin, Francis; Annales of England. Containing the Reignes of Henry the Eighth. Edward the Sixt. Queene Mary (trans. and rev. M. Godwin) search
  • Godwin, Morgan (trans.); Annales of England. Containing the Reignes of Henry the Eighth. Edward the Sixt. Queene Mary search
  • Gordon, William; History of the Rise, Progress, and Establishment of the Independence of the United States of America search
  • Habington, William; The Historie of Edvvard the Fourth, King of England search
  • Hale, Thomas; A Compleat Body of Husbandry search
  • Hamilton, Alexander (1757–1804); The Federalist search
  • Hatsell, John; Precedents of proceedings in the House of Commons; with observations search
  • Herbert, Edward; The Life and Reign of King Henry the Eighth search
  • Histoire des Mathématiques (J. E. Montucla and Lalande) search
  • Histoire Naturelle, Générale et Particulière (Buffon) search
  • history; books on search
  • history; TJ recommends books on search
  • History of America (W. Robertson) search
  • History of Modern Europe (W. Russell) search
  • History of the American Revolution (D. Ramsay) search
  • History of the Corruptions of Christianity (J. Priestley) search
  • History of the Rise, Progress, and Establishment of the Independence of the United States of America (W. Gordon) search
  • Horace; TJ quotes search
  • Horse-Hoeing Husbandry: or, An Essay on the Principles of Vegetation and Tillage (J. Tull) search
  • Hume, David; mentioned search
  • Hutcheson, Francis; A Short Introduction To Moral Philosophy search
  • Institutions Astronomiques (trans. P. C. Le Monnier) search
  • Institutions du Droit de la Nature et des Gens (J. M. Gérard de Rayneval) search
  • James I, king of England; W. Camden’s biography of search
  • Jay, John; The Federalist search
  • Jefferson, Thomas; Books & Library; recommends books search
  • Jefferson, Thomas; Literary Quotes; Horace search
  • Jefferson, Thomas; Opinions on; E. Aram’s defense search
  • Jefferson, Thomas; Opinions on; W. Shakespeare search
  • Jones, Skelton; and J. D. Burk’s History of Virginia search
  • Joyce, Jeremiah; Scientific Dialogues, intended for the Instruction and Entertainment of Young People search
  • Kames (Kaim), Henry Home, Lord; Elements of Criticism search
  • Kames (Kaim), Henry Home, Lord; Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion search
  • Kames (Kaim), Henry Home, Lord; Principles of Equity search
  • Kames (Kaim), Henry Home, Lord; The Gentleman Farmer search
  • Lacépède, Bernard Germain Étienne de La Ville-Sur-Illon, comte de; and Buffon’s Histoire Naturelle search
  • Lalande, Joseph Jérôme Le Français de; Astronomie search
  • Lalande, Joseph Jérôme Le Français de; Histoire des Mathématiques search
  • Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent; Traité Élémentaire De Chimie search
  • law; books on search
  • law; TJ on study of search
  • Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres (H. Blair) search
  • Le Droit des Gens, ou, Principes de la loi naturelle, appliqué à la conduite & aux affaires des nations & des souverains (E. de Vattel) search
  • Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliæ (H. de Bracton) search
  • Le Monnier, Pierre Charles, trans.; Institutions Astronomiques search
  • Le Théâtre d’Agriculture et Mesnage des Champs (O. de Serres) search
  • Linnaeus, Carolus (Carl von Linné); A general system of nature, through the three grand kingdoms of animals, vegetables, and minerals (trans. Turton) search
  • Locke, John; An Essay concerning Human Understanding search
  • Lolme, Jean Louis de; Constitution de L’Angleterre search
  • Ludlow, Edmund; Memoirs search
  • Macaulay, Catharine; The History of England from the Accession of James I. to that of the Brunswick Line search
  • Madison, James; The Federalist search
  • Malthus, Thomas Robert; An Essay on the principle of population search
  • Manuel D’Histoire Naturelle (J. F. Blumenbach) search
  • Marcet, Jane Haldimand; Conversations on Chemistry: in which the elements of that science are familiarly explained search
  • Martin, Benjamin; Philosophia Britannica search
  • Mason, John (British author); Essays on poetical and prosaic numbers, and elocution search
  • Massillon, Jean Baptiste; Sermons search
  • mathematics; books on search
  • mathematics; TJ on search
  • Memoirs (E. Ludlow) search
  • Millot, Claude François Xavier; Elements of General History search
  • Minor, John (1761–1816); and law studies of John Minor (1797–1862) search
  • Minor, John (1761–1816); letters to search
  • Minor, John (1797–1862); TJ recommends legal curriculum for search
  • Modern Geography (J. Pinkerton); TJ recommends search
  • Montbeillard, Philibert Guéneau; and Buffon’s Histoire Naturelle search
  • Montucla, Jean Étienne; Histoire des Mathématiques search
  • Moore, Bernard, Jr.; TJ recommends books for search
  • Moore, Bernard, Jr.; TJ retranscribes letter to search
