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By the President of the United States of America. A Proclamation. Whereas, it has been represented, that many uninformed or evil disposed persons have taken possesion of, or made a settlement on, the publick lands of the United States which have not been previously sold, ceded, or leased by the Un ited States, and a cl aim to which lands, by such persons, has not been previously recognized and...
Altho’ the Legislature of Virginia at a late Session declared almost unanimously, that South Carolina was not supported in her doctrine of nullification by the Resolutions of 1798 it appears that those Resolutions are still appealed to as expressly or constructively favoring the doctrine. That the doctrine of nullification may be clearly understood, it must be taken as laid down in the Report...
JM called up the bill on the claim of Poirey. The House went into a Committee of the Whole, rose, and reported the bill without amendment ( Annals of Congress Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States … (42 vols.; Washington, 1834–56). , 4th Cong., 2d sess., 1839). Mr. Madison observed, that if he saw any danger from the precedent of making this provision, he should not be...
Resolved, that it is the opinion of this committee , That the Executive ought to be authorised to put on the pension list all officers and soldiers, who have been wounded in the service of their country, and whom they may think entitled to the same, upon application being made to them therefor. Printed copy ( JHDV Journal of the House of Delegates of the Commonwealth of Virginia; Begun and...
8455Import Duties, [25 April] 1789 (Madison Papers)
A fifteen-cent duty on Jamaica rum was approved. The House then took up the twelve-cent duty on other spirits. Smith (Maryland), in order to introduce the principle of discrimination between treaty and nontreaty countries, moved for a six-cent per gallon duty on French brandy ( Gazette of the U.S. , 29 Apr. 1789). Mr. Madison . Discriminations however small may have a good political effect;...
Mr. Madison considered it best to require Conventions; Among other reasons, for this, that the powers given to the Genl. Govt. being taken from the State Govts. the Legislatures would be more disinclined than conventions composed in part at least of other men; and if disinclined, they could devise modes apparently promoting, but really, thwarting the ratification. The difficulty in Maryland...
It is agreed by the parties subscribing vizt. James Madison & Benjn G. Orr, that Plato the slave of the said Orr is to serve the said Madison for five years from this date during which time the said Orr nor any other person in his or any other right but his the said Madisons, Shall exercise any Kind of rights ownership or controul over the said Plato, who is to be & remain for the term of...
MS ( LC : Madison Papers). For a description of the manuscript of Notes on Debates, see Papers of Madison William T. Hutchinson, William M. E. Rachal, et al ., eds., The Papers of James Madison (6 vols. to date; Chicago, 1962——). , V, 231–34 . No Congress till Teusday 25. In favor of the motion of Mr. Gilman [see Journal of this date] to refer the officers of the army for their half pay to...
Influence of the size of a nation on Government page. 1. ________ of external danger on Government 10 ________ of the stage of Society on Government 16 ________ of Public opinion on Government 22 ________ of Education on Government 30 ________ of Religion on Government 35 ________ of Domestic slavery on Government 40 ________ of Dependent dominions on Government 46 Checks devised in...
The proofs which have been received of the hostile purposes of the Bashaw of Tripoli having imposed upon the President the obligation of providing immediately for the safety of our Mediterranean commerce, he has judged proper to send to the coast of Barbary a squadron of three frigates and a sloop of war, under the command of Commodore Dale. The squadron will sail in a very few days from this...
In consequence of the letter from Messrs. Bayard & Gallatin of May 6 or 7. and of other accts. from Europe, as to the ascendancy & views of G.B and the dispositions of the Great Contl. powers, the prec[e]ding Question No. 2. was put to the Cabinet, and agreed to by Monroe Campbell, Armstrong & Jones; Rush being absent: our Ministers to be instructed, besides trying the other conditions to make...
MS ( LC : Madison Papers). For a description of the manuscript of Notes on Debates, see Papers of Madison William T. Hutchinson, William M. E. Rachal, et al ., eds., The Papers of James Madison (6 vols. to date; Chicago, 1962——). , V, 231–34 . On the report of the Come. on Mr. Morris’s letter the injunction of secresy was taken off without dissent or observation. The attention of Congress was...
