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    • Adams, John
    • Adams, John
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    • Livingston, Robert R.
    • Livingston, Robert R.
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Documents filtered by: Author="Adams, John" AND Author="Adams, John" AND Recipient="Livingston, Robert R." AND Recipient="Livingston, Robert R." AND Period="Revolutionary War"
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France England Spain and America are all agreed, but M r: Hartley is Sanguine that the Treaty will not be signed, because he says the Comte de Vergennes dont mean to sign it. His Reasons for his opinion I know not. and I think he is mistaken. It is very certain however, that the French Minister is embarass’d and would not perhaps be sorry to find good Reasons for postponing the Signature for...
Yesterday, I went to Court with D r: Franklin, and presented to the Comte de Vergennes, our Project of a definitive Treaty, who told us he would examine it, and give us his sentiments upon it. It was Ambassadors day, and I had Conversation with a Number of Ministers, of which it is proper I should give you an Account. The Dutch Ambassador Berkenrode, told me, that last Saturday the Comte de...
Yesterday at Versailles the Baron de Waltersdorff came to me and told me, he had delivered to M r: Franklin, a Project of a Treaty between the Court of Denmark, and the United States, and asked me, if M r: Franklin had shewn it to me? I answered him, that I knew nothing of it.— He said he wondered at that, he presumed it was because of my Absence at the Hague, for that it had been shewn to M...
The Question before the French Cabinet, whether they shall involve themselves in a War against two Christian Empires, in order to support a Turkish one is of a Serious Nature on many Accounts—If the Turks should be driven out of Europe, France would lose some of the Levant Trade and some of the coasting Trade of Italy: and these commercial and Naval Considerations are reinforced by others...
On the sixth I left the Hague, and last night arrived here; I had several Interviews, on some of the last days, at the Hague, which I had not time to give you an Account of as a great Part of my time, was taken up with visits, to take Leave of the Court, the President, the Grand Pensionary, Greffier &c. Ceremonies which must be repeated at every coming and going, and upon many other Occasions,...
The Fiscal Systems of the Powers of Europe, have such an ill Influence on Commerce, that they deserve the Serious attention of Congress and their Ministers whenever they have under Consideration a Treaty with any foreign Power. In Conversation yesterday with M r: D’Asp the Chargé des affaires of Sweeden, I enquired of him what Imposts were payable in their Ports upon the Importation and...
M r: Berenger the Secretary of the French Legation has this Moment left me He came in to inform me of the News. The Empress of Russia has communicated, to the King of Prussia, a Treaty of Alliance between the Emperor of Germany and her, defensive against the Christian Powers and offensive against the Turk. The King of Prussia has answered her “That he is very sensible, upon this Communication...
I had last evening some Conversation with D. Joas Theolonico de Almeida the envoy extraordinary of Portugal who desired to meet me to day at any hour at his House or mine. I promised to visit him at twelve, which I did. He said he had heard that the French Minister had proposed to the Duke of Manchester, at Versailles, to reduce the Duties upon French Wines in England, to the level of those...
The last Evening, at Court, in the House in the Grove, where all the foreign Ministers supped, the Comte Montagnini de Mirabel, the Minister Plenipotentiary from the King of Sardinia, took an opportunity to enter largely into Conversation with me. As he and I were at a Party of Politicks while the greatest Part of the Company were at Cards, for two or three hours, We ran over all the World,...
I have been the more particular in my letters to you, concerning that extensive Manufacture and Commerce of refined Sugars, in this Country because the Proximity of all the Sugar Colonies to us, renders a share in it naturally usefull and convenient both to us and them. Fifty Thousand Hogsheads of raw Sugars are annually wrought in this Republick and exported at a great Profit to Germany,...
I find upon Inquiry, that there are in this Republick at Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Dort, near 130 Sugar Houses. The whole of the raw Sugars produced, in Surrinam, Berbice Essequibo & Demarary, were wrought in these houses. and besides, raw Sugars were purchased in Bourdeaux & Nantes, after being imported from the French Islands in French Bottoms: raw Sugars were also purchased in London, which...
LS : National Archives; copies: Library of Congress, Massachusetts Historical Society The Definitive Treaties between the late beligerent Powers are none of them yet compleated. Ours has gone on slowly, owing partly to the Necessity Mr. Hartley (Successor of Mr Oswald) thinks himself under of sending every Proposition, either his own or ours, to his Court for their Approbation; and their Delay...
