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    • Adams, John
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Documents filtered by: Author="Adams, John" AND Author="Adams, John" AND Recipient="Livingston, Robert R." AND Recipient="Livingston, Robert R." AND Period="Revolutionary War"
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The letters you did me the honor to write me on the 6 th. & 18 th. of November, are come to hands— You do me honor, Sir, in applauding the Judgement I have formed, from time to time, of the Court of Britain, and future Ages will give me Credit for the Judgement I have formed of some other Courts. The true designs of a Minister of State are not difficult to be penetrated, by an honest man of...
I have the honor to inclose Copies to be laid before Congress of several Papers— 1. M r. Hartley’s full Powers of May 14.— 2. The Order of the King of Great Britain in Council, for regulating the American Trade, of the 14 th. May. 3. Articles proposed by the American Ministers to M r. Hartley, 29 th. April— 4. M r. Hartley’s Observations left with us the 21 st. of May. And 5. M r. Hartley’s...
I find upon Inquiry, that there are in this Republick at Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Dort, near 130 Sugar Houses. The whole of the raw Sugars produced, in Surrinam, Berbice Essequibo & Demarary, were wrought in these houses. and besides, raw Sugars were purchased in Bourdeaux & Nantes, after being imported from the French Islands in French Bottoms: raw Sugars were also purchased in London, which...
I have been the more particular in my letters to you, concerning that extensive Manufacture and Commerce of refined Sugars, in this Country because the Proximity of all the Sugar Colonies to us, renders a share in it naturally usefull and convenient both to us and them. Fifty Thousand Hogsheads of raw Sugars are annually wrought in this Republick and exported at a great Profit to Germany,...
I have the honor to inclose, for the information of Congress a Copy of Mr: Fitzherbert’s Commission. Georgius Rex Georgious tertius, Dei gratiâ, magnae Britanniae, Franciae, et Hiberniae Rex, Fidei defensor, Dux Brunsvicensis et Luneburgensis, Sacri Romani Imperii Archi Thesaurarius et Princeps Elector &ca Omnibus et Singulis, ad quos praesentes hae literae, pervenerint, salutem. Cum belli...
In answer to your letters demanding my Accots. I have the honor to enclose the three Numbers: 1. 2. 3. No. 1 is an Account of my Salary for two years and an half, and the payment of it by Dr: Franklin, in obedience to the orders of Congress, the whole amounting to £ 6250 . sterling. No. 2 is the account for the purchase of the Hotel des Etats-Unis de l’Amerique, wh. amounts to 15207 . florins,...
Your Letters express a Desire that I Should endeavour to form an Acquaintance with the Representatives of Crowned Heads, and you Seem to be of opinion that much may be learned from their Conversation. It is very true that Hints may be dropped, Sometimes which deserve to be attended to, and I Shall not fail to avail myself of every oppertunity of learning any Thing from them, that may occur....
The enclosed N o. 121 of the Politique Hollandais, having translated a few Sentences of mine, and the Author intending to insert more, as he has already inserted a good deal of the Same Correspondence, I think it proper to transmit You, a Short Relation of it. In 1780, at Paris, a Number of Pamphlets of M r Galloway were sent me from England. I wrote to a Friend an Answer to them. He Sent it...
As there are certain particulars, in which it has appeared to me that the friendship of a French Minister has been problematical at least, or rather not to exist at all, I have freely mentioned them to Congress; because I hold it to be the first duty of a public Minister in my Situation, to conceal no important Truth of this kind from his Masters. But Ingratitude is an odious Vice, & ought to...
On the 28 th. of this Month I rec d the Letter you did me the Honour to write me on the 13. of February, which arrived at the Hague inclosed with the Ratification of the Treaty with their High Mightinesses, which will be exchanged by M r Dumas, as the Conferences here for the definitive Treaty will not admit of my taking So long a Journey, at this Time. This Arrival in Season to exchange the...
M r: Berenger the Secretary of the French Legation has this Moment left me He came in to inform me of the News. The Empress of Russia has communicated, to the King of Prussia, a Treaty of Alliance between the Emperor of Germany and her, defensive against the Christian Powers and offensive against the Turk. The King of Prussia has answered her “That he is very sensible, upon this Communication...
On the twenty second day of April I was introduced by the Chamberlain to his most Serene Highness the Prince of Orange. Knowing that his Highness spoke English, I asked his Permission to speak to him in that Language, to which he answered smiling, “if You please Sir.” Altho’ French is the Language of the Court, he seemed to be pleased and to recieve as a Compliment my Request to speak to him...
