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Memorandum Books, 1787

1787.

Jan. 1.







Gave the following etrennes at court livre tournois
Valet de chambre de M. de Vergennes 96
Livery servants of do. 24
Suisse of do. 24
Suisse of M. de Reyneval 24
Garçon de bureau of do. 24
Coffee men at the Salle des Ambassadeurs 48
the two Swiss at do. 24
264
the servts. of the 2 Introductors & Secretary   72
336
2. 
The article of Commissions for 176 days92 comes to 105livre tournois–14 which is 18livre tournois–6 a month = 12s a day.
Pd. Goldsmith the 21st. livraison of Encyclopedie viz.
   for myself 36– 10
Doctor Franklin  36– 10
F. Hopkinson 36– 10
James Madison 36– 10
Colo. Monroe 35– 10
Dr. Currie 35– 10
217–
Gave James etrennes 12f.
3. Pd. for books 24f.
5. Pd. Goldsmith for do. 40f4.
Pd. do. for Biblioth. physic. oecon.93 for Hopkinson 5f4.
Pd. do. for do. for Madison 5f4.
 
Pd. do. for Tableau de Paris94 10f.
Pd. do. for l’Ami de l’Adolescence95 for Stockdale 27f12.
7. Pd. for one Drost’s ecus 9f.96
9. Gave Patsy 3f.
10.
Recd. of Madme. d’Houditot for ecritoire 48f. livre tournois  
Pd. Petit  for etrennes for difft. persons 21 
for garden seeds 10– 10
for James’s apprenticeshp. wth. Patissier  72–
103– 10

Jan.

10.
livre tournois  
Pd. do.  for hire of a coachman 24 
for furniture 53– 12
for portage books97 frm. London   40–
Marechale’s Apoth.’s acct. 75–  8
193–
His accts. stand as follows
 Dec. 24.—31. livre tournois
   Kitchen (15) 207– 1
Office 63– 7
Pet. depences 91– 18
1. voie wood for stove   26– 15
Postage 27– 15
Patsy 23– 10
440– 6
 for 1787. Jan. 1—6 livre tournois
Kitchen (19) 147– 15
Office 46– 3
Pet. depences 52– 14
Postage 23– 6
Patsy 9– 6
279– 4
 
Pd. Petit 369livre tournois–10 in part of the two last articles of 440livre tournois–6 and 279livre tournois–4. so there remains due to him 350livre tournois.
11. Pd. at Palais royal 1f4.
12. Recd. of Mr. Grand for U. S. 2000livre tournois.
Pd. Petit balance 350livre tournois.—pd. for ink pot 3f10.
13. Pd. at Varieties98 3f.
15. Pd. Goldsmith for books 18f12.
16. Pd. in part for 4. Casserolles99 1000f.
17. Drew order on Mr. Grand in favor of Ct. de Langeac for a quarter’s rent 1875livre tournois.
18. Pd. Garvey’s bill for 59f5. towit 11f for portage of Spanish books & 48f5 for that of the M. de la fayette’s copying press.1
Indorsed bill for J. Banister on Donald & Burton for £100 Sterl.
20. Pd. for De Thou’s history2 for Jas. Madison 55f.
Gave Patsy 3f.
Jan. 24.
Pd. Count Carbouri3 for 28. bottles of wine 168f.  }  = 700livre tournois
Pd. Petit on acct. 532f.
25. Gave etrennes to Cabaret’s garçon 12f.
Pd. for books 2f10.
26. Pd. Tarbé’s draught for portage of wine de Cahusac4 35f.
Pd. Le Veillard for the same wine 98f. Note the barrel contains 250 bottles, and this was for the wine delivered at Bourdeaux.
27. Pd. balance for the 4. casserolles 366livre tournois–7s–10d.
 
29. Recd. of Don Miguel de Lardizabal5 for copying press &c. 132f.
30. Acceptd. Colo. Smith’s bill6 in favr. of Gueffier for 240f paiable in 1. month.
Pd. for books 7f10.
31. Pd. for books 18f.
Feb. 1. Recd. of Mr. Grand for U. S. 4000f.
3. Pd. for books 44f—gave Patsy 3f.
livre tournois
Pd. Petit  for  himself 72
Espagnol 60
Cocher 60
Saget 50
Cuisiniere   48
Jardinier 45
Garçon 15 350
for  month’s forage  203
on acct. 574
    1127
5. Pd. l’Abbé Arnoud portage of cork acorns7 12f10.
7. Lent J. Bannister 1500f.
8. Gave order on Mr. Grand to pay Mrs. Barclay’s bill for 1000f.
Pd. for ink pot 1f10—for 4 doz. meches phosphoriques 5f.
9. Petit’s accts. from Jan. 7.—Feb. 3. are as follows.
Feb.
 
9.
 
Jan. 7.—14 15—20 21—27 28—Feb. 3.
Cuisine 16 152– 2 38 395– 1 19 152– 7 34 450–14
Office  40–16  82– 6  44– 2–6 108–12
Petites dep. 188–13 124–19 118–11
Stove-wood  27–  27–10  26–16
bois de hetre  30–11
Postage  52–11  47– 7  40–15
192–18 745–11 396– 5–6 775–19  =  2110–13–6
 
 he pd. for wine of Ct. Carbouri  170–10
 he pd. for 2 pr. Corsets for Mrs. Smith  48–
2329– 3–6
 Memoire du Cocher  12–13
livre tournois 2341–16–6
Cr.  by pd. him ante  Jan. 24.
Feb. 3.
700
574 1274–
1067–16–6
Pd.  Petit in part of balance
remains still due to him
 900
 167–16–6
10. Gave Patsy 3f.
12. Pd. for mendg. boots 12f—ink pots 18f.
Pd. for books 2f8—hat 18f.
13. Pd. hire of piano forte 12f.
Pd. for books 2f8—lamps phosphoric 37f.
15. Gave Patsy 30f.
16. Lent Mazzei 48f.
17. Recd. of Mr. Grand for the U. S. 9000livre tournois.
livre tournois
Pd.  Duban 136– 16
le Doreur 121–
le Vitrier 15– 10
le Menuisier8 148–  2
le Bourelier 104– 10
le Charron 58–  6
le Marechal 26– 10–6
Arthur 70–
Cellier (for plate 657–  8–9
Cabaret for  stationary  116–  8
binding 110– 11
Frouillé 1979– 18
Aury 327–
3872–  0–3
18. Pd. Burrel Cairnes9 for John Bannister junr. 1241livre tournois–9.
Sent to Panthemont 600f.
 
Lent P. Mazzei 552f.10
Put into hands of Petit for Gueffier (Col. Smith’s bill ante Jan. 31) 240livre tournois.
Pd. Chaplain the Sellier 466livre tournois–18.
Pd. Petit the balance of Feb. 9. 167livre tournois–16–6.
Pd.  do. exp. Feb. 4.—10. viz.
livre tournois
Cuisine (14) 177– 2
Office 57– 1
Petites depences 104– 16
1. voie bois de hetre   31– 3
postage 32– 15
402– 17
Feb. 19. Recd. of Molini for Amer. Atlas11 for Duke de Cassano 50f.
Pd. Molini for books 24f.
22. Pd. Duprés for a medal12 of Genl. Green 31f16.
26. Pd. for books 9f—for cotton for breeches & waistcoat 45f.
Pd. Valdajou13 24f.
Pd. Coachman his wages 60f & dismissed him.
Petit’s accts. are as follows, from Feb. 10—25
livre tournois s
   portage of wine of Cahusac to Paris 10– 18
a silver cup for me 30–
15. aunes black lace for Mrs. Adams 135–
1. voie of wood for the stove 27– 6
 
2. do. for the house 62– 6
horse hire to Gouyon 72–
Feb.  10—18.  Cuisine (14)  135– 8   
Office 62–15
Pet. dep. 125– 8
Patsy 16–18
postage 35–17 376– 6
19.—25.  Cuisine (14) 135–17
Office 41– 8
Pet. dep. 37–16
postage 38–15 253– 16
967– 12
Pd. Petit in part 240f 240–
balce. 727– 12
27. His accts. for Feb. 26. 27. are
    Cuisine (4) 120– 3
Office 22 
Pet. depences   38– 18
horse hire 28– 4
postage 15 
224– 5
28. Gave orders on Mr. Grand for the following sums
 in favr. of Petit.  immediately  1450livre tournois.  for two precedg. ballances & oth. exp.
Apr. 1.  600. for expences
May 1.  600 for expences
in favr. of the Ct. de Langeac 1875. livres for a quarter’s rent paiable April 15.
Pd. Petit for a sword 18f.
Gave James 24f.

            Journey into South of France &c.14 
 
Feb. 28. Set out from Paris.
Pd. post horses at Villeneuve 21livre tournois—St. Lieu 12livre tournois–8—Melun 8livre tournois.

Mar.

1.
Fontainebleau.  11livre tournois.
lodging &c. 12livre tournois. servts. 2f8—transportn. of carrge.15 7f4.
reprs. of carriage 114f12—lodgg. 21f—servts. 4f4.
2.
Moret 12f15—Faussard 8f8—Villeneuve 5f10 Pont sur Yonne 8f8.

3.
Sens.  8f8 seeing church16 1f4.
lodging &c. 6f servts. 2f8 Villeneuve le roy 8f8 Villevallier 5f10.
Joigny 5f10 Bassou 8f8 Auxerre 11f St. Bris 5f14 Vermanton 11f8.

4.
Lucy le bois  11f8. reprs. of carriage 1f4.
lodging 6f servts. 2f8 Cussy les forges 8f8.
Rouvray 5f8 breakft. 2f8 Maison neuve 11f Vitteaux 11f.
La Chaleure 8f8—Pont de Panis 8f8—la Cude 5f10.

5.
Dijon  8f8.
pr. of chaussons 1f10 paper 2f6 seeing Palais17 3f slippers18 3f12.
reprs. of carriage 7f4.
entt. Hot. de Condé 41f barber 1f16 servts. 7f4 Lemoine, valet 9f.
 
6.
7.
La Baraque 8f8 Nuys 8f8.

8.
Beaune.  9f15. toile cirée 2f10 guide19 to Pommard, Voulenay, Meursault 6f.
barber 1f4 lodging chez Diou à l’ecu de France 17f10 servts. 2f8.
Aussy. pd. Parent20 guide to this place which is depot of wines of Monrachet 6f.
Chagny. 19f10 Chalons sur Saone 11f greasing wheels 1f4 Sennecy 11f.

9.
Tournus.  8f8.
lodgg. hot. du Palais royal 12f servts. 2f8 charity 3f.
St. Albin 11f Macon 9f12 Maison blanche 11f St. George de Renan 8f8 dinnr. 5f.

11.
Chateau de Laye Epinaye.21 horses 7f4.
servts. 39f Villefranche 11f2 les echelles 10f10 Puits d’or 8f15.

12.
Lyons.  14f—order for horses 1f4.
douanes 3f12 seeing things22 1f4.
seeing things 9f12.
pd. a taylor 188livre tournois. garçon 2f8 a Sellier alterns. of chart. 52f4.
pd. for a saddle 72f garcon 1f4 coach hire 15f breakfasts 9f14 washing 3f12—entt. Hot. du Palais royal 79f12 servts. 6f Dupuits valet 12f.
recd. of Messrs. Fingerlin & co. on Mr. Grand’s letter of credit 750livre tournois. & a bill on Devillas at Nismes for 750livre tournois. They are to answer the draught of Parent at Beaune for wine for about 400livre tournois.
13.
 
15.




St. fond 14f St. Symphorin 7f.

16.
Vienne  10f10—a knife 9f seeing things23 4f16.
entt. à la Poste 13f servts. 2f8 guides to Cote rotie24 1f4.
Auberive 18f Peage 7f4 St. Rambert 10f10 St. Vallier 10f10.

17.
Tain  10f10.
barber 1f4 wine25 9f entt. chez Revol hot. de la Poste 15f servts. 3f12.
Ferrge.26 over Isere 2f Valence 17f10 La Paillasse 10f10 L’Oriol 10f10 Laine 10f10.