Before the Committee of the Whole resumed consideration of JM’s amendment to the assumption resolution, White moved “that the secretary of the treasury be directed to ascertain the resources that may be applied to the payment of the state debts, provided they should be assumed by the United States.” Gerry objected to the motion as reflecting unfavorably on the secretary—”the house ought to...
Having shewn that no one of the powers transferred to the federal government is unnecessary or improper, the next question to be considered is whether the whole mass of them will be dangerous to the portion of authority left in the several states. The adversaries to the plan of the convention instead of considering in the first place what degree of power was absolutely necessary for the...
MS ( NA : PCC , No. 25, II, 95). The manuscript, written by JM, is docketed: “Report of Committee on foreign Communications. Passed May 1st 1782.” The Committee to whom were referred the Communication &c laid before Congress by the Secy. of F. Affairs, submit the following resolutions. Resolved. The Secretary of Fo. Affairs be directed to make a confidential communication to the Several...
Smith (South Carolina) observed that supporters of JM’s resolutions had argued that Britain had demonstrated no desire for a commercial treaty with the United States. Smith alleged that in the correspondence between the president and the British minister “as printed by order of the house, it appears, that there is a chasm occasioned by the omission of a letter from the secretary of state, to...
MS ( NA : PCC , No. 36, I, 293). Docketed by JM: “Motion of Mr Bland seconded by Mr Madison[.] May 2d 1782. Rejected as out of order.” Although Bland presented the motion in Congress, the manuscript is in JM’s hand. Also in his hand, on the page containing the docket, appear the words, “assistance from the fleets of his M C or C M as can be afforded for the like purpose.” This passage was...
{No. 1318} Revaluation of {a} Building formerly declared for Assurance by {Nelly Madison &c.} per declaration No. {1219} {I} the underwritten {James Maddsion} [ sic ] residing at {Mount Pelier} in the county of {Orange} do hereby declare for assurance in the Mutual Assurance Society against fire on buildings of the State of Virginia, {one} building on {my Tract of Land} now occupied by...
It is a considerable time since our Consuls originated the practice of providing with certificates foreign vessels purchased abroad by citizens of the United States; and it is even understood that some such vessels have been supplied with Consular Registers and Sea-letters. To secure the bona fide property of our citizens is an important duty of the Government, but to repress or regulate a...
The notes beginning 19 February 1787 and ending 26 April 1787 are the concluding portion of JM’s summaries of the debates and proceedings of Congress, which he had begun late in 1782. They were recorded in two numbered segments: “No. XV,” containing the notes from 19 February through part of 29 March, and “No. XVI,” containing the remainder. JM did not always limit his notes to the formal...
… Fifth ,—That the use and navigation of the river Ohio, so far as the territory of the proposed State, or the territory which shall remain within the limits of this Commonwealth, lies thereon, shall be free and common to the citizens of the United States, the respective jurisdictions of this Commonwealth, and of the proposed State over the river as aforesaid; shall be concurrent only with the...
On 21 July, JM moved that the House take up amendments in the Committee of the Whole, as provided in his resolution of 8 June. After some debate, the House referred the 8 June resolution and all the amendments proposed by the state ratifying conventions to a select committee of one member from each state. This committee reported on 28 July ( JM to W. C. Nicholas, 2 Aug. 1789 and n. 1). On 13...
MS ( LC : Madison Papers). See Notes from Secret Journal, 28 May 1781 , headnote. Sd. Come. Carol. Jones &c—report —Witherspoon’s motion with a Secret adl. instrn. 1. to try for old ultm. as to Boundary 2 but if necessary to leave qon open—or this refused 3 to settle matter as well as possible—on 1st all ay—on 2. all ay but Sul: & Livr. Ward—Mr. Mer. Smith —so carried —on the 3d—Sul: & Liv....
MS ( LC : Madison Papers). For a description of the manuscript of Notes on Debates, see Papers of Madison William T. Hutchinson, William M. E. Rachal, et al ., eds., The Papers of James Madison (6 vols. to date; Chicago, 1962——). , V, 231–34 . Come. of the whole. Mr. Mercer revived the subject of retrospective operation; and after it had been much discussed & the difference elucidated wch....
Having rejected the New Jersey Plan, the convention now was considering the amended Virginia Plan as reported out of the Committee of the Whole on 13 June. The resolution calling for a legislature with two branches was under debate. Johnson argued the small states’ view that it was necessary to give each state an equal vote in the legislature in order to preserve state sovereignty against the...