In the present violent heat of the Weather, and feverish state of my own health, I cannot pretend to sit long at my Pen, and must pray you to accept of a few short hints only. To talk, in a general stile, of Confidence in the French Court & ca. is to use a general language, which may mean almost any thing, or almost nothing.— To a certain degree, and as far as the Treaties and Engagements...
On the third day of this Month, about ten O Clock a Solemn Deputation, in three Coaches preceeded by twelve Messengers of State, went in Procession to the House in the Wood to enter into Conference, with the Statholder concerning the past Administration of the Marine, in Consequence of a Resolution of the States of Holland and West Friesland upon the Proposition of the City of Leyden. Military...
The Instruction from Congress, which directs Us to pay So Strict an Attention to the French Ministry, and to follow their Advice is conceived in Terms So universall and unlimited, as to give a great deal of Anxiety to My Mind. There is no Man more impressed with the Obligation of Obedience to Instructions. But in ordinary Cases, the Principal is so near the Deputy, as to be able to attend to...
The Fiscal Systems of the Powers of Europe, have such an ill Influence on Commerce, that they deserve the Serious attention of Congress and their Ministers whenever they have under Consideration a Treaty with any foreign Power. In Conversation yesterday with M r: D’Asp the Chargé des affaires of Sweeden, I enquired of him what Imposts were payable in their Ports upon the Importation and...
Yesterday afternoon, the duplicate of your Letter of the 14 th. of April N o. 16. was brought in to me, with the Post-Mark “Brest” upon it. As soon as I had read it, I went out to Passy, in hopes that other Dispatches had arrived there, but I found none. While I was there, a Packet of News-Papers, addressed to us all, was brought in with the Post Mark of Brest on it. I still hope & believe...
Having executed the Treaty of Commerce, at the Hague and dispatched four Copies of it, by four different Vessells bound to America from the Texel, and having Signed a Sufficient Number of Obligations to leave in the Hands of Messrs Willinks, Vanstaphorst and De La Lande and Fynje, and having received Information from Mr Jay, that Mr Oswald had rec d a Commission from the King his Master under...
Reports have been spread, that the Regency of Algiers has been employed in fitting Ships to cruise for American Vessels. There are reports too, that Spain has an Armament prepared to attack their Town. How much truth there may be in either, I cannot pretend to say. Whether Congress will take any Measures for treating with these piratical States must be submitted to them. The Custom of these...
The Admiralty have reported to their High Mightinesses their Remarks upon the Plan of a Treaty of Commerce, which I had the Honour to lay before them; together with Such Additions and Alterations as they propose. This Report has been taken ad Referendum by all the Provinces, except Overyssel, which has determined to vote as Holland Shall vote, this being the principal maritime Province, and...
We live in critical Moments. Parliament is to meet and the Kings Speech will be delivered on the 26.— if the Speech announces M r Oswalds Commission, and the two Houses in their Answers, thank him for issuing it, and there Should be no Change in the Ministry, the Prospect of Peace will be flattering. Or if there Should be a Change in the Ministry, and the Duke of Portland with M r Fox and M r...
On the sixth I left the Hague, and last night arrived here; I had several Interviews, on some of the last days, at the Hague, which I had not time to give you an Account of as a great Part of my time, was taken up with visits, to take Leave of the Court, the President, the Grand Pensionary, Greffier &c. Ceremonies which must be repeated at every coming and going, and upon many other Occasions,...
We have the honour to congratulate Congress on the Signature of the Preliminaries of a Peace between the Crown of Great Britain & the United States of America, to be inserted in a definitive Treaty so soon as the Terms between the Crowns of France & Great Britain shall be agreed on. A Copy of the Articles is here inclosed, and we cannot but flatter ourselves; that they will appear to Congress...
The United States of America have propagated far & wide in Europe the Ideas of the Liberty of Navigation and Commerce. The Powers of Europe, however, cannot agree as yet, in adopting them in their full extent. Each one desires to maintain the exclusive dominion of some particular Sea, or River, and yet to enjoy the liberty of navigating all others. Great Britain wishes to preserve the...
Yesterday the Duplicate of your Letter of the 23d. of October was brought to me, the Original not yet arrived. It is with great pleasure I learn that a Minister is appointed for foreign Affairs, who is so capable of introducing into that Department an Order, a Constancy and an Activity, which could never be expected from a Committee of Congress so often changing and so much engaged in other...