It is the general opinion here both among the Members of the States, and the Hotel de la France, that the Delays of the definitive Pacification, are contrived by the Court of London, in order to set all their Instruments at work, in this Republic, to induce it to renew its ancient connections with Great-Britain, particularly their Alliance offensive and Defensive, by which each Power was bound...
On Saturday last, I left Paris, and arrived here last night. This Morning, I sent M r: Dumas to M r. Van Berckel and M r Gyselaer to inform them of my arrival and to desire a Conversation with them upon the Subject of the Commerce, between the United States and the Dutch Establishments in the West Indies. M r: Van Berckel told M r Dumas “That S t: Eustatius and Curacao were open to the Vessels...
There is cause to be solicitous about the State of things in England. The present Ministry swerve more & more from the true System for the prosperity of their Country & ours. M r: Hartley, whose Sentiments are at bottom just, is probably kept here, (if he was not sent at first) merely to amuse us, & to keep him out of the way of embarrassing the Coalition, in Parliament We need not fear that...
LS : National Archives; press copy of LS : Massachusetts Historical Society; copies: Library of Congress, Massachusetts Historical Society, Yale University Library; transcript: National Archives We have had the honour of receiving by Capt. Barney your two Letters of the 25th. of March & 21st of April, with the Papers referred to in them. We are happy to find that the Provisional Articles have...
Last evening M r. Hartley spent two hours with me, and appeared much chagrined at the Proclamation, which had never been communicated to him by his Principals. He has too much contempt of the commercial abilities of the French—and consequently said that the French could derive but little benefit from this step of his Court, but thought the Dutch would make a great advantage by it. I...
Yesterday we waited on the Comte de Vergennes at Versailles, and shew him the Project of a Letter to the Ministers of the two Imperial Courts, which he read and approved. We told him, that we were at a loss what might be the effect of the Mediation—possibly we might be involved in difficulties by it—possibly the British Ministers might persuade the Mediators to offer Us their Advice upon some...
Inclosed are Copies of Papers, which have passed between M r. Hartley and the American Ministers. We have not thought it prudent to enter into any written Controversy with him, upon any of these Papers. We have recieved whatever he has offered us.— But he has offered nothing in the Name of his Court, has signed nothing, and upon Enquiry of him, we have found that he has never had Authority to...
The United States of America have propagated far & wide in Europe the Ideas of the Liberty of Navigation and Commerce. The Powers of Europe, however, cannot agree as yet, in adopting them in their full extent. Each one desires to maintain the exclusive dominion of some particular Sea, or River, and yet to enjoy the liberty of navigating all others. Great Britain wishes to preserve the...
A Jealousy of American Ships, Seamen, Carrying Trade, and naval Power, appears every day more & more conspicuous. This Jealousy, which has been all along discovered by the French Minister, is at length communicated to the English. The following Proclamation, which will not increase British Ships and Seamen, in any proportion as it will diminish those of the United States, will contribute...
Yesterday Coll o: Ogden arrived with the originals, of what we had before received in Duplicates by Cap n: Barney. The Ratification of the Dutch Treaty had been before rec d. & exchanged. The Ratification of Their High-Mightinesses is in the safe Custody of M r: Dumas at present, at the Hague.— I believe we shall accept of the mediation of the two Imperial Courts at the Definitive Treaty, as...
Reports have been spread, that the Regency of Algiers has been employed in fitting Ships to cruise for American Vessels. There are reports too, that Spain has an Armament prepared to attack their Town. How much truth there may be in either, I cannot pretend to say. Whether Congress will take any Measures for treating with these piratical States must be submitted to them. The Custom of these...
As there are certain particulars, in which it has appeared to me that the friendship of a French Minister has been problematical at least, or rather not to exist at all, I have freely mentioned them to Congress; because I hold it to be the first duty of a public Minister in my Situation, to conceal no important Truth of this kind from his Masters. But Ingratitude is an odious Vice, & ought to...
In the present violent heat of the Weather, and feverish state of my own health, I cannot pretend to sit long at my Pen, and must pray you to accept of a few short hints only. To talk, in a general stile, of Confidence in the French Court & ca. is to use a general language, which may mean almost any thing, or almost nothing.— To a certain degree, and as far as the Treaties and Engagements...