By an act of the October 1785 session of the Virginia assembly, delegates to Congress from Virginia were allowed a salary of “six dollars per day while attending on, travelling to, and returning from Congress,” to be paid quarterly ( Hening, Statutes William Waller Hening, ed., The Statutes at Large; Being a Collection of All the Laws of Virginia, from the First Session of the Legislature, in...
The first clause of the naturalization bill, requiring one year’s residence by aliens for citizenship and an additional residence of two years to be capable of holding either a state or federal office, was under consideration. Tucker moved to strike out the one-year residence requirement in order to permit aliens to purchase and hold lands immediately upon taking an oath of allegiance. Mr....
The clause in the report of 13 June providing that the members of the first branch of the legislature “receive fixed stipends … to be paid out of the National-Treasury” was under debate ( Farrand, Records Max Farrand, ed., The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 (4 vols.; New Haven, 1911–37). , I, 228). Mr. Madison concurred in the necessity of preserving the compensations for the Natl....
The brief memorandum printed below is the only surviving record of JM’s opinion regarding the constitutionality of the bill which fixed the permanent national capital on the Potomac and the temporary capital at Philadelphia. The constitutional question had arisen during the latter stages of the House debate on the bill and continued during the interval between the passage of the bill on 9 July...
16. That religion, or the duty which we owe to our Creator , and the manner of discharging it, can be directed only by reason and conviction, not by force or violence; and therefore, all men are equally entitled to the free exercise of religion, according to the dictates of conscience; and that it is the mutual duty of all to practise Christian forbearance, love, and charity, towards each other.
By the President of the United States. A Proclamation. Whereas information has been received that sundry persons are combined or combining and confederating together on lake Champlain and the Country thereto adjacent for the purposes of forming insurrections against the authority of the laws of the United States, for opposing the same and obstructing their execution, and that such combinations...
present His Excellency; John Page James Madison & David Jameson Bolling Stark Esquires The Governor laid before the Board a Letter from Colonel Muter informing him that Phillips the noted Traitor has again made an Insurection in Princess Anne County at the head of fifty men; Whereupon they do Advise his Excellency to order one hundred men from the Militia of Nansemond to act in Conjunction...
I did not become acquainted with Dr. Franklin till after his return from France and election to the Chief Magistracy of Pennsylvania. During the session of the Grand Convention, of which he was a member and as long after as he lived, I had opportunities of enjoying much of his conversation, which was always a feast to me. I never passed half an hour in his company without hearing some...
8484Notes on Debates, 23 March 1787 (Madison Papers)
Nothing till Friday Mar. 23d. [1787] The Report for reducing salaries agreed to as amended Unanimously. The proposition for reducing the salary of the Secretary of F. Affairs to 3000 dollars was opposed by Mr. King & Mr. Madison who entered into the peculiar duties & qualifications requird in that office, and its peculiar importance. Mr. Mitchel & Mr. Varnum contended that it stood on a level...
It is objected that the act of Congress Mar. 3. 1800. c. 14. sect. 1. 2. entitles a citizen owner of a vessel to restitution until the vessel has been condemned by competent authority on paying salvage to the captor. Every man, by the law of nature, and every fellow citizen by compact, is bound to assist another against violence to his person or property. Tho’ therefore by the law of nature...
Whereas by the Act of Congress passed the 26th. of March 1804, entitled "An Act making provision for the disposal of the public lands in the Indiana Territory, and for other purposes;" and by the Act passed the third of March 1805, supplementary to the Act above recited, it was enacted, that a Land Office should be established at Kaskaskia, for the disposal of certain lands described in the...
8487Notes on Debates, 23 May 1783 (Madison Papers)
MS ( LC : Madison Papers). For a description of the manuscript of Notes on Debates, see Papers of Madison William T. Hutchinson, William M. E. Rachal, et al ., eds., The Papers of James Madison (7 vols. to date; Chicago, 1962——). , V, 231–34 . The Report from Mr. Hamilton Mr. Gorham and Mr. Peters, in favor of discharging the soldiers enlisted for the war, was supported on the ground that it...