Your favor of April. 14 th. N o: 16, acknowledged the receipt of mine of the 21 st. & 22 d. January, but took no notice of any letters which went by Cap n: Barney: Neither D r: Franklin, M r: Jay, nor myself, have any answer to the Dispatches, which went by that Express, altho’ yours to me, N o: 16, gave cause to expect Letters to us all, with Instructions concerning the Definitive Treaty—...
Soon after my publick Reception by their High Mightinesses The Body of Merchants of the City of Schiedam, were pleased to send a very respectable Deputation from among their Members, to the Hague, to pay their Respects to Congress and to me as their Representative, with a very polite Invitation to a publick Entertainment in their City, to be made upon the occasion. As I had Several other...
You will naturally enquire, whether the Neutral Powers will continue their Neutrality, or whether the Neutral Confederacy will be broken? No certain Answer can be given to these Questions. We must content ourselves with probabilities, which are strong for the Continuance of the Neutrality. Who indeed should break it? The Emperor was thought to be the most unlikely Potentate to accede to it;...
Inclosed are Copies of Papers, which have passed between M r. Hartley and the American Ministers. We have not thought it prudent to enter into any written Controversy with him, upon any of these Papers. We have recieved whatever he has offered us.— But he has offered nothing in the Name of his Court, has signed nothing, and upon Enquiry of him, we have found that he has never had Authority to...
Yesterday at Versailles the Baron de Waltersdorff came to me and told me, he had delivered to M r: Franklin, a Project of a Treaty between the Court of Denmark, and the United States, and asked me, if M r: Franklin had shewn it to me? I answered him, that I knew nothing of it.— He said he wondered at that, he presumed it was because of my Absence at the Hague, for that it had been shewn to M...
The Gazettes of Europe Still continue to be employed as the great Engines of Fraud and Imposture, to the good People of America. Stock Jobbers are not the only People, who employ a Set of Scribblers to invent and publish Falshoods for their peculiar Purposes. British and French, as well as other Politicians entertain these Fabricators of Paragraphs, who are Stationed about in the various...
As this is a moment of great Expectation, News, of the greatest Importance from the East-Indies, from the West-Indies and North-America fm. Gibralter, from Lord Howe’s Fleet and the combined Fleet, being hourly looked for, I took this opportunity, to return to the Spanish minister a visit which I owed him. He told me that he trembled for the news, we should have from Gibralter. I asked him if...
France England Spain and America are all agreed, but M r: Hartley is Sanguine that the Treaty will not be signed, because he says the Comte de Vergennes dont mean to sign it. His Reasons for his opinion I know not. and I think he is mistaken. It is very certain however, that the French Minister is embarass’d and would not perhaps be sorry to find good Reasons for postponing the Signature for...
Yesterday, afternoon Mr Van der Burg, Van Spieringshaek the Agent of their High Mightinesses brought me the inclosed Resolution, relative to a Vessell of Mr Dubbledemuts. I promised to inclose it to Congress. I would have it translated here but I have not time. I presume Congress has or will have an Interpreter for the Low Dutch. It is much to be desired that Congress would take Some Measures...
ALS : National Archives The Proposal inclosed, has been transmitted to us by Mr Bridgen, a Gentleman in London, who has been uniformly a Friend to America, and in a Variety of Ways, and at a great Expence has Served her Cause. It is a Project for introducing Copper Coins into the United States, and Seems to Us to merit the early Attention of Congress, to whom We have the Honour to recommend...
Your Triplicate of March 5. No: 5. Triplicate 22d. May. No. 6 Duplicate. 29th. May No: 7 and Duplicate of 30th May No: 8. together with the dispatches for Mr: Dana came to hand yesterday. The judicious enquiries in that of March. 5th. are chiefly answd. in the enclosd: pamphlett, wh: I have caused to be printed, in order to be sent into England, Scotland and Ireland, as well as America. You...
In your Letter of 5th. March, You ask “whether this Power has entered into any Treaty with France since the War, and whether any such thing is in Contemplation?” They have made no Treaty; but a Convention concerning Re-captures, which You must have seen in the Papers. The East India Company have concerted Operations with France in the East Indies; and the Prince, by the Resolution of the...