Since the dangerous fever I had in Amsterdam, 2. years ago, I have never enjoyed my health: Thro’ the whole of the last Winter & Spring I have suffered under weaknesses & pains, w h: have scarcely permitted me to do business: The excessive heats of the last week or two have bro’t on me a fever again, which exhausts one in such a manner as to be very discouraging & incapacitates one for every...
We cannot as yet obtain from M r: Hartley or his Principals an explicit consent to any one proposition whatever: Yet England & France, & England & Spain are probably agreed, and Holland I suppose must comply. Our last resource must be to say we are ready to sign the Provisional Treaty, totidem verbis, as the Definitive Treaty. I think it is plain that the British Ministry do not intend to sign...
On the last Ambassador’s day, w h: was last Tuesday, D r: Franklin, M r: Jay & myself, waited on Mons r: de Vergennes, who told us he tho’t he had agreed with the Duke of Manchester, but that his Grace had not yet rec d. the positive approbation of his Court— The Comte advised us to make a visit, all together, to the Ambassadors of the two Imperial Courts. Accordingly yesterday morn g: we...
Yesterday D r: Franklin, M r: Jay, & myself met to prepare the Definitive Treaty, and made so much progress in it, that tomorrow we shall be ready to communicate to M r: Hartley the result: But I have small hopes of obtaining any thing more by the Definitive Treaty.— The Duke of Manchester & the Comte d’Aranda have arranged every thing between England & Spain, and are ready to finish for their...
A few Vessells have arrived in England from various Parts of America, and have probably made the Ministry, Merchants and Manufacturers less anxious about a present Arrangement of Commerce. Whether these Vessells have rashly hazarded these Voyages against the Laws of their Country, or whether they have Permission from Congress or their States We are not informed. It would have been better no...
The Gazettes of Europe Still continue to be employed as the great Engines of Fraud and Imposture, to the good People of America. Stock Jobbers are not the only People, who employ a Set of Scribblers to invent and publish Falshoods for their peculiar Purposes. British and French, as well as other Politicians entertain these Fabricators of Paragraphs, who are Stationed about in the various...
Your favor of April. 14 th. N o: 16, acknowledged the receipt of mine of the 21 st. & 22 d. January, but took no notice of any letters which went by Cap n: Barney: Neither D r: Franklin, M r: Jay, nor myself, have any answer to the Dispatches, which went by that Express, altho’ yours to me, N o: 16, gave cause to expect Letters to us all, with Instructions concerning the Definitive Treaty—...
The British Ministry, and Nation are in a very unsettled State. They find themselves in a new Situation and have not digested any Plan. Ireland is in a new Situation. She is independent of Parliament. And the English know not how to manage her.— To what an Extent She will claim a Right of trading with the United States is unknown. Canada too and Nova Scotia are in a new Situation. the former...
Yesterday afternoon, the duplicate of your Letter of the 14 th. of April N o. 16. was brought in to me, with the Post-Mark “Brest” upon it. As soon as I had read it, I went out to Passy, in hopes that other Dispatches had arrived there, but I found none. While I was there, a Packet of News-Papers, addressed to us all, was brought in with the Post Mark of Brest on it. I still hope & believe...
The enclosed N o. 121 of the Politique Hollandais, having translated a few Sentences of mine, and the Author intending to insert more, as he has already inserted a good deal of the Same Correspondence, I think it proper to transmit You, a Short Relation of it. In 1780, at Paris, a Number of Pamphlets of M r Galloway were sent me from England. I wrote to a Friend an Answer to them. He Sent it...
On the 28 th. of this Month I rec d the Letter you did me the Honour to write me on the 13. of February, which arrived at the Hague inclosed with the Ratification of the Treaty with their High Mightinesses, which will be exchanged by M r Dumas, as the Conferences here for the definitive Treaty will not admit of my taking So long a Journey, at this Time. This Arrival in Season to exchange the...
M r. Jay has favoured me with a Sight of your Letter of the 4 th. January, & I am happy to find you had rec d from him a Copy of M r. Marbois Letter— This Letter contained nothing unexpected to me; because I have been several years convinced in my own mind, that the Sentiments it contains were the real secret designs of the French Minister of foreign Affairs— I have lost too much Sleep in...