Mar.

18.
Montelimart  10f10 guide27 1f4 charity 2f8.
entt. Hot. du Pal. royal 8f servts. 2f8 Donzerre 14f.
Pierrelatte 7f4 la Palus 9f douane 2f8 Mornas 8f8.
Orange. 8f8 seeing things28 4f16 dinner 11f4 servts. 1f4 Mornas 8f8 douanes 3f12.
 


19.
Pont St. Esprit  8f8.
lodging &c. 9f servts. 2f8 Bagnol 10f10 Connault 7f4.
Valignieres 10f16 Remoulins29 12f St. Gervasy 7f4.
Nismes 7f4 barber 1f4 seeing things30 1f4 books 6f6.
20. Books 10f16 seeing objects 3f12—Petit Jean disbursements 12f12.
Seeing objects 2f8—21. 1. doz. pr. wh. silk stockgs. No. 30. each pr. weighing 2 oz.–3½ dwt. English 120f—6 pr. black do. 60livre tournois. marking T.I. 1f10.
Recd. of Messrs. Devillas the 750livre tournois. on Finguerlin’s bill ante 15.
Pd. Petit Jean disbursemts.31 1f4—lost in changg. silver 4f13 seeing 3f12.
22. Pd. mendg. lock 1f16 1. doz. pr. wh. silk stockgs. No. 30. wt. 2 oz.–4½ the pair 120f T.I. 87.
Seeing things 3f12 charity 3f medals32 44f16 taylor’s bill 41f10.
23. Washing 2f12—Pet. Jean wages 24f—charity 6f—books 2f8.
Seeing things 3f12—medals 18f—do. 57f12.
24. Entt. 57f servts. 3f12—Blondin Valet 15f.
Arles. ferrge. 1f10—douane 2f8—horses 31f16—breakft. 3f18 seeing33 5f.
Terrascon 19f4.
St. Remis34 14f8—books 3f12.
 
25. Lodging at Cheval blanc 6f servts. 3f12.
Orgon 14f8—Pontroyal 14f8 St. Cannat 14f8.

26.
Aix35 14f8—servt. 12s.
postage 38f16 seeing 1f4—douches 2f8—comedie 2f8.
seeing 3f12—douches 3f12—toothpick case 1f4.
Petit jean wages 24f—postage 2f10 douches 3f12 Comedie36 2f8.
douches 2f8 coffee 4f4 bottles &c. for water 8f8—servts. 5f8.
entt. Hot. St. Jaques 60f.—Flamand, Valet 15f—Le Pin 14f8.
27.
28.
29.
 

30.
Marseilles37 14f8—tin vessels 1f4.
portage of water 2f P. jean disbmts. 6f seeing 1f4 Comedie 3f12.
tin vessels 4f4 map 1f16.
seeing 2f8—book 6f—passage to Chateau d’If38 6f—seeing 1f4.
seeing 4f10.
seeing Chateau de Borelli39 2f8 washg. 3f19 markg. 10f6.
31.
Apr. 2.
4.
5.
Recd. of Mr. Brethous on letter of Mr. Grand for U. S. 600f.
 
6.
     Pet. Jean disbmts. 1f18 balce. of month’s wages 48f.
chart. hire 75f12—reprs. of chart. 28f14 postage 4f15.
entt. Hot. des Princes 116f servts. 2f8 Valet 24f garçon 1f4.
Aubagne 14f8—Cuges 10f4 Beausset 14f8.

7.
Toulon.  15f.
coffee 15s—entt. 12f5—servt. 1f4—Valet 3f.
entt. 11f—servt. 1f4.
8.
Hieres. seeing gardens40 2f8 breakft. Hot. St. Pierre 4f servt. 2f8.
Cuers 51f4—Pignan 14f8—Luc 14f8.
9. Luc. entt. Hot. St. Anne 9f reprs. chart. 4f servts. 2f8 Vidauban 10f16 Muy 10f16 Frejus 14f8—dinnr. 3f—servt. 1f4 Lestrelles 20f Napoules 10f16 Antibes 18f.
10. Antibes. entt. 6f seeing41 2f8 servts. 2f8—coffee 1f6 horses to Nice 27f douane at the Var 2f8 guides thro’ the river 6f.42

            Italy 
Apr. 10.
Nice.  seeing King’s garden43 1f4.
oranges 1f4.
recd. of Baron Le Clerc on Mr. Grand’s letter 480livre tournois Piemt. = 576livre tournois. France.
portmanteau 12f—packg. cloth & washing 6f12.
11.
12.
 

Money of Piedmont. The Louis of France = 20livre tournois of Piemont. 
13. 44
    entt. Hot. de York 45f12.—Dominique, Valet 8f8—Scarena dinnr. 4f15.
 
14. Sospello. lodgg. &c. 6f servt. 15s. Ciandola45 breakft. 3f10.
15. Tende lodgg. &c. 6f. servt. 15s.
Limone. douane 12s. muletier 87f horses to Coni 19f Postilln. & breakft. 5f servt. 10s.

16.
Coni.  postillion from Limone 3f.
entt. à la Croix blanche 12f servt. 15s. Racconigi. breakft. 2f15.

17.
Turin.  carrge. & 3. horses from Coni 36livre tournois. comedie 12½s.
seeing46 10f10—maps 13f10—seeing 3f7½—comedy 1f.
horses to Moncaglieri, Stupanigi, & Superga47 33f—seeing 13f10.
recd. of Messrs. Tollot, pere et fils for Le Clerc & co. on Grand’s lre. 600livre tournois.
entt. hot. d’Angleterre 37f10 garçon 1f10 Valet 9f Cigliani dinnr. 4f10 servt. 7½s.
18.
 
19.
20. Vercelli. rough rice48 3f—entt. Hot. des 3. rois 12f10—garçon 1f12½.
Novara. dinnr. 2f15 servts. 12½s Buffalora. douane 3f.
 
Sedriano.  carriage, horses, postillion & ferrges. from Turin 96f.
carriage & horses hence to Milan 13f.
Milan. douane 1f10—postillion 4f10.

  Money of Milan 30livre tournois = 24livre tournois France = 20livre tournois Piedmont. 
21.
    seeing49 20livre tournois.—comedy 1f5.
maps 5f—seeing 12f—coachman 3f washg. 5f Valet 12f Coffee 4f10.
entt. Albergo reale 79f10—garçon 3f breakft. 2f.
22.
23.
Casino. seeing rice mill50 1f—teeth for a Rice pestil 5f10.
Rozzano. seeing the making a Parmesan cheese51 1f—Chartreux52 seeing 3f.

24.
Pavia.  seeing botanical garden53 &c. 3f.
entt. al Croce bianco 10livre tournois.—garçon 1f5 Voghere dinnr. 2f10 garçons 1f5.
25. Novi. entt. à la Poste 3f garçon 1f2½ Campomorone. dinnr. à la rosa rossa 5f garcon 1f5.


26.
Genoa.  douane 4f10—the Livre here the same as at Milan.
carriage, horses & postillion from Milan 162livre tournois.—book 6livre tournois.
entt. Ste. Marthe 12f10 garçons & moving to Cerf 2f4 seeing54 22f theater 1f.
seeing 18f8—horses & carriage to Sestri, Pegli, & Nervi55 43f10.
1. doz. Ortolans 6f washg. 3f15—entt. au Cerf 38f2½ seastores 35f5 Valet 11f5.
garçons 6f portage to water side56 1f10.
 
27.
 
28.
29.
Noli.  entt. 15f garçon 1f10 Albenga. the Capt. on acct. 72livre tournois of Genoa = 57f12 France.
pd. Capt. on acct. 36livre tournois.—entt. 18livre tournois.
30.
Oneglia. Capt. of Felucca in full 57f—mules from Albengo 22f10.

May

1.
St. Remo.  lodging at the Auberge de la poste 9f.
servts. 4f10—Menton. breakft. & oranges 5f10—garçon 6s.
Nice.  mules from Oneglia to this place 46f of Piedmont.
recd. of Baron Le Clerc on Mr. Grand’s letter 288livre tournois. of France.
state of rects. from him   480livre tournois.    of Piedmont Apr. 12.
 600 of Messrs. Tollot Apr. 18.
1080. = 1296livre tournois. of France
 288.  now recd.
1584.
  38 –9  Commission &c.
1622 –957
 

            Money of France 
2.
     Pet. Jean month’s wages 96f disbmts. 1f6 remisage 9f 2 doz. oranges 1f.
entt. at Hot. de York 14f16.
servts. 3f—horses to Antibes 32f8.

            France. 
May 2. Pd. at passage of the Var 3f—douane 3f. Antibes coffee 1f4 breakft. 3f12 Napoules 24f—Lestrelle 11f5.
3. Frejus 11f8—Muy 11f8—Vidauban 8f11—Luc 10f16 breakft. 2f8 Brignolles 18f Tourves 10f16—Pourcieux 15f—la Galiniere 15f.

4.
Aix.  postage 45f—horses 11f8.
coffee 1f4—entt. hot. St. Jaques 17f—servts. 4f4—le grand pin 14f8 douane 2f8.

5.
Marseilles  14f8.
maps 4f4—coach hire 3f.
recd. of M. Brethous on Mr. Grand’s lre. 1500livre tournois.
entt. Hot. des princes 41f10—taylor 2f—washing 3f.
coach hire 15f—valet 9f servts. 3f10—reprs. of chariot 38f8.
6.
 
7.
Douane 2f8—grand pin 14f8—Aix 14f8—St. Cannat 14f8—Pontroyal 14f8.

8.
Orgon  14f8.
entt. 7f—servts. 2f8—St. Andiol 7f4—ferrge. Durance 2f4 Douane 2f8.
Avignon.58 18f—Vaucluse, seeing the fountain 1f16.

9.
Avignon.  horses to Vaucluse & back 18f.
coffee 3f—seeing things 6f—wine de Rochegude 2f8.
entt. Hot. de St. Omer 13f—servts. 2f8—ferrge. Rhone 2f8 douane 2f8.
 
Ville neuve d’Avignon. seeing the Chartreux59 1f4—Remoulins 26f8—St. Gervasy 7f4.

10.
Nismes.  7f4.
seeing Circus60 1f4—entt. Hot. de Luxembourg 6f.—servts. 2f8.
Model of antique vase in Cabinet de Segur61 18f—Valet 3f.
Uchault 10f16—Lunel 10f16—breakft. at do. 5f servt. 12s.—Colombieres 7f4.

11.
Montpelier  10f16—theater 2f10.
oranges 1f10—tin box 1f2—charity 2f8—maps 42f18.
traiteur 14f—bread 10s—Lunel wine 1f4—breakft. 1f6 bougies 1f6.
apartmts. 3. days 9f—wood 2f—St. foin62 seed 8f—Valet 6f.
servts. 2f8—remisage 1f16.
12.

13.
Cette.  horses 30f.
entt. au grand Gaillon 10f—servts. 3f—embarkg.63 3f12.
 

14.
Agde.  passage from Cette 25f4—debarking 3f12.
entt. 21f—servts. 2f8—embarkg. 3f.
15. Bezieres. entt. 12f—servts. 2f8—stores 3f.
16. Le Saumal. entt. 7f—servts. 1f4—Pet. Jean disbursemts. 5f.
17. Marseillette. ent. 6f—servt. 1f4.
18. Carcassonne. entt. Hot. de St. Jean baptiste 12f—servts. 2f8.
19. St. Feriol. seeing the Souterrain64 1f4—Escarmaze. hay 15s.
20.
Castelnaudari.  horses to St. Feriol, Escarmaze, Lampy 9f—
Pet. Jean disbts. 12f12.
entt. hot. de Notre dame 17f.
servts. 2f8—Pet. Jean disbmts. 2f13.
Baziege. entt. 7f—servt. 15s.
21.
Toulouse.  passage from Agde. 8. days @ 12f = 96livre tournois. droits de passage 15f.
etrennes to the Capt. &c. 24f debarkg. 2f8—seeing65 3f.
entt. Hot. du griffon d’or 8f—servts. 1f16.
servts. 2f8—St. Jorry 14f8—Grisolles 10f16. Montauban 18f breakft. 3f10.