The Hague, 14 June 1782. RC ( PCC , No. 84, IV, f. 89–93). LbC ( Adams Papers ). printed : Wharton, Dipl. Corr. Amer. Rev. The Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States , ed. Francis Wharton, Washington, D.C., 1889; 6 vols. , 5:493–494. Livingston received this letter on 11 Sept. ( PCC , No. 185, III, f. 41). In it, JA
I know very well the Name of the Family where I spent the Evening with my worthy Friend Mr. — before We set off, and have made my Alphabet accordingly: but I am on this occasion as on all others hitherto utterly unable to comprehend the sense of the Passages in Cypher. The Cypher is certainly not taken regularly under the two first Letters of that Name. I have been able sometimes to decypher...
LS : National Archives; press copy of LS : Massachusetts Historical Society; copies: Library of Congress, Massachusetts Historical Society, Yale University Library; transcript: National Archives We have had the honour of receiving by Capt. Barney your two Letters of the 25th. of March & 21st of April, with the Papers referred to in them. We are happy to find that the Provisional Articles have...
A few Vessells have arrived in England from various Parts of America, and have probably made the Ministry, Merchants and Manufacturers less anxious about a present Arrangement of Commerce. Whether these Vessells have rashly hazarded these Voyages against the Laws of their Country, or whether they have Permission from Congress or their States We are not informed. It would have been better no...
It is the general opinion here both among the Members of the States, and the Hotel de la France, that the Delays of the definitive Pacification, are contrived by the Court of London, in order to set all their Instruments at work, in this Republic, to induce it to renew its ancient connections with Great-Britain, particularly their Alliance offensive and Defensive, by which each Power was bound...
Their High Mightinesses have at length recieved their Instructions from all the Provinces, and I have this day been in Conference with the Grand Committe, who communicated to me the Remarks and Propositions on their Part. To this I shall very soon give my Replication; and I hope the Affair will be soon ended. I was recieved in state by two of the Lords at the Head of the Stairs, and by them...
On the last Ambassador’s day, w h: was last Tuesday, D r: Franklin, M r: Jay & myself, waited on Mons r: de Vergennes, who told us he tho’t he had agreed with the Duke of Manchester, but that his Grace had not yet rec d. the positive approbation of his Court— The Comte advised us to make a visit, all together, to the Ambassadors of the two Imperial Courts. Accordingly yesterday morn g: we...
Upon a sudden notification from the Comte de Vergennes, M r. Franklin and myself, in the Absence of M r. Jay and M r. Laurens, went to Versailles, and arrived at the Comte’s Office at 10. o Clock on Monday, the twentieth of this Month At eleven arrived the Comte d’Aranda & M r. Fitzherbert. The Ministers of the three Crowns signed & sealed the Preliminaries of Peace, and an Armistice, in...
Friesland has at last taken the Provincial Resolution to acknowledge the Independence, of which United America is in full Possession. It is thought that several Cities of Holland will soon follow their Example, and some say it will be followed forthwith by the whole Republick. The first Burgomaster of this City has said within a few days past, that in six Weeks at furthest, the Independence of...
M r. Jay has favoured me with a Sight of your Letter of the 4 th. January, & I am happy to find you had rec d from him a Copy of M r. Marbois Letter— This Letter contained nothing unexpected to me; because I have been several years convinced in my own mind, that the Sentiments it contains were the real secret designs of the French Minister of foreign Affairs— I have lost too much Sleep in...
I have the Honour to transmit, the following Resolutions of the respective Provinces, relative to my Admission in Quality of Minister Plenipotentiary, together with two Resolutions of their High Mightinesses upon the Same Subject, all in the order in which they were taken. Extract from the Register Book of the Lords the States of Friesland. “The Requisition of Mr Adams, for presenting his...
The last Evening, at Court, in the House in the Grove, where all the foreign Ministers supped, the Comte Montagnini de Mirabel, the Minister Plenipotentiary from the King of Sardinia, took an opportunity to enter largely into Conversation with me. As he and I were at a Party of Politicks while the greatest Part of the Company were at Cards, for two or three hours, We ran over all the World,...
It is with much pleasure that I transmit to you the Preliminary Treaty, between the King of Great-Britain and the United-States of America. The Mississippi, the Western Lands, Sagadahoc, & the Fisheries are secured, as well as we could, and I hope what is done for the Refugees will be pardoned— As the Objects, for which I ever abandoned my family & Country, are thus far accomplished. I now beg...