Thomas Jefferson Papers
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Thomas Barclay to the American Commissioners, 2 October 1786

Thomas Barclay to the American Commissioners

Cadiz 2d. Octr. 1786

Gentlemen

By the Bearer Colonel Franks I do myself the honor to send you in a small Box the following Articles.

  • 1. A Book containing the original Treaty in Arabic between the Emperor of Morocco and the United States.
  • 2. Three translations of the Treaty in English to each of which is added a Translation of a Declaration made by Tahar Fennish by order of His Majesty in addition and explanation of the 10th. Article.
  • 3. A letter from the Emperor to the President of Congress.
  • 4. Translation of this Letter in English.
  • 5. Translation of the Emperor’s Letter to the King of Spain.
  • 6. A Letter from Tahar Fennish to the Ministers at Paris and London and Translation.
  • 7. Signals agreed on by which the Moorish and American Vessels may distinguish each other at Sea.
  • 8. The answer to Queries which you put to me, dated Tangier 10th. September.
  • 9. An Account of some other particulars relative to this Country dated Tangier 13th. September.
  • 10. An Account of the proceedings relative to the Treaty dated Ceuta 18th September.
  • 11. Copy of a Commission given to Francis Chiappi of the City of Morocco until the pleasure of Congress shall be known and the Names of the Agents at Mogadore and Tangier.

These matters have been detained a considerable time from you by various Accidents, among which contrary Winds and stormy Weather were a Part. But I hope as all such impediments are removed you will receive them with the utmost Expedition.

The Original of the Declaration made by Mr. Fennish could not be placed in the same Book with the Treaty sealed by the Emperor, the Moorish Forms not permitting it, therefore Mr. Fennish wrote it in another Book which I had placed in his hands with a Copy of the Treaty for examination in order that he might certify the verity of it, lest any accident should happen to the original, which Book with authenticated Copies of the other Papers remain in my hands. I am with great Respect, Gentn. your most obt. humb. Servt.,

Thos. Barclay

RC (MHi: AMT); in clerk’s hand, marked “Copy” by Barclay and signed by him. Dupl (DLC); in clerk’s hand, signed by Barclay; at foot of text, in Barclay’s hand: “(Copy) original by Col. Franks”; endorsed by TJ with his right hand. Tr (DNA: PCC, No. 91, i); in another clerk’s hand, signed by Barclay and marked by him “Copy.” PrC of a Tr (DLC); in Short’s hand; at head of text: “(Copy of a duplicate).” Enclosures: For notes to (1) and (2), see Treaty with Morocco, following. (3) Letter from the Emperor of Morocco; dated 1 Ramadan, A.H. 1200 (28 June 1786), from translation (4) made by the interpreter Isaac Cardoza Nuñez and certified by Barclay, stating that the treaty had been completed “on the terms desired of us, and the articles are inserted in a book, confirmed by our royal seal being affixed thereto” (PrC of a Tr [DLC] in Short’s hand; printed in Dipl. Corr., 1783–89 description begins The Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States of America, from the Signing of the Definitive Treaty of Peace … to the Adoption of the Constitution, Washington, Blair & Rives, 1837, 3 vol. description ends , ii, 698–9). (5) Translation by Nuñez of letter from Emperor of Morocco to King of Spain, acknowledging a letter from the latter on Barclay’s behalf and announcing that a treaty of peace with the United States had been executed—the source whence news of the treaty first reached America (PrC of a Tr [DLC] in Short’s hand; printed in Dipl. Corr., 1783–89, ii, 699–700, also certified by Barclay. (6) Taher Fennish to Commissioners, 28 June 1786. (7) Ships’ signals agreement (Tr in clerk’s hand [MHi: AMT] with two lines in Arabic badly written and with serious errors, consisting of an authorization on behalf of the Emperor of Morocco; signed by Barclay; PrC [DLC], in Short’s hand; printed in Miller, ed., Treaties of the United States, ii, with the Arabic in facsimile and with a commentary on it by Dr. C. Snouck Hurgronje). (8), (9), and (10) Barclay to Commissioners, 10, 13, and 18 Sep. 1786, respectively. (11) Copy of commission issued by Barclay to Francis Chiappe, a resident at Morocco, to act as temporary consul for the United States, together with notation that like commissions had been issued to Joseph Chiappe for Mogadore, and to Girolamo Chiappe for Tangiers (Tr in MHi: AMT; PrC of same in DLC in Short’s hand; printed in Dipl. Corr., 1783–89 description begins The Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States of America, from the Signing of the Definitive Treaty of Peace … to the Adoption of the Constitution, Washington, Blair & Rives, 1837, 3 vol. description ends , ii, 725).

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