We have seen the necessity of the union as our bulwark against foreign danger, as the conservator of peace among ourselves, as the guardian of our commerce and other common interests, as the only substitute for those military establishments which have subverted the liberties of the old world, and as the proper antidote for the diseases of faction, which have proved fatal to other popular...
Your favor of the 9th. of Jany. inclosing one of Sepr. last did not get to hand till a few days ago. The idea which the latter evolves is a great one, and suggests many interesting reflections to legislators; particularly when contracting and providing for public debts. Whether it can be received in the extent your reasonings give it, is a question which I ought to turn more in my thoughts...
Charles Pinckney moved to require the approval of two-thirds of each house to pass an act regulating foreign and interstate commerce, insisting that any regulatory power over trade was a concession made by the South. Mr. Madison went into a pretty full view of the subject. He observed that the disadvantage to the S. States from a navigation act, lay cheifly in a temporary rise of freight,...
At a meeting of the Visitors &c. held at Charlottesville 7. Oct: 1817. On information of the amount of the subscriptions to the Central College, known to be made, and others understood to be so, the board resolves, that the Pavilion now erecting be completed as heretofore directed, with the 20. dormitories attached to it, and that two other pavilions be contracted for and executed the next...
You will herewith receive your commission as Minister Plenipotentiary from the U. States to the French Republic. You will also be furnished with copies of the instructions given to Mr. Dawson who carried to France the modified ratification of the Convention of the 30th of Sepr. last, and of those to Messrs. Elsworth and Murray charged with negociating a ratification in the same form by the...
8493Import Duties, [28 April] 1789 (Madison Papers)
Goodhue, Gerry, and Thatcher of Massachusetts objected to the six-cent duty on molasses as ruinous to the Massachusetts fishing industry and rum distillers and burdensome to the poor. Mr. Madison . I shall make no observation, Mr. Speaker, upon the language of the gentleman from Massachusetts (Mr. Thatcher) because I do not conceive it expresses either the deliberate temper of his own mind, or...
MS ( NA : PCC , No. 20, II, 249–52). These resolutions were merely one episode in an exceedingly difficult and prolonged controversy into which Congress was first drawn on 8 May 1776 ( Journals of the Continental Congress , IV, 334–35, 405). During the war, the concern of Congress about the dispute among New Hampshire, New York, and, to a lesser degree, Massachusetts over jurisdiction and land...
Several pieces with the signature of Pacificus were lately published, which have been read with singular pleasure and applause, by the foreigners and degenerate citizens among us, who hate our republican government, and the French revolution; whilst the publication seems to have been too little regarded, or too much despised by the steady friends to both. Had the doctrines inculcated by the...
The following observations, in the House of Commons in February, in the debate on the American war, deserve attention, coming from Mr. Croker , Secretary of the Admiralty: “The right hon. gentleman had said, that it was not till the moment the news arrived of the capture of the Macedonian, that we shewed any signs of activity, and that then indeed the Chesapeake was shut up by a paper...
17 September and 8 October 1783. In the Pennsylvania Journal, and the Weekly Advertiser (Philadelphia) of 17 September and 8 October there are two essays, respectively entitled “The North-American, No. 1” and “The North-American, No. 2.” With some reservations, Edmund C. Burnett attributed these anonymously written articles to James Madison. Irving Brant is completely convinced that JM was...
8498Tonnage Duties, [4 May] 1789 (Madison Papers)
Before this day’s debate began, JM gave notice that on 25 May he would introduce the subject of amendments. “He thought it necessary thus early to mention the business, as it was weighty and important” ( Gazette of the U.S. , 6 May 1789). The postponed tonnage clauses were then taken up. Laurance moved to strike out the discrimination between countries having a commercial treaty with the...
To the People of the State of New-York. THE next view which I shall take of the House of Representatives, relates to the apportionment of its members to the several States, which is to be determined by the same rule with that of direct taxes. It is not contended that the number of people in each State ought not to be the standard for regulating the proportion of those who are to represent the...
On 9 December 1791 the Senate approved the apportionment bill but amended the ratio of representation from 1:30,000 to 1:33,000. When the House considered the Senate amendments on 12 December, “Mr. Madison observed, that the idea of diminishing the fractional parts appears to be the only reason for the alteration proposed by the Senate. The aggregate of these fractions only has been taken into...