  • Moore, Bernard (d. ca.1775); identified search
  • Moore, Bernard (d. ca.1775); TJ recommends books for son of search
  • More, Thomas; The workes of Sir Thomas More Knyght search
  • Musschenbroek, Pieter van; Cours de Physique Experimentale et Mathematique search
  • natural law; books on search
  • natural philosophy; TJ on search
  • natural philosophy; TJ recommends books on search
  • oratory; books on search
  • Outlines of An Historical View of the Progress of the Human Mind (Condorcet) search
  • Paradis de Raymondis, Jean Zacharie; Traité élémentaire de Morale et du Bonheur search
  • Persoon, Christiaan Hendrik; Synopsis Plantarum, seu Enchiridium Botanicum search
  • Philosophia Britannica (B. Martin) search
  • Pinkerton, John; Modern Geography search
  • Political Disquisitions (J. Burgh) search
  • political economy; works on search
  • politics; books on search
  • politics; books on government search
  • Precedents of proceedings in the House of Commons (J. Hatsell) search
  • Priestley, Joseph; An Essay on the First Principles of Government search
  • Priestley, Joseph; An History of Early Opinions Concerning Jesus Christ search
  • Priestley, Joseph; History of the Corruptions of Christianity search
  • Principles of Equity (Kames) search
  • Ramsay, David; History of the American Revolution search
  • religion; works on search
  • rhetoric; books on search
  • Robertson, William (1721–93); History of America search
  • Robertson, William (1721–93); The History of Scotland search
  • Robertson, William (1721–93); The History of the Reign of Charles V search
  • Rural Oeconomy: or, Essays on the Practical Parts of Husbandry (A. Young) search
  • Russell, William; History of Modern Europe search
  • Say, Jean Baptiste; Traité d’Économie Politique search
  • Scientific Dialogues, intended for the Instruction and Entertainment of Young People (J. Joyce); TJ recommends search
  • Seneca (Roman statesman and philosopher); writings of search
  • sermons; recommended by TJ search
  • Sermons (J. B. Massillon) search
  • Sermons (L. Bourdaloue) search
  • Serres, Olivier de; Le Théâtre d’Agriculture et Mesnage des Champs search
  • Shakespeare, William; TJ recommends search
  • Sheridan, Thomas; A Course of Lectures on Elocution search
  • Sketches of the Principles of Government (N. Chipman) search
  • Small, Abraham; The American Speaker search
  • Somnium Scipionis (Cicero) search
  • Sterne, Laurence; TJ recommends sermons of search
  • Stewart, Dugald; Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind search
  • Synopsis Plantarum, seu Enchiridium Botanicum (C. H. Persoon) search
  • The American Speaker (A. Small) search
  • The Criminal Recorder search
  • The Federalist (A. Hamilton, J. Madison, J. Jay) search
  • The First Part of the Institutes of the Lawes of England: or a Commentary upon Littleton (E. Coke) search
  • The Gentleman Farmer (Kames) search
  • The Historie of Edvvard the Fourth, King of England (W. Habington) search
  • The Historie of the Reigne of King Henry The Seventh (F. Bacon) search
  • The History of England from the Accession of James I. to that of the Brunswick Line (C. Macaulay) search
  • The History of Philosophy (W. Enfield) search
  • The History of Scotland (W. Robertson) search
  • The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (E. Gibbon) search
  • The History of The Life, Reign, and Death of Edward II (E. Cary) search
  • The History of the Reign of Charles V (W. Robertson) search
  • The History of Virginia (J. D. Burk, S. Jones, and L. H. Girardin); TJ recommends search
  • The Husbandry of the Ancients (A. Dickson) search
  • The Life and Reign of King Henry the Eighth (E. Herbert) search
  • The Ruins: or A Survey of the Revolutions of Empires (C. F. C. Volney) search
  • The workes of Sir Thomas More Knyght (T. More) search
  • Tooke, John Horne; Diversions of Purley search
  • Traité d’Économie Politique (J. B. Say) search
  • Traité Élémentaire de Chimie (A. L. Lavoisier) search
  • Traité élémentaire de Morale et du Bonheur (J. Z. Paradis de Raymondis) search
  • Tucker, St. George; Blackstone’s Commentaries search
  • Tull, Jethro; Horse-Hoeing Husbandry: or, An Essay on the Principles of Vegetation and Tillage search
  • Turton, William, trans.; A general system of nature, through the three grand kingdoms of animals, vegetables, and minerals (C. Linnaeus) search
  • Tusculan Disputations (Cicero) search
  • Vattel, Emmerich de; Le Droit des Gens, ou, Principes de la loi naturelle, appliqué à la conduite & aux affaires des nations & des souverains search
  • Virginia; laws of search
  • Volney, Constantin François Chasseboeuf, comte de; The Ruins: or A Survey of the Revolutions of Empires search
  • Wilson, Alexander; American Ornithology search
  • Young, Arthur; Rural Oeconomy: or, Essays on the Practical Parts of Husbandry search
  • zoology; books on search