22.
À la Pointe 10f16—ferrge. 2f2—Moisac 14f8—Malause 10f16—Magistere 10f16.
Croquelaudy 10f16.

23.
Agen.  10f16—entt. Hotel petit St. Jean 12f.
servts 2f8.—Ste. Hilaire 7f4—Port Ste. Marie 10f16. Aiguillon 7f4.
Ferrge. 2f18—Tonneins 10f16—Marmaude 14f8—Motte Landron 10f16.
La Reole 7f4—Cauderot 7f4—Langon 7f4—ferrge. Garronne 3f—Barlade 7f4.

24.
Castres  7f4—entt. 8f—Petit jean disbursemts. 3f2.
servts. 2f8—Prade 7f4—Bouscaut 7f4.
 
26.
Bourdeaux.66 12f12—barber 1f4—charity 2f8—knife 6f—maps 3f.
barber 1f4—charity 12s.—Comedie67 6f.
May 27.
Bourdeaux.  recd. of Messrs. Feger & Gramont on Grand’s letter 2700livre tournois.
lent Mr. Barclay 1000livre tournois.68—pd. coach hire 7f4—do. 12f.
washing 7f2—Pet. Jean disbmts. 4f6—do. wages 9f12.
barber 1f4—breakfasts 7f4—reprs. chariot 39f coach hire 16f.
entt. Hot. de Richlieu 100f servts. 6f—embarkn. 4f16 Valet 15f12.

28.
 

29.
Blaye.  passage from Bourdeaux 18f debarcation 3f8—Pet. Jean wages 26f8 entt. à la poste 4f.
servts. 2f8—Etaulieres 10f16—St. Aubin 7f4—Mirambeau 10f16.
St. Genis 10f16—Pons 10f16—Lajart 7f4—Saintes 10f16 dinnr. 5f servts. 2f4.
St. Porchair 14f8—Ste. Hyppolite 10f16—ferrge. 3f.

30.
Rochefort.  10f16.
entt. at Bacha 11f6—barber 1f4—servts. 3f—coffee 1f8.
Le Rocher 10f16—Rochelle 14f8—seeing things69 1f4—Usseau 10f16.
Marans 10f16—Moreilles 14f8.

31.
Ste. Hermine  14f8—entt. 8f.
servts. 2f8—Chantenay 14f8—St. Fulgent 18f  breakft. 2f14.
 
Montaigu 14f8—Aigrefeuille 10f16.

June

1.
Nantes.  18f—postage 7f7—cane 1f4—hat 21f.
barber 1f4—coffee 1f4—Pet. Jean balance of wages 60f.
entt. à la Croix verte 11f servts. 5f8—le Temple 18f.
Moere 10f16—Pont chateau 14f8—Rochebernard 14f8—ferrge. 1f10.

2.
Massillac  14f8—entt. 9f10.
servts. 2f8—Thex 14f8—Vannes 7f4—breakft. 1f10.
Auray 14f8—Landevant 14f8—Hennebon 10f16—ferrge. 1f16.

3.
Lorient.  10f16—conductor 1f4.
seeing70 3f12—reprs. to chariot 28f8.
entt. hot. de l’epée royale 10f—servts. 5f8 ferrge. 1f16.
Hennebon 10f16—Baud 18f—Lommié 14f8.

4.
Josselin  21f12.
entt. 6f—servts. 2f8—Ploermel 10f16—Campenac 7f4.
Plelan 14f8—Mardelle 18f.

5.
Rennes.  14f8—barber 1f4—seeing71 3f12—reprs. chart. 13f4. entt. Mouton 6f.
servts. 4f4—Pet. Jean disbmts. 12s.—Bout des landes 14f8 Roudun 10f16.
Brecharaye 10f16 breakft. 2f2—Derval 10f16—Nosay 10f16.
Bout de bois 14f8—Gesvres 10f16.

6.
Nantes  12f.
barber 1f4—traiteur 9f12—postage 3f18—Pet. Jean disbmts. 5f15.
lodging 6f—dinnr. from St. Julien 7f16—valet 6f.
servts. 1f4—remisage 2f8—Mauves 10f16—le Plessis 10f16.

7.
Ancenis  10f16—entt. hot. de Bretagne 6f10.
servts. 2f8—Varades 10f16—Loriottiere 7f4. breakft. 1f16.
St. George 10f16—Angers 15f—Daguiniere 10f16—la Menitré 10f4.
 
Roziers 5f8—la croix verte 14f8—la Riviere 12f12.

8.
Les trois volées  12f12 entt. at do. 6f.
servts. 1f4—Langeais 10f16.
Tours72 10f16—breakft. & dinnr. à la galere 13f4  servts. 3f12.
Pet. Jean disbmts. 5f7—la Frilliere 10f16.
Amboise 10f16—seeing Chanteloupe73 7f4 repairs of chariot 6f.

June

9.
Veuve  10f16.
entertt. 6f—servts. 2f8—Chousy 10f16—Blois 10f16.
Chateau Menars 10f16—seeing Chateau of Mme. de Pompadour74 3f—breakft. 3f12.
Menars la ville 10f16—Beaujency 10f16—Meun 7f4—Fourneau 7f4.


10.
Orleans  7f4—barber 1f4—map 1f4—guide 1f4.
entt. a la poste 12f8—reprs. of chariot 7f4.
servts. 4f4—Chavilly 10f16—Artenay 7f4 Toury 10f16 breakft. 3f12.
Angerville 12f12—Montdesir 7f4—Estampes 7f4—Estrechy 7f4.
Arpajon 10f16—Longjumeau 10f16—Croix de Bernis 7f4—ferrge. 1f4.
Paris 18f.

11. Cash on hand 777livre tournois.—gave Patsy 3f.
12. Gave an American sailor 6f—pd. for gloves 1f16.
14. Patsy 15f.
15. A gilet 24f.
 
16. Concert at the Pantheon75 6f.
18. Petit on acct. 24f—recd. of Mr. Grand 3000f.
19. Petit on account 500f—gave James 24f.
20. Pd. Mr. McCarty for china76 202livre tournois–4.
22. Seeing Chateau de Madrid 3f.
23. Petit on account 24f.
24. Petit on account 300f.
25. Indorsed Gibbons’s77 bill of excha. for £85 sterl. on Donald & Burton of London. Note I was named as payee. Perigaud indorsee.
26. Redingcote for Patsy 63f—books 10f10—ferrge. Surene 6s.
28. Charity 6f—Patsy 6f.
29. Pd. Goldsmith the 22d. livraison de l’Encyclopedie viz.
livre tournois
  for  myself 24
Doctr. Franklin   24
F. Hopkinson 24
James Madison 24
Colo. Monroe 23
Dr. Currie 23
142
Pd. do. for other books for myself 51f18.
30. Books 4f10.
30. Petit on acct. 24f—Goldsmith books 5f.
Analysis78 of Petit’s accts. from Feb. 28. to June 17.
 

February March April May June Total
Servants wages 290 335 227 227 1079
other exp. of Servts.   68–19  18–12  72  37– 6  196–17
Stable exp. 179 193 132–13 122–16  18  645– 9
Cuisine 114– 1 138–17 163–10 189– 9  605–17
Office  31– 9  93–16  99–19  81– 9  306–13
Petites depences  3–16  55–10  38– 2  37  30–11  164–19
Washing  24  26–12  25–10  76– 2
Wood  29–15  56– 6  86– 1
Postage  63–16  14– 4  35–10  21– 8  134–18
Patsy  21– 8  21– 8
Total. 472–16 907– 3 719–11 839–11 378– 3 3317– 4
    livre tournois
Amount of expences from the other side 3317– 4
his accounts from Feb. 10—25. ante 967– 12
do.       Feb. 26.27. ante 224– 5
duties &c. of vin Monrachet paid by him 62– 10
paid engraver79 in part for plate of map 96–
4667– 11
livre tournois
Feb. 26.  paid him 240
28. order on Mr. Grand 1450
Apr.  1. do. 600
May  1. do. 600
June  Mr. Short’s order on do.   400
18. cash 24
19. do. 500
23. do. 24
24. do. 300
30. do. 24
do. now pd. him in full 505 –11 4667– 11
 
Pd. Upton on account 96f—gave in charity 6f.
July 1. Petit’s accts. from June 17. to 30.
 17—23  24—30
Cuisine 410–18  150– 6
Office 133– 6  50– 9
stable exp.  14–14
washing  75– 3
pet. depences  66– 5–6     12
postage  13–12  37–11
Patsy  48–  24–
servts. expences    72–  24
744– 1–6  376–15
 744– 1–6
12 pr. chaussons  16–10
4 pr. thread stockings  24–
marking   2– 8
1 aune cambrick  16–10
furniture  45–14
portage  24–19
Servts. wages. viz.
livre tournois
 Petit 72
 Espagnol 60
 Sagit 50
 Lomenie80   45
 Garçon 15  242–
1492–17–6
 
2. Recd. of M. Grand for the united states 4000f.
Paid Petit as above 1492–17–6
Advanced him 35. Louis   840–  for journey to London.81
2332–17–6
Pd. Deaugustini for translating Observns. on Calonne’s lre.82 12f.
Pd. postage 1f16—books 9f.
Pd. at Mont Calvaire83 2f8.
Pd. postage 65f Lomenie.
Jul. 4. Pd. for bookbinding for James Madison 46f14.84
Pd. portage & road duties on 283. bottles Frontignan85 of Lambert 212f19.
5. Pd. Petit Jean 72f—pd. portage of 72. bottles Pacaret86 frm. Grand 5f2.
Gave Patsy 3f—pd. portage 1f16.
6. Pd. at Panthemont 600f.
Pd. Gerante 250. bottles of vin rouge ordinaire for last year 190f.
7. Pd. postage 26livre tournois–8.
8. Pd. forage of last month 143f.
9. Pd. for books 26f10.
 
10. Pd. Espagnol for wood & coal 30f.
Pd. Perrier water for the year 50f.
Pd. & gave Petit Jean in full on his leaving me 72f.
11. Pd. Noseda difference of Opera glass 12f.
12. Stated this day & filed among my papers the following accts.87
 Bannister John junr.
 Barclay Thos.
 Currie (Dr.) & Hay Wm. (for Encyclopedie)
 Fayette Marquis de la.
 Franklin Dr. Benj.
 Hopkinson Francis.
 Mazzei Philip.
 Monroe James.
 Smith Wm. Stevens.
Gave James 12f—paid for a Pendule 204f—a double barreled gun 60f.
13. Gave an American sailor from N. London 24f.
Paid Sagit postage 30f6.
Paid portage of 250. bottles of Burgundy88 (<Caumartin> Vollenaye & Meursault) 66f.
Paid droits d’entrée on do. 50f.
17. Recd. back from Espagnol (ante 10) 7f10.
Pd. Goldsmith for books 23f16.
18. Gave Petit Jean 48f.
19. Pd. Sr. John Lamb for Cathalan, for rice89 85f5.
 
20. Pd. Goldsmith for books 18f.
21. Accepted Mr. Barclay’s bill for 1200livre tournois. paiable July 28. Note this is a matter between him & the U. S. so charge it to them.
22. Gave Patsy 6f.
23. Pd. Buissure for Wilt Delmestre & co. for coffee90 138–19.
Pd. Petit on account 61livre tournois–1.
26. Pd. Sagit postage 20f1.
27. Pd. Petit on account 24f.
28. Borrowed of Mr. Short91 viz.
Grand’s bill on Teissier for £46–17s–10d sterl. =  livre tournois    d
1174– 6–6
cash 3989– 4–6
5163–11

            State of Petit’s accts. 
Journey to London.
livre tournois   
He paid Mrs. Adams there 198–   livre tournois
He pd. here for lace & gloves for her 112–12  310–12
livre tournois
He pd.  expences of map plate92  11– 5
bedstead  88– 4
4 coils of wax taper  3
 
necessaries for Polly  25–10
Extra expences of journey     96– 4  224– 3
4.93 places in Diligence  480–
1014–15
livre tournois
I paid him July 2. 840
balance due him 174–15 1014–15

  livre tournois   s
Balance on journey to London  174–15
livre tournois   s   
 July 1—24.    Cuisine (78) 756– 9
Office 207–15
petites depences    20– 9
my daughters 120–11
servants  69– 2
washing  13–
postage  17–19 1205– 5
1380.
 cash July 23.  61– 1
 do. July 27.  24–  85– 1
1294–19
 paid him now 1300–
 leaves balance in my favor   5– 1
Inclosed to Mr. Adams Grand’s bill on Teissier before mentioned as borrowed of Mr. Short for £46–17–1094 sterl. to pay Genl. Sullivan’s draught on me in favr. of Colo. Smith.
July 31. Paid chair hire at Versailles 6f.

Aug.

2.
livre tournois
Paid servants, viz.  Petit 72
Espagnol   60
Cocher95 60
Saget 50
Lomenie 45
garçon 15
302
Repd. Mr. Short for de la Haye for correcting my map plate 123f.
Pd. Parent’s bill for 126. bottles Vollenaye or Caumartin & 124 of Meursault 258f.
Aug. 4. Pd. Petit on account 300f.
6. Pd. Limozin’s bill 739livre tournois–13 of which charge
  State of Virginia96
  Jas. Madison
  Dr. Franklin
  F. Hopkinson
  James Monroe
  Currie & Hay
Nomeni’s97 account of Paris postage from Aug. 1.—6. 7f10.
Advanced to a courier (Lomenie) to Havre with dispatches98 for U. S. 60livre tournois.
8. Pd. Mr. Barclay’s bill on me for U. S. 1200livre tournois. to be charged to them.
Paid Petit on account 100f.
Pd. Charpentier 3. machines for writing table 21f—2 doz. boxes 4f16.
9. Pd. Goldsmith for 22d. livraison of Encyclopedie for myself 24livre tournois.
Pd. do. for other books 33f.
11. Do. do. 3f.
12. Pd. Petit 24f.
13. Pd. do. 48f11 & he has recd. back from the douane 50f ante July 13.
 
State of Petit’s accounts
Cuisine.  July 25.—31. (20.)     311– 2
Aug. 1.—11. (35)  263–18
Office. July 25—Aug. 11.      254–10
livre tournois
Petites depences  85
postage  47– 9
my daurs. 242–13
portage  95– 1
servants  6– 8
washing  69– 8  545–19
1375– 9
Cr. by former balance  2–18
Aug.  4.  by  cash   
8.  by  do.
12.   do.
13.   do.
received from Douane
balance now due him
300–
100
 24
 48–11
 50  525– 9
 850–
Pd. Petit 48livre tournois.
17. Pd. Petit 24livre tournois. gave Patsy 3livre tournois.
19. Ferrge. to Mont Calvaire 12s.—Nomeni’s Paris postage 9f.
21. Pd. for books 4f4.
Recd. of Mr. Grand 4000livre tournois.
Pd. at Panthemont 600livre tournois—pd. Petit in full 778livre tournois.
22. Pd. forage for July 171f10—books 3f12.
24. Gave Patsy 3f.
26. Pd. for books 1f4—at M. Calvaire 12s.—Nomeni Paris postage 6f10.
27. Pd. Nomenie balance of exp. as Courier to Havre 24f.
Pd.  Garvey’s bill of excha. for charges
on wine of Bordeaux99 46–14–6
on copying press1 for Chastellux   21–10–6
68– 5
 
Aug. 30. Pd. for reading glasses2 to Noseda 42livre tournois.
Pd. for a pr. of coolers & glass trays, argentés 63f—books 1f2.
31. Pd. Petit 24f—Nomeni’s acct. Paris postage 8f.
Sep. 1. Pd. do. for servants wages viz.
   Petit 72
Espagnol   60
Saget 50
Cocher 60
Nomenie 45
Garçon 15
302
Pd. Angenen in part 400livre tournois.
Pd. postage 91f18.
3. Pd. Lambert’s order for Frontignan wine 374livre tournois–14.
4. Pd. forage for August 177f10.
Pd. subscription for Mercure de France a year to come 30livre tournois.
5. Pd. Saget postage 19f14.
Took possession of apartments at Mont Calvaire.
Paid dinner at Mont Calvaire 6f.
Gave in charity 6f.
7. Pd. Petit 96f—pd. do. for Richard for teaching James 48f.
8. Nomeni’s account Paris postage 9f10.
10. Gave Patsy 3f.
11. Pd. at Panthemont 600f—pd. Petit 96f—Upton 48f.
12. Pd. expences St. Germains3 4f4.
13. Pd. seeing Polychrest machine4 3f.
14. Pd. crossing at Suresne 8s.
 
15. Recd. of Count de Moustier for Atlas &c. frm. Engld.5 80f8.
16. Nomeni’s acct. Paris postage 5f10.
17. Gave Patsy 3f.
18. Pd. chairmen at Versailles 3f.
20. Pd. crossing at Suresne 6s.
21. Pd. for ink pot 1f10.
22. Pd. Petit 24f—for gloves 1f16.
23. Nomeni’s acct. Paris postage 10f10.
24. Gave Patsy 3f—charity 6f.
25. Pd. Petit 6f.
27. Pd. Petit 27f.
28. Pd. Petit 24f.
29. Pd. Petit 24f—charity 6f.
30. Pd. at King’s garden 18s.—Nomeni’s acct. Paris postage 11f10.
Octob. 1. Gave Patsy 3f.
Paid for necessaries for do. 24f8.
Octob. 1. Drew on Willem & Jan Willink Nichs. & Jacob Van Staphorsts bankers at Amsterdam in favr. of Mr. Grand for 3201 florins 1. sol de banque6 on acct. of United states.
Recd. of Mr. Grand bill of exchange7 on Louis Teissier of London for £14–7s sterl. = 354livre tournois–15s and 6645livre tournois–5s cash = in the whole to 7000livre tournois.
Pd. Petit for the servants wages viz.
   Petit 72
Espagnol 60
Saget 50
Cocher 60
Nomenie   45
Garçon 15
James8 24
326
Pd. Mr. Short 1200f. Charge him also 86.35 dollars pd. by C. Thomson for plants for Mde. de Tessé9 and 23livre tournois–12s–6d pd. for their freight = 476livre tournois–18s–6d.
Pd. do. for Deaugustini for translating 48f.

Aug. 12—19 19—25 26–Sep. 1 2—7 9—15 16—23 24—30
dinners 15 20 36 9 20 22 20 142
livre tournois livre tournois livre tournois livre tournois livre tournois livre tournois
Cuisine 132–13 169–15 369– 0 138–5–6 184– 6 221–11–6 302–14 1518– 5  = 10f13
Office  48–15 223–19 134– 5  17–4–  90–11  64–16–  60–10  640 = 4f10
pet. dep.  17–17  25–19  37– 8  21–5  50–10  22–17  28– 5  204– 1
postage  10– 5  1– 3  10– 3  3–6  5–11  8–14  17–16  56–18
portage  53–15  6–13  17–8  34–
my daurs.  27–  3  8–17  3– 4  6– 8
servants  9  19– 1  1–10
washing  58  48–15
290– 5 432–16 643– 7 197–8–6 335–12 324– 6–6 492– 0 2715–15

2. Paid Petit balance, viz. 2394livre tournois–15 = 2715livre tournois–15 – 321livre tournois. the amount of monies paid him at different times since Aug. 21.
Paid him moreover 12f12 duties & portage of letter press for the Marquis de Chastellux.
Paid Upton in full 560f.
Paid at Panthemont 300f.
Pd. for plated sugar dish 21f—coffee pot 54f—black teapot 3f.
Pd. for plated cream urn 18f.
3. Advanced to Petit 168f of which 60f is for 5 aunes cambrick for Mrs. Adams.
Pd. forage of last month 173f10.
5. Gave Upton’s journeyman 6f.
Discharged Saget & gave him 48f.
6. Doyenne 72f.
7. Settled Petit’s accounts viz.
 
livre tournois livre tournois
Cuisine 69–10 brot. forward 138–12
Office 25– 3 portage 14– 6
pet. dep. 4– 5 my daurs. 3–12
postage 7– 1 servants 20– 4
wood 29– 3 12. coff. cups. 9 saucers  23–15 10 cups @ 30s saucers @ 25s
washing  3–10 200– 9
138–12
Paid Petit in full for above 92f9.
Octob. 7. Nomeni’s acct. Paris postage 12f10.
Octob. 8. Paid for 2. dumb-waiters11 28f—gave Patsy 3f.
10. Pd. for 60. phosphoretic matches 6f.
Pd. hearing musical glasses12 3f.
11. Pd. Debray13 for books 64f.
12. Gave drink money 1f4.
Pd. at Mont Calvaire 60f. viz. @ 2f10 myself & 1f my horse.14
14. Gave Patsy 3f.
15. Analysis of Petit’s accts. from Oct. 7—13
livre tournois
Cuisine (17) 129– 12
Office 61– 7
pet. dep. 46– 5
washing 37– 15
my daurs. 41– 14
servts. 41–
portage 2– 14
postage ordinary 7– 7
     from America 61– 7
subscrptn. Cab. des modes.15   30–
a tea kettle 18–
477– 1
 
Paid Petit in full 477livre tournois–1.
Nomeni’s acct. of postage from Oct. 7—13 is 9livre tournois.
20. Pd. for a dumb waiter 14f12.
Pd. portage of boxes of plants & bones from Havre 18f.
Lent Mazzei 48f.
22. Gave Patsy 3f—pd. for 2. teapots &c. 10f16.
25. Pd. for dinner at Palais royal 24f—Varieties16 3f.
29. Gave Patsy 3f.
Nov. 1. Recd. of Mr. Grand 5000livre tournois. for my bill on Willinks & V. Staphorsts for 2291 gilders–13 stivers.
Pd. Houdon balance for bust17 of M. fayette 1500livre tournois. for state of Virginia.
Pd. Ct. de Langeac a quarter’s rent 1875livre tournois.
Pd. Limozin’s bill for freight of plants & bones18 160livre tournois–7.
livre tournois
Pd. servants, viz.  Petit 72.
Espagnol 60.
l’Ardennois. cocher.   60.
Boileau. frotteur 50.
Nomeni 45 
James 24.
Garçon 15 
326 
Nomeni’s acct. of postage from Oct. 14. to 26. 24livre tournois–0.
Analysis of Petit’s accts.
 

Oct. 14—20 21—27
  livre tournois   livre tournois
Cuisine 19)  166– 2 17)  165– 5
Office  45–13  33– 3
pet. dep.  26– 1  30– 6
my daurs.  37– 1  53– 3
portage  4–14
wood  31
305–17 286–11
305–17
6. teacups  36–
screw of reading table 118– 4
746–12
pd. Petit 138–13
607–19
Pd. tickets to a concert19 6f.
3. Pd. Petit balance above 607livre tournois–19.
Pd. him also postage from Oct. 14—26. 23f10.
4. Analysis of Petit’s accounts Oct. 28—Nov. 3.
   livre tournois
Cuisine (15) 188– 8
Office 27– 19
Petites depenses 2 
my daughters 2 
washing 45 
postage 14– 13
280– 0
portage of Mr. Adams’s books20   30– 15
310– 15
Nomeni’s acct. postage for same term is 9livre tournois.
6. Gave Patsy 3f.
7. Pd. Dr. Sutton21 for inoculating Sally 240livre tournois.
12. Gave Patsy 3f.
 

14.
livre tournois
Pd. Garvey’s bill  for freight &c. of harpsichord22 77– 7–6
for postage of letters 10– 8
87–15–6
16. Pd. a Coturiere an acct. for Patsy 99livre tournois.
Pd. for a hat for myself 24livre tournois.
18. Pd. mending secretaire 3f.
19. Gave Patsy 3f—pd. for sundries for her 19livre tournois.
Pd. for 12. ivory handled knives at the Prix fixe23 36f.
20. Pd. Petit 72livre tournois.
22. Pd. tuning harpsichord 6f.
 
24. Recd. of Mr. Grand 1000livre tournois.
Pd. Mrs. Barclay’s bill for 724livre tournois. which balances my acct. with Mr. Barclay.
Gave Patsy 12f.
Nov. 25. Pd. Mr. Short on his own acct. 123livre tournois–2.
Pd. do. for sundries bot. for Colo. Smith 112livre tournois–5.
26. Gave in charity to two Moors 48livre tournois.
27. Pd. Petit on acct. 96f which with 72livre tournois pd. the 20th. leaves balance ante Nov. 4. 142livre tournois–15.
28. Pd. tuning harpsichord 3f.
29. Gave Patsy 15f.
Dec. 1. Analysis of Petit’s accts.

Nov. 4—10 11—18   19—24
livre tournois livre tournois
Cuisine (13)  107– 6 (23)  130–17 (21)  542–17
Office  45– 4  30–11 160– 8
Petites dep.  74–12  37– 6  35– 7
Wood 3.v.  84–
my daurs.  28  71– 5  12–10
servts.  19– 4  5–16
postage  8– 8  10–17  12–17 = 32livre tournois–2
  livre tournois
366–14 286–12 763–19 1417– 5

Accts. paid by Petit.
livre tournois
Marbrier splitting marble slab. 18
2. sceaux24 argentés 36
2. girandoles argentés à 3. branches 48
3. doz. red china plates 63
8. soupe do. 14
5. do. compotiers 13 –15
glasses &c. 35 –19
portage of harpsichord from Rouen    18
forage  for month of  October     154–10
do. for November  154–10
 
livre tournois
 Servants. viz.  Petit 72
Espagnol 60
l’Ardennois    60
Boileau 50
Nomeni 45
James 24
Garçon 15     326– 
2298–19
Balance due him ante Nov. 27. is 142–15
2441–14
livre tournois  
Nomeni’s acct. of postage is Nov.   4—10.       12–10
11—18 11–10
19—28 14–10
38–10
Dec. 1. Drew on Willinks & Van Staphorsts for 2731 florins–5s. banco, & recd. of Mr. Grand for it 5000livre tournois. which with the 1000livre tournois. received ante Nov. 24. makes 6000livre tournois. to be credited to U. S.
Pd. at Panthemont 1000livre tournois.
Pd. Petit the balance before stated of 2441livre tournois–14.
Pd. do. the Sellier (Chapelain’s) acct. 744livre tournois–19.
Pd. Mr. Short 600livre tournois.
5. Pd. for books 3f.
6. Pd. for do. 7f10—gave Patsy 3f.
8. Pd. tuning harpsichord 3f.
11. Recd. of the Nuncio25 for a copying press from England 320livre tournois–17.
Gave Patsy 3f.
livre tournois
Paid for  Gazettes.  of Leyden 36
de France 15
Journal de Paris 30
 
de Physique26 24
Encyclopedique  25 –4
134 –427
Pd. for gloves 3f—Improvisatore28 3f.
14. Pd. Royez for a book 12f.
15. Pd. for Servante29 14f porter 1f.
18. Pd. Bacot30 for 4. woollen blankets 132livre tournois.—pd. for books 9f4.
19. Recd. of Mrs. Adams 120livre tournois.31
20. Gave Patsy 3f.
21. Pd. Petit 72livre tournois.
22. Pd. do. 72livre tournois.—gave Houdon’s people 6f.
24. Pd. Bodouin 24f.
26. Gave Mr. Short order on Mr. Grand on my privte. acct. for 600livre tournois.
27. Gave Patsy 3f.—pd. 17 livraisons of Galeries des hommes32 &c. 68f.
 
28. Pd. Beaudoin 24f.
29. Pd. for books 12s.
31. Gave Patsy 6f.
Drew on Willincks & Van Staphorsts for 2750 florins banco.
Received for the same of Mr. Grand 6000livre tournois.
Pd. Mr. Grand for the order in favr. Mr. Short ante 26. 600livre tournois.
Pd. do. what he had lent to J. Rutlege33 on my order 600livre tournois.
Pd. Mr. Short cash 600livre tournois.
Pd. Petit on account 200livre tournois.
Gave Nomeny for his expences going express34 to Havre 96livre tournois.

92That is, since the beginning of Adrien Petit’s regime as maître d’hôtel. Actual payments to commissionaires are probably hidden in the postage or “petites dépenses” category of TJ’s weekly household accounts.

93The Bibliothèque Physico-Économique, instructive et amusante was an annual “collection of all the improvements in the arts which have been made for some time past,” and a work TJ began sending to several American friends in 1785 (TJ to Francis Hopkinson, 6 July 1785; Sowerby, No. 1095 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

94TJ assessed Louis Sébastien Mercier’s Tableau de Paris (Amsterdam, 1782-1783) in a letter to James Madison, 2 Aug. 1787. He owned a set of this famous work as early as Feb. 1785 (Diary of John Quincy Adams, ed. David Grayson Allen et al. [Cambridge, Mass., 1981], i, 224; Sowerby, No. 3890 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

95 John Stockdale was the London publisher of this and other works by Arnaud Berquin (Stockdale to TJ, 19 Dec. 1786).

96Probably shortly before 23 Dec. 1786, TJ, with James Watt, Matthew Boulton, and Ferdinand Grand, had witnessed at the Hôtel de la Monnaie the new coining process of Jean Pierre Droz (1746-1823). Grand obtained for TJ two sample coins, which were carried to Congress by David Franks. For TJ’s unsuccessful efforts to secure Droz and his method for the fledgling American mint, see TJ to Francis Hopkinson, 23 Dec. 1786; TJ to John Jay, 9 Jan. and 1 Feb. 1787; TJ to Grand, 23 Apr. 1790; and “Report on Copper Coinage,” Papers, xvi, 335-42. One of Droz’s silver écus is illustrated in Papers, xi, facing p. 414 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends .

97These books are partially identified in W. S. Smith to TJ, 11 Nov. 1786, and John Stockdale to TJ, 19 Dec. 1786.

98On the program of the Théâtre des Variétés Amusantes for this evening were Desenne’s Le Revenant ou les Deux Grenadiers, Le Bal, and Le Mari à deux femmes ou le Valet à deux maîtres (Journal de Paris, 13 Jan. 1787).

99These four silver covered dishes are presently at Monticello. They bear no visible maker’s marks, but may have been the work of Pierre Jacques Lamine, who made the plates purchased in 1786 (MB 30 Dec. 1786).

1A large Watt copying press from London (Lafayette to TJ, 30 Aug. 1786; R. and A. Garvey to TJ, 12 Jan. 1787).

2A French version of Jacques Auguste de Thou’s Historiarum sui Temporis (Sowerby, No. 157 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ; Madison to TJ, 27 Apr. 1785; TJ to Madison, 2 Aug. 1787).

3 Jean Baptiste, Comte de Carburi (d. 1801), physician to the French royal family, was one of “two learned Greeks” who instructed TJ in the modern pronunciation of Greek. At six livres the bottle, these Greek wines were the most expensive TJ bought while in France (TJ to John Adams, 21 Mch. 1819; Carburi to TJ, 16 Jan. 1787).

4Cahuzac is a white wine, available both sweet and dry, from the vicinity of Villeneuve-sur-Lot in southeastern France. TJ always bought dry Cahuzac, which he first tasted at the table of Marie Louise Nicole Élisabeth de La Rochefoucauld, Duchesse d’Enville. The La Rochefoucaulds were the seigneurs of Cahuzac (Tarbé to TJ, 22 Jan. 1787;Le Veillard to TJ, undated, Papers, xi, 67-8 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; TJ to William Lee, 28 Apr. 1806).

5 Miguel de Lardizábel y Uribe was no doubt the “Mexican” whose conversation TJ recorded in his long report to John Jay on “our Southern countrymen,” 4 May 1787. See also Brissot de Warville to TJ, 10 Nov. 1786, and Lardizábel to TJ, 17 Jan. 1787.

6Part of this bill was for William Jones, the London instrument maker, who had made for TJ a perspective machine adapted from the one described and illustrated in James Ferguson’s The Art of Drawing in Perspective (Dublin, 1778), p. 113-23 and Plate ix. This device was used to make drawings from nature, particularly of buildings. TJ, however, seems to have wanted it to make scale drawings of useful inventions, as Jones mentions altering Ferguson’s instrument to permit “the drawing of a Machine &c.” (Jones to TJ, 22 Jan. 1787; see also Jones to TJ, 10 Nov. 1786; TJ to Smith, 19 Feb. 1787; Smith to TJ, 19 May 1787; Smith’s account with TJ, 3 Dec. 1787, MHi).

7TJ sent these acorns to the South Carolina Society for Promoting and Improving Agriculture, in the hope that the cork oak could be naturalized in that state. This and further TJ efforts to introduce the cork oak to American soil were without success (TJ to William Drayton, 6 May 1786 and 6 Feb. 1787; Drayton to TJ, 25 Nov. 1787; TJ to James Ronaldson, 12 Jan. 1813).

8This entry may have been for making doors for the carriage house at the Hôtel de Langeac. In Oct. 1786 TJ had invited Langeac to inspect “the works of Carpentry in the basse-cour” (TJ to Langeac, 12 Oct. 1786; William Short to TJ, 23 Dec. 1790). Several estimates for this work survive, ranging in price from 114 to 192 livres (DLC: TJ Papers, 236: 42324-6).

9 Burrill Carnes, a merchant and American agent at Nantes, had collected the debts of John Banister, Jr., after his 8 Feb. departure for America (MB 2 Sep. 1786).

10Repayment of TJ’s two February loans to Philip Mazzei, plus a further 600 livres in May, does not appear in MB. Their accounts were balanced when TJ later acted as Mazzei’s American banker, and in fact Mazzei eventually emerged as TJ’s creditor (TJ to Mazzei, 4 Apr. 1787; TJ to William Short, 25 Aug. 1790; MB 3 Dec. 1773, cash accounts).

11TJ, who had ordered this work from London, already had his own copy of Thomas Jefferys’ American Atlas, first published in London in 1778 (Sowerby, No. 3961 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ; TJ to John Stockdale, 26 Sep. 1785, 1 Feb. 1787).

12This silver medal eventually became part of the eleven-medal set presented to George Washington in 1790. TJ considered Augustin Dupré (1748-1833) the best of the die-sinkers employed to engrave the medals commemorating Revolutionary victories (MB 4 July 1789; TJ to John P. Jones, 23 Mch. 1789). For a complete account of TJ’s role in this business, see “Notes on American Medals,” Papers, xvi, 53-79.

13Not identified. It is possible that TJ, disappointed in the results of treatment by academic surgeons, consulted a bonesetter for his dislocated wrist. There was a famous French family of bonesetters named Valdagou (Valdageoux), some of whom were resident in Paris in this period (W. S. Lewis and Warren Hunting Smith, eds., Horace Walpole’s Correspondence with Madame du Deffand [New Haven, 1939], ii, 352-3).

14See Malone, Jefferson, ii, 112-17 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends , for an account of the complex purposes of TJ’s journey to southern France and of his major interests as a traveller. Despite the many public objectives of this trip, TJ charged no part of its cost to the United States.

The first mention of a planned autumn tour of the ports of southern France occurs in TJ’s letter to John Banister, Jr., 7 Sep. 1786. TJ temporarily abandoned the project after his accident, but the prospect of another winter in Paris and his surgeon’s suggestion that he try mineral waters for his wrist determined him to undertake the journey in the cold season. He was on the eve of departure in mid-December, when the need to speed David Franks on his way to America with the treaty with Morocco again delayed him. After Franks finally left on 8 Feb. 1787, TJ lingered on to hear the results of the opening of the Assembly of Notables and then had to stay for the first audience of the new foreign minister, the Comte de Montmorin. He left the day after this audience (see TJ to W. S. Smith, 22 Oct. 1786 and 19 Feb. 1787; TJ to John Jay, 23 Oct. 1786; TJ to James Madison, 16 Dec. 1786 and 30 Jan. 1787; and TJ to John Adams, 23 Feb. 1787).

TJ travelled as a private citizen, not as American minister to France. “Quite determined to be master of my own secret,” he began his journey without a personal servant, much to the dismay of some of his friends. At Dijon, as a “sacrifice to opinion,” he hired Petit Jean, who stayed with him until his return to Paris (TJ to William Short, 27 Mch. 1787; Short to TJ, 14 Mch. 1787).

TJ travelled in his own carriage, drawn by post horses (three until he reached Lyons, and four, sometimes even five, thereafter). For posting rates, distances, and travelling time, see Dutens, Itinéraire, a copy of which TJ unquestionably carried with him; his spelling of place names conforms to that of Dutens and contemporary maps of postal routes.

Eight pages of rough accounts for this trip, covering 28 Feb. to 6 June 1787, are in CSmH. Differences between the two versions will be given in footnotes. There are several important additional sources on TJ’s southern journey. “Notes of a Tour into the Southern Parts of France, &c.,” Papers, xi, 415-64, and “Jefferson’s Hints to Americans Travelling in Europe,” Papers, xiii, 264-76, will be cited repeatedly in the footnotes. See also Kimball, Jefferson, iii, 184-201, Malone, Jefferson, ii, 112-30 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends , and Dumbauld, Jefferson Tourist, p. 83-109 description begins Edward Dumbauld, Thomas Jefferson, American Tourist, Norman, Okla., 1946 description ends .

15CSmH account reads, “Pd. assistance on breaking carriage on the road 7f4.”

16Probably the twelfth-century Cathédrale St.-Étienne, with its rich treasure.

17According to the CSmH account, this was the “Palais des etats,” the present Hôtel de Ville, whose century-long reconstruction had just come to an end.

18Morocco slippers (CSmH account).

19On 15 Mch. 1787, TJ wrote to William Short: “I mounted a bidet, put a peasant on another and rambled thro’ their most celebrated vineyards, going into the houses of the labourers, cellars of the Vignerons, and mixing and conversing with them as much as I could.” See Papers, xi, 416-18 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends , for the information he gathered.

20 Parent, a Beaune wine-cooper, accompanied TJ to Auxey, where they tasted the Montrachet wines of a Monsieur de la Tour. TJ subsequently ordered a feuillette, the equivalent of 124 bottles, of the 1784 vintage. The cost, including bottling and portage, was three livres per bottle (TJ to Parent, 13 Mch. 1787; Parent to TJ, 20 June 1787; Papers, xi, 418 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

21The Abbés Arnoux and Chalut had introduced TJ to Jean d’Espinay, Seigneur de Laye. In the absence of her husband, the marquise entertained TJ at their chateau a few kilometers from Saint-George-de-Reneins. Here TJ fell in love with “a delicious morsel of sculpture,” a Diana and Endymion by René Michel Slodtz; it is illustrated in François Souchal, Les Slodtz: sculpteurs et décorateurs du Roi (Paris, 1967), Plates 14 and 15 (TJ to Madame de Tessé, 20 Mch. 1787; TJ to William Short, 15 and 29 Mch. 1787; Papers, xi, 419-20 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

22At Lyon TJ did not see the famous industries, “because a knowlege of them would be useless, and would extrude from the memory other things more worth retaining” (TJ to William Short, 15 Mch. 1787). He did see some “feeble remains” of antiquity—a theater and remnants of an aqueduct—so he no doubt climbed the hills of Fourvière and Saint-Just. The “good things” he saw in painting may have been in the Hôtel de Ville, which had a Rubens Crucifixion as well as ceilings by Thomas Blanchet (Papers, xi, 420 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; TJ to Short, 29 Mch. 1787; Cradock, Journal, p. 97-100 description begins Journal de Madame Cradock, trans. Mme. O. Delphin Balleyguier, Paris, 1896 description ends ).

23At Vienne TJ saw the “Pretorian palace,” or Temple of Augustus and Livia, which he was angered to find embellished with Gothic windows and in use as a church. He also saw the Roman “pyramid,” then believed to be a sepulchral monument, around which he paced with the tape measures he had ordered from London (TJ to Madame de Tessé, 20 Mch. 1787; TJ to W. S. Smith, 15 Jan. 1787; Papers, xi, 423, xiii, 273 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

24TJ no doubt visited the vineyards between Ampuis and Condrieu in the same manner as he had those of Burgundy (see Papers, xi, 421 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

25TJ tasted the famous wine of Tain and studied its vineyards, but did not begin to purchase white Hermitage in quantity until he was President (Papers, xi, 421-2, xiii, 273 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

26TJ describes the ferry system in Papers, xi, 423 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends .

27This entry probably represents another agricultural ramble, as Papers, xi, 421-2 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends , contains notes on the culture of the almond and the vine at Montélimar.

28At Orange TJ concentrated on Roman remains, including the “sublime triumphal arch,” the “superb” theater, remnants of an acqueduct, and a mosaic pavement, probably the “Chat de Barrière” in the Rue Saint-Florent; it is still in place today although much injured by time (TJ to Madame de Tessé, 20 Mch. 1787; Papers, xi, 423 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

29TJ stopped here long enough to see the Pont du Gard (TJ to Madame de Tessé, 20 Mch. 1787; Papers, xiii, 274 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

30TJ left the route to Aix in order to meet the Brazilian revolutionary José da Maia at Nîmes, but he spent most of his time there happily “immersed in antiquities.” Of these, he specified only the amphitheater, the Roman baths in the Jardin de la Fontaine, and, of course, the Maison Carrée (TJ to Madame de Tessé, 20 Mch. 1787; TJ to John Jay, 4 May 1787; TJ to William Short, 29 Mch. 1787; Papers, xi, 424, xiii, 274 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ). TJ also viewed a steam-powered grist mill and talked with its inventor, Scipion d’Arnal, who was working on the application of steam power to boats (Papers, xi, 424 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; TJ to D’Arnal, 9 July 1787; TJ to Charles Thomson, 20 Sep. 1787; TJ to Thomas Paine, 23 Dec. 1788; Sowerby, Nos. 1219, 1226 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

31For a razor strop (CSmH account).

32TJ has left no description of these medals. According to another Nîmes visitor, “You will always be accosted by some shabby antiquarian, who presents you with medals for sale, assuring you they are genuine antiques, and were dug out of the ruins of the Roman temple and baths. All those fellows are cheats; and they have often laid under contribution raw English travellers, who had more money than discretion. To such they sell the vilest and most common trash: but when they meet with a connoisseur, they produce some medals which are really valuable and curious” (Smollett, Travels, p. 86 description begins Tobias Smollett, Travels through France and Italy, 1766, repr. London, 1919 description ends ).

33At Arles TJ saw the amphitheater, the ancient sarcophagi of Les Alyscamps and Saint-Honorat, and the vestiges of a temple on the site of the ancient forum (Papers, xi, 425, xiii, 274 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

34At Saint-Rémy TJ saw the triumphal arch and the mausoleum of the ancient city of Glanum; he owned a 1777 print of these “fine ruins,” which is now at Monticello (Papers, xiii, 274 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

35At Aix, where he noted there is “little to be seen,” TJ enjoyed the sunshine, collected more agricultural data, and took forty douches at the thermal establishment, “without any sensible benefit” to his wrist. TJ’s arrangement to transport the waters of Aix to Marseilles explains succeeding references to bottles, tin vessels, and portage of water (Papers, xiii, 273 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; TJ to Short, 27 Mch., 7 Apr. 1787; Papers, xi, 426-7 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ). There is a contemporary description of the baths at Aix in Smollett, Travels, p. 333-5 description begins Tobias Smollett, Travels through France and Italy, 1766, repr. London, 1919 description ends .

36TJ saw Alexis et Justine by N. A. Dezède and J. M. Boutet de Monvel and Mazet by E. R. Duni and Louis Anseaume (TJ to William Short, 29 Mch., 5 May 1787; Sowerby, No. 4570 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

37Questions of American commerce drew TJ to Marseilles, but he also found it “a charming place,” and his week there was as full of social activity as sightseeing and information gathering. Of sights, other than those specified in MB, he mentions only the “chateau” of Notre-Dame-de-la-Garde, notable for its panoramic view; the present chapel was built in the nineteenth century (TJ to William Short, 7 Apr. 1787; TJ to John Jay, 4 May 1787; Papers, xi, 428-9, xiii, 273-4 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ). TJ attended “the assembleé of Mademlle. Conil,” visited merchants Stephen Cathalan, Antonio Soria, and Dominique Audibert (1736-1821), saw the wine cellars of Henry Bergasse, and, on his return visit to Marseilles in May, began an acquaintance with Pons Joseph Bernard (1748-1816), director of the royal observatory (TJ to Madame de Tott, 5 Apr. 1787; TJ to Mazzei and Chastellux, 4 Apr. 1787).

38In TJ’s time a visit to the famous prison was usually combined with refreshments at a popular inn on the island (see Cradock, Journal, p. 126-7 description begins Journal de Madame Cradock, trans. Mme. O. Delphin Balleyguier, Paris, 1896 description ends ).

39TJ took notes on the pumps at the Chateau Borély, which had been completed just a few years previous to his visit (Papers, xi, 429 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

40At Hyères TJ saw “a botanical garden kept by the king” and an orange plantation belonging to a Monsieur Fille. He also apparently saw the Château de Giens, now in ruins (Papers, xi, 430-1, xiii, 274 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

41TJ recorded only agricultural data about Antibes (Papers, xi, 431 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

42The Var was at this time the border between France and Italy, that is, the kingdom of Sardinia. The river had neither bridge nor ferry, and had to be forded with the assistance of sometimes as many as twelve guides (see Dutens, Itinéraire, p. 61; Smollett, Travels, p. 113 description begins Tobias Smollett, Travels through France and Italy, 1766, repr. London, 1919 description ends ).

43For TJ’s comments on Nice, see Papers, xi, 431-2, and xiii, 271 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends .

44Although TJ had considered travelling as far as Nice, he allowed the cause of Carolina rice to carry him even further into Italy. To achieve this “peep” into Elysium, he stored his carriage, repacked his baggage, and boarded a mule for the alpine crossing via the Col de Tende. From Limone to Genoa he travelled post, paying for both carriage and horses (TJ to Vergennes, 11 Feb. 1787; TJ to John Jay, 4 May 1787; TJ to Maria Cosway, 1 July 1787; TJ to William Short, 12 Apr. 1787).

45A few miles beyond “Ciandola” was the chateau of Saorge, whose picturesque situation made such an impression on TJ; the castle was destroyed in 1792, but the village still clings to the mountainside (TJ to Maria Cosway, 1 July 1787; Papers, xi, 432, xiii, 271 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ). These are now the French towns of L’Escarène, Sospel, and La Giandola.

46In Turin TJ walked the now vanished ramparts and saw many sights, only one of which he mentioned. This was “a cabinet of antiquities,” probably that in the museum at the University of Turin, which contained Roman, Etruscan, and Egyptian objects. The most celebrated article in the collection was the Table of Isis, which in TJ’s time was considered an Egyptian work, but is now identified as a piece of Roman Egyptianizing. These antiquities are now in the museums of the Academy of Sciences (Papers, xiii, 272 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; William Short to TJ, 18 Oct. 1788). For a full discussion of TJ’s whole Italian journey, see George Green Shackelford, “A Peep into Elysium,” in Jefferson and the Arts: an Extended View, ed. William Howard Adams (Washington, 1976), p. 235-69.

47TJ saw the fifteenth-century castle of Moncalieri, “the Windsor of Piedmont” as Arthur Young called it, and two buildings by Filippo Juvara: the basilica of Superga, which was the burial place of the kings of Sardinia, and the royal hunting lodge of Stupinigi. TJ probably enjoyed the view from the heights of Superga, in Young’s opinion the “finest farmer’s prospect in Europe” (Young, Travels, p. 231 description begins Arthur Young, Travels in France and Italy during the Years 1787, 1788, and 1789, 1792, 1793, repr. London, 1942 description ends ; Papers, xiii, 272 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

48Although the exportation of rice in the husk from Piedmont was prohibited and, as he had been informed, punishable by death, TJ filled his coat pockets with some and engaged a muleteer to smuggle more to Genoa. The few pounds he bought on this date he sent to the South Carolina agricultural society. Ralph Izard found this rice much inferior to the Carolina variety and, fearing an undesirable hybrid, asked TJ to forward no more (TJ to John Jay, 4 May 1787; TJ to Edward Rutledge, 14 July 1787; Izard to TJ, 10 Nov. 1787; William Drayton to TJ, 25 Nov. 1787; Papers, xi, 436 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

49TJ described the Duomo as “a worthy object of philosophical contemplation, to be placed among the rarest instances of the misuse of money.” He was more pleased with the eighteenth-century frescoed casas. Just outside Milan he visited the Villa Simonetta, famous for a remarkable echo. It seems hard to believe he also squeezed into his two-day stay the twenty-five mile journey to the Lago di Como, but he later recommended this “fine excursion” (Papers, xiii, 272, xi, 437 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ). TJ’s cicerone at Milan was Count Francesco dal Verme (1758-1832), who showed him “what was most worth seeing in Milan and it’s neighborhood” (TJ to Dal Verme, 13 July 1788, 15 Aug. 1787).

50TJ’s declared motive for venturing into Piedmont and Lombardy was to see the Italian rice husking mill and determine how it differed from that of South Carolina. As far as he could see, it was “absolutely the same,” except for iron teeth attached to the pestles of some machines. He had such an attachment made and sent it to the South Carolina agricultural society (TJ to William Drayton, 30 July 1787). The husking mills he saw near Vercelli and at Casino are described in Papers, xi, 436-8 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends .

51See Papers, xi, 438-9 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends , for TJ’s description of the process, at which he attended, as he later remembered, “from sunrise to sunset” (TJ to John Skinner, 24 Feb. 1820; Papers, xi, 464, xiii, 272 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ). It is possible TJ was at a dairy belonging to Dal Verme’s brother-in-law, the Marquis Carlo Francesco Visconti; two years later Arthur Young also spent the whole day at this farm observing the production of a cheese (Young, Travels, p. 236 description begins Arthur Young, Travels in France and Italy during the Years 1787, 1788, and 1789, 1792, 1793, repr. London, 1942 description ends ).

52TJ called the Certosa di Pavia “the richest thing” he had ever seen (Papers, xiii, 272 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

53This botanical garden, recently laid out according to the Linnaean system, was at the University of Pavia (Berry, Journals, i, 126 description begins Extracts of the Journals and Correspondence of Miss [Mary] Berry, ed. Theresa Lewis, London, 1865, 3 vols. description ends ).

54Of the “abundance, abundance to be seen” in Genoa, TJ specified only the Pallazzo Marcello Durazzo in the Via Balbi, noted for its double staircase and a fine collection of paintings (Papers, xiii, 270, xi, 440 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

55TJ made a tour of some of the country seats of the Genoese nobility. Going west to Pegli and Sestri, he saw the English-style gardens of Prince Augustino Lomellini, which he thought the “finest” he had seen outside England. East of Genoa he saw a palace with “a fine prospect” and the gardens of Count Durazzo at Nervi, which exhibited “as rich a mixture of the Utile dulci” as he had ever seen (Papers, xiii, 270, xi, 440-1 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; Hester Lynch Piozzi, Observations and Reflections Made in the Course of a Journey Through France, Italy, and Germany [London, 1789], i, 61-3; James Edward Smith, A Sketch of a Tour on the Continent, in the Years 1786 and 1787 [London, 1793], i, 256; [Giacomo Brusco], Description des beautés de Genes et de ses environs [Genoa, 1781], p. 118, 121).

56TJ boarded a felucca for the voyage to Nice, but contrary winds forced him to abandon the boat at Albenga. He described his exhausting voyage to his daughter: “From Genoa to Aix was very fatiguing, the first two days having been at sea, and mortally sick, two more clambering the cliffs of the Appennine, sometimes on foot, sometimes on a mule according as the path was more or less difficult, and two others travelling thro’ the night as well as day, without sleep” (TJ to Martha Jefferson, 5 May 1787). The felucca, an open boat propelled by one sail and a dozen oarsmen, is described in Smollett, Travels, p. 203-4 description begins Tobias Smollett, Travels through France and Italy, 1766, repr. London, 1919 description ends .

57CSmH account continues: “for which gave him bill on Mr. Grand.”

58TJ’s record of his visit supports Arthur Young’s statement that “Petrarch and Laura are predominant at Avignon.” Ignoring the popes, TJ specifically mentioned only Laura’s tomb in the church of the Cordeliers; both the church and the simple gravestone were destroyed in the Revolution. He later made a happy excursion to Petrarch’s retreat at the Fontaine de Vaucluse (Young, Travels, p. 205 description begins Arthur Young, Travels in France and Italy during the Years 1787, 1788, and 1789, 1792, 1793, repr. London, 1942 description ends ; TJ to Martha Jefferson and William Short, 21 May 1787; Papers, xi, 443, xiii, 273 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

59The Chartreuse du Val de Bénédiction, founded in the fourteenth century and at one time one of the most prosperous monasteries in France.

60The amphitheater at Nîmes was at this time still full of dwellings (Papers, xiii, 274 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

61The antiquary Jean François Sequier (1703-1784) had bequeathed to the Académie de Nîmes his natural history collection rich in fossils, his library, and the inscriptions and other ancient relics gathered in his travels or unearthed at Nîmes. Among these was a bronze askos now in the museum of the Maison Carrée. Struck by the singularity and beauty of this vase, TJ decided “sur le champ” to have a silver copy of it made to give to Charles Louis Clérisseau for his assistance in the design of the Virginia Capitol (TJ to Clérisseau, 7 June 1789). The wooden model TJ received on this date was lost, but a second one, procured in 1789 through the agency of William Short and TJ’s Nîmes valet de place Souche, called Blondin, is presently at Monticello. TJ eventually gave Clérisseau, instead of a copy of the askos, the Odiot coffee pot purchased in 1789. He did not have the askos duplicated in silver until 1801 (MB 3 June 1789, 11 July 1801; Papers, xv, xxix-xxxii and illustration facing p. 280 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; Julian P. Boyd, “Thomas Jefferson and the Roman Askos of Nîmes,” The Magazine Antiques, [July 1973], p. 116-24).

62TJ grew sainfoin, Onobrychis viciifolia, on a small scale at Monticello as fodder and tried, apparently without success, to introduce to South Carolina a drought-resistant genus called sulla, Hedysarum coronarium (Betts, Garden Book, passim description begins Thomas Jefferson’s Garden Book, ed. Edwin M. Betts, Philadelphia, 1944 description ends ; TJ to William Drayton, 6 May 1786; Papers, xi, 444 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; TJ to John Taylor, 1 May 1794; TJ to John Skinner, 16 May 1820).

63After sailing through the Étang de Thau from Sète to Agde, TJ reached the Canal du Midi, which he desired to “examine minutely” in the cause of American canal building. At Agde, rather than taking the post boat to Toulouse, he hired a private vessel to proceed at a more leisurely pace. He walked along the banks of the canal or observed from his dismounted carriage; all in all it was “the pleasantest” method of travel he had ever tried (TJ to W. S. Smith, 13 Sep. 1786; TJ to William Short, 21 May 1787; TJ to Martha Jefferson, 21 May 1787; Papers, xi, 446-9, xiii, 274 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

64The subterranean valve chamber ninety feet below the crest of the dam of Saint-Ferréol, built in the seventeenth century by Pierre Paul Riquet (1604-1680), is still in operation today. On this day-long tour of the feeder system for the Canal du Midi, TJ viewed a voûte at Les Cammazes and the recently completed dam at Lampy, also still in use today (Papers, xi, 448, xiii, 275 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; TJ to William Short, 21 May 1787; L. T. C. Rolt, From Sea to Sea: The Canal du Midi [London, 1973], p. 55-62; M. de La Roche, Atlas et Description du Canal Royal de Languedoc [Paris, 1787], Plate 2).

65TJ left no record of what he saw in Toulouse. One of the most popular sights for eighteenth-century visitors was the property of Madame du Barry’s brother-in-law, an elegant house and a small garden brimming with pasteboard mountains, leaden shepherdesses, wooden lovers, and stone peasants, where “nothing [is] excluded but nature” (Young, Travels, p. 29 description begins Arthur Young, Travels in France and Italy during the Years 1787, 1788, and 1789, 1792, 1793, repr. London, 1942 description ends ). Another attraction was the vault of preserved bodies in the Couvent des Cordeliers (see Cradock, Journal, p. 172-91 description begins Journal de Madame Cradock, trans. Mme. O. Delphin Balleyguier, Paris, 1896 description ends ).

66While at Bordeaux TJ measured the bricks of the ruined third-century amphitheater, but the main objects of his attention were the Médoc and Graves vineyards. He travelled beyond Saint-Julien to Château Latour, while closer to Bordeaux he particularly examined the vineyards of Château Haut-Brion and Pontac (Papers, xi, 455-7 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; TJ to Miromenil, 6 Sep. 1790; TJ to William Lee, 14 June 1803).

67The new Grand-Théâtre of Bordeaux, designed by Victor Louis, was considered the most magnificent in France (see Young, Travels, p. 57 description begins Arthur Young, Travels in France and Italy during the Years 1787, 1788, and 1789, 1792, 1793, repr. London, 1942 description ends ).

68 Thomas Barclay, who had been arrested at Bordeaux for a personal debt, was released from prison a few days before TJ’s arrival. For a complete account of Barclay’s disordered finances and TJ’s consequent discussions of diplomatic immunity with Montmorin, see Papers, xi, 493-500 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends . TJ charged these 1,000 livres to the United States as “cash to Mr. Barclay at Bordeaux on acct. of his Marocco mission” (Account with U.S. 1792; TJ to Barclay, 3 Aug. 1787; William Short to W. S. Smith, 23 June 1787, DLC: Short Papers).

69TJ left no record of what he saw at La Rochelle, but he may have climbed the tower of the church of the Oratoire for its view, and perhaps he walked out onto the celebrated dike built by Richelieu (see Cradock, Journal, p. 233-42 description begins Journal de Madame Cradock, trans. Mme. O. Delphin Balleyguier, Paris, 1896 description ends ).

70At Lorient TJ climbed the Discovery Tower and undoubtedly made a tour of the port and warehouses of the Compagnie des Indes (Papers, xi, 459 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; Young, Travels, p. 105 description begins Arthur Young, Travels in France and Italy during the Years 1787, 1788, and 1789, 1792, 1793, repr. London, 1942 description ends ).

71TJ left no record of what he saw at Rennes.

72TJ was led to stop at Tours by the perplexing question of the existence of marine shells at a distance from the sea. Here TJ heard the local evidence for the theory that shells are “a fruit of the earth, spontaneously produced.” The witnesses seemed reliable, but TJ, reserving final judgment, declared that the account of such a process “throws the mind under absolute suspense” (Papers, xi, 460-1 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; TJ to Rev. James Madison, 13 Aug. 1787; see also Notes on Virginia, p. 31-3, 265-6 description begins Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, ed. William Peden, Chapel Hill, N.C., 1955 description ends ).

73Of the splendid Château de Chanteloup and its gardens, once the property of Etienne François, Duc de Choiseul (1719-1785), little remains but the “pagoda,” designed by Nicolas Le Camus de Mézières (Papers, xi, 462, xiii, 275 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; Cradock, Journal, p. 291-2 description begins Journal de Madame Cradock, trans. Mme. O. Delphin Balleyguier, Paris, 1896 description ends ; Young, Travels, p. 64 description begins Arthur Young, Travels in France and Italy during the Years 1787, 1788, and 1789, 1792, 1793, repr. London, 1942 description ends ).

74The Marquis de Chastellux had suggested that TJ make a brief stop at the Château de Ménars, which had been remodelled for Madame de Pompadour by Jacques Ange Gabriel. Her brother, the Marquis de Marigny, had made further improvements to the house and gardens with the aid of architect Jacques Germain Soufflot (Chastellux to TJ, 29 Apr. 1787).

75Not to be confused with the present Panthéon, this winter “vauxhall,” designed by Samson Nicolas Lenoir le Romain, was located on the Rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre between the Cour du Carrousel and the Place du Palais-Royal. On the program of this concert, a benefit for victims of a fire in Franche-Comté, were a symphony of Alexandre Guenin and works by Anfossi, Grétry, Paisiello, Sacchini, F. J. Gossec, François Petrini, H.F.M. Langlé, Charles Antoine Vion, and Jean Henri Levasseur. A new four-cylinder keyed glass harmonica developed by Renaudin was demonstrated (Journal de Paris, 16 June 1787; Sowerby, No. 4566 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

76TJ had ordered more china in the same pattern as the set purchased in 1784 (TJ to William Macarty, 7 Oct. 1786; Macarty to TJ, 30 Oct., 5 Dec. 1786; MB 24 Nov. 1784).

77 John Hannum Gibbons (d. 1795) of Philadelphia, who had recently taken a medical degree at the University of Edinburgh, was returning to America (TJ to Benjamin Franklin, 6 Aug. 1787).

78In MHi, at 28 Feb. 1787, is a fragment in TJ’s hand of preliminary computations for this chart of household expenses. It shows that, except for the expenses of cuisine and office, TJ received from Adrien Petit an unorganized collection of receipts and figures, which had to be sorted and totaled. It is apparent that the figures for petites dépenses equaled what remained unaccounted for after all the receipts had been separated into their proper categories.

79Map engraver Guillaume Nicolas Delahaye (1725-1802) had been employed for TJ by Nicolas Desmarets (1725-1815), author of the physical geography section of the Encyclopédie methodique and at this time an administrator of the Sèvres porcelain factory. Delahaye corrected the several hundred errors in Samuel Neele’s plate of TJ’s map for his Notes on Virginia. The production of this map, which, in TJ’s opinion, was “worth more than the book,” cost TJ over £40: £28–16–9 for Neele’s plate, 219 livres for Delahaye’s corrections, 33 livres for coloring, plus miscellaneous transportation expenses. TJ charged ten pence apiece for the maps provided to the London and Paris publishers of his Notes, John Stockdale and Barrois. He was given £42–14–2 credit by Stockdale, but apparently recovered nothing from Barrois. The plate and TJ’s original drawing for the map have disappeared (TJ to Stockdale, 27 Feb., 10 Oct. 1787, 17 July 1788; William Short to TJ, 12 Mch. 1787; TJ to Short, 27 Mch. 1787; Delahaye to TJ, 20 July 1787; Froullé invoice, 16 Aug. 1787 [filed at 23 Apr. 1787], MHi; W. S. Smith account with TJ, 3 Dec. 1787, MHi; TJ to Philip Mazzei, 2 Aug. 1791; Coolie Verner, “The Maps and Plates Appearing with the Several Editions of Mr. Jefferson’s ‘Notes on the State of Virginia,’” VMHB, lix [1951], 21-8).

80Before his departure for southern France, TJ had set in motion a complete reorganization of his household. The cook, the gardener, and Anselen the coachman were dismissed, and Lomenie was hired as footman. He was a trusted servant until he took to thievery in 1790 (Philip Mazzei to TJ, 17 Apr. 1787; William Short to TJ, 14 May 1787, 4 Mch. 1790). The absence of any further payments for a cook seems to indicate that James Hemings was now sufficiently qualified to take over the kitchen. He made his first appearance on the monthly wage list in October (MB 1 Oct. 1787).

81 Adrien Petit went to London to collect eight-year-old Mary Jefferson, who was staying with John and Abigail Adams after her transatlantic crossing. She arrived in Paris on 15 July and joined her sister at the Abbaye de Panthemont (Mrs. Adams to TJ, 26 June, 6 July 1787; TJ to Elizabeth Eppes, 28 July 1787).

82TJ’s observations on former Comptroller General Calonne’s letter of 22 Oct. 1786 are in Papers, xi, 539-42 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends . He presented a copy of Deaugustini’s French translation to Montmorin at Versailles on 3 July and sent one to Calonne’s successor, Laurent de Villedeuil (TJ to Villedeuil, 5 July 1787).

83Mont Calvaire (now Mont Valérien), which rose behind the village of Suresnes, was the site of a community of lay brothers who sold their own produce and took boarders. TJ took rooms at Mont Calvaire in September and passed a good part of the autumns of 1787 and 1788 at what he called his “hermitage.” Other “hermits” TJ saw there were physician and royal censor Achille Guillaume Le Bègue de Presle (1735-1807), Fremyn de Fontenille, and Jean Jacques Barthélemy (1716-1795), author of the Voyage du Jeune Anacharsis en Grèce (Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 105-7 description begins Howard C. Rice, Jr., Thomas Jefferson’s Paris, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends ; Randolph, Domestic Life, p. 73-4 description begins Sarah N. Randolph, The Domestic Life of Thomas Jefferson, 1871, repr. Charlottesville, Va., 1978 description ends ; Fremyn to TJ, 23 Oct. 1787; TJ to Fremyn, 24 Oct. 1787; Sowerby, No. 41 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ).

84An invoice for this date for binding thirty-eight volumes is in DLC: Madison Papers.

85When in Montpellier TJ had dined with Dr. Lambert and had placed an order for an amber Muscat de Frontignan of the doctor’s own growth. Lambert forwarded 250 bottles of this wine and added 33 bottles of the rarer red Muscat (Lambert to TJ, 11 June, 17 July 1787; TJ to Lambert, 6 July 1787; TJ to Moustier, 24 July 1787; Papers, xi, 444-5 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ; MB 3 Sep. 1787).

86Pajarete is a Málaga wine which in TJ’s day could be dry as well as sweet; he usually ordered dry Pajarete (TJ to Joseph Yznardi, 24 Mch. 1801). As there is no MB entry for payment, this is probably the “cask of Pacaretti wine omitted before,” costing 159livre tournois–6, in a 1789 account with Ferdinand Grand (DLC: TJ Papers, 16499).

87 Banister’s account is not found. Mazzei’s, Franklin’s, Hopkinson’s, Barclay’s, and Currie and Hay’s accounts are printed in Papers, xi, 267, 658, 670-1, 683 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends . James Monroe’s account, in MHi at 1 Mch. 1786, is identical with that of James Currie. Press copies, with later additions, survive of the accounts of Franklin (MHi at 3 Feb. 1786), Hopkinson (DLC: 8982), and Barclay (DLC: 6339-40). Lafayette’s account is in DLC: 6199 and W. S. Smith’s account is in MHi at 7 Sep. 1786. Revised versions of both Lafayette’s and Smith’s accounts are printed in Papers, xii, 529-59 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends .

88TJ had ordered Volnay, but had received what Parent described as “la Comarenné” of 1785, perhaps a Pommard of the Clos de la Commaraine. The Meursault was Goutte d’Or of 1784 (Parent to TJ, 20 June, 30 July 1787; TJ to Parent, 14 June 1787).

89This was 386 pounds of Lombard and Egyptian husked rice, purchased mainly for TJ’s personal use, although he planned to send a sample quantity of each type to the South Carolina agricultural society. TJ had personally met Marseilles merchant Stephen Cathalan, Jr. (d. 1819), in the spring. Cathalan, whose father was the American commercial agent at Marseilles, was appointed vice-consul there by the American government in 1790. He faithfully executed TJ’s many commissions for the purchase of wine and food for the rest of his life (Cathalan to TJ, 9 May, 30 June 1787; TJ to William Drayton, 30 July 1787; TJ to Cathalan, 7 Sep. 1790). While paying this bill, TJ took the opportunity to “make a little acquaintance” with the banker Sir John Lambert (1728-1799), who lived at the corner of the Rue de Richelieu and the Boulevard des Italiens. He had a notable art collection, especially rich in Flemish works (TJ to Cathalan, 21 July 1787; Trumbull, Autobiography, p. 119-20 description begins The Autobiography of Colonel John Trumbull, ed. Theodore Sizer, New Haven, 1953 description ends ; Thiéry, Guide, i, 188-9 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends ).

90Fifty pounds of “Caffé Moka,” which TJ had ordered while at Lorient (Wilt, Delmestre & Cie. to TJ, 15 June, 9 July 1787).

91Of the financial crisis that had greeted him on his return to Paris, TJ wrote: “We are here in a terrible pickle. Mr. Grand, being about 1000 guineas in advance for the U.S. chuses to advance no more till he receives remittances from America: and Mr. Rucker tells me he thinks there are none coming from thence” (TJ to W. S. Smith, 31 Aug. 1787). From this period Ferdinand Grand virtually ceased acting as official banker to American diplomats and TJ received almost all further salary payments through the firm of Willink & Van Staphorst of Amsterdam, where John Adams had recently negotiated a loan for the United States (TJ to Commissioners of Treasury, 17 June, 5 Aug. 1787; TJ to Adams, 23 July 1787; TJ to Willink & Van Staphorst, 15 Sep. 1787).

Although both William Short and TJ treated this as a private loan, it was in effect a loan to the United States for TJ’s August salary, and TJ repaid it in monthly payments of 600 livres, the equivalent of Short’s normal salary. Short, who had to cash in an action of the Caisse d’Escompte to make the loan, was thus in effect paying his own salary. TJ made final payment on the loan in Apr. 1788 and in May Short finally received, through his government’s Dutch bankers, twenty-two months arrears of salary (MB 28 Apr., 14 May 1788; Short to Grand, 24 July 1787; Grand to Short, 31 May 1788, DLC: Short Papers; Short to TJ, 2 May 1791; Short’s accounts with U.S. and with TJ, DLC: Short Papers, 1: 76, 3: 398-9).

92Adrien Petit had carried the plate of TJ’s map for the Notes on Virginia to John Stockdale, who was printing the London edition of the work (TJ to Stockdale, 1 July 1787).

93That is, one place going to London (Petit) and three returning (Petit, Mary Jefferson, and Sally Hemings).

94These were the expenses of acquisition of the skin and bones of a moose, the most expensive of TJ’s exhibits in his zoological defense of the American continent against the degeneracy theory propounded by the Comte de Buffon. The magnitude of the campaign launched by John Sullivan (1740-1795) of New Hampshire in pursuit of the moose astonished TJ and added to his store of anecdote for later years. The moose, accompanied by the antlers of other American Cervidae, arrived in Paris at the end of Sep. 1787, was immediately dispatched to the Jardin du Roi for Buffon’s examination, and is now unlocated (TJ to Sullivan, 7 Jan. 1786, 5 Oct. 1787; Sullivan to TJ, 16 and 26 Apr. 1787; TJ to W. S. Smith, 31 Aug., 28 Sep. 1787; TJ to Buffon, 1 Oct. 1787; TJ to John Rutledge, Jr., 9 Sep. 1788; Webster, Papers, i, 376-7 description begins Charles M. Wiltse and Harold D. Moser, eds., The Papers of Daniel Webster: Correspondence, Hanover, N.H., 1974-1976, 4 vols. description ends ).

95L’Ardennois.

96TJ charged the state of Virginia 611livre tournois–1–6, mostly for the purchase of cartouche boxes. The remaining charges were for the shipment of books: 62livre tournois–3–6 for Madison, 6livre tournois–18–8 each for Franklin and Hopkinson, and 27livre tournois–0–8 each for Monroe and Currie. The discrepancy in the total, 741livre tournois–3–8, was caused by TJ’s subdivision and rounding off of the book shipping charges (André Limozin account with TJ, 20 July 1787, MHi; TJ account with Virginia, DLC: TJ Papers, 8947-48; Limozin to TJ, 20 and 27 July, 1 Aug. 1787; TJ to Hopkinson, 1 Aug. 1787; TJ to Madison, 2 Aug. 1787; TJ to