I have the honor to inclose Copies to be laid before Congress of several Papers— 1. M r. Hartley’s full Powers of May 14.— 2. The Order of the King of Great Britain in Council, for regulating the American Trade, of the 14 th. May. 3. Articles proposed by the American Ministers to M r. Hartley, 29 th. April— 4. M r. Hartley’s Observations left with us the 21 st. of May. And 5. M r. Hartley’s...
You may easily imagine our Anxiety to hear from America, when You know that We have no News to this Hour, either of your Reception of the News of Peace, nor of that of the Treaty with Holland, four Copies of which I put on board four different Vessels at Amsterdam in October. We have been in equal Uncertainty about the Turn, which Affairs might take in England. But by Letters from M r. Laurens...
The letters you did me the honor to write me on the 6 th. & 18 th. of November, are come to hands— You do me honor, Sir, in applauding the Judgement I have formed, from time to time, of the Court of Britain, and future Ages will give me Credit for the Judgement I have formed of some other Courts. The true designs of a Minister of State are not difficult to be penetrated, by an honest man of...
Upon a sudden notification from the Comte de Vergennes, M r. Franklin and myself, in the Absence of M r. Jay and M r. Laurens, went to Versailles, and arrived at the Comte’s Office at 10. o Clock on Monday, the twentieth of this Month At eleven arrived the Comte d’Aranda & M r. Fitzherbert. The Ministers of the three Crowns signed & sealed the Preliminaries of Peace, and an Armistice, in...
ALS : National Archives The Proposal inclosed, has been transmitted to us by Mr Bridgen, a Gentleman in London, who has been uniformly a Friend to America, and in a Variety of Ways, and at a great Expence has Served her Cause. It is a Project for introducing Copper Coins into the United States, and Seems to Us to merit the early Attention of Congress, to whom We have the Honour to recommend...
There is more matter than time to write at present. The King of Sweden has done the United-States great honor, in his Commission to his Minister here to treat with them, by inserting, that he had a great desire to form a Connexion with States, which had so fully established their Independence, and, by the wise & gallant Conduct, so well deserved it; and his Minister desired it might be...
We have the honour to congratulate Congress on the Signature of the Preliminaries of a Peace between the Crown of Great Britain & the United States of America, to be inserted in a definitive Treaty so soon as the Terms between the Crowns of France & Great Britain shall be agreed on. A Copy of the Articles is here inclosed, and we cannot but flatter ourselves; that they will appear to Congress...
LS : National Archives; AL (draft): Massachusetts Historical Society; copies: American Philosophical Society, Library of Congress, Massachusetts Historical Society; transcript: National Archives We have the honour to congratulate Congress on the Signature of the Preliminaries of a Peace between the Crown of Great Britain & the United States of America, to be inscribed, in a definitive Treaty...
It is with much pleasure that I transmit to you the Preliminary Treaty, between the King of Great-Britain and the United-States of America. The Mississippi, the Western Lands, Sagadahoc, & the Fisheries are secured, as well as we could, and I hope what is done for the Refugees will be pardoned— As the Objects, for which I ever abandoned my family & Country, are thus far accomplished. I now beg...
We live in critical Moments. Parliament is to meet and the Kings Speech will be delivered on the 26.— if the Speech announces M r Oswalds Commission, and the two Houses in their Answers, thank him for issuing it, and there Should be no Change in the Ministry, the Prospect of Peace will be flattering. Or if there Should be a Change in the Ministry, and the Duke of Portland with M r Fox and M r...
The Instruction from Congress, which directs Us to pay So Strict an Attention to the French Ministry, and to follow their Advice is conceived in Terms So universall and unlimited, as to give a great deal of Anxiety to My Mind. There is no Man more impressed with the Obligation of Obedience to Instructions. But in ordinary Cases, the Principal is so near the Deputy, as to be able to attend to...
On my first arrival at Paris I found my Colleagues engaged in Conferences with M r: Oswald. They had been before chiefly conducted by M r: Jay, M r: Franklin having been mostly confined for 3. m o. by a long & painful illness: At this time, however, he was so much better, altho’ still weak & lame, as to join us in most of the subsequent Conferences; and we were so constantly engaged, forenoon,...
Two days ago arrived, by Cap n: Barney, the letters you did me the honor to write me, the 22 d. 29 th. 30, Triplicate of May, 4 th. July, 29 th. Aug st: & 15 th. Septem r: — I was unconditionally rec d. in Holland & promised, upon record, Conferences and Audiences whenever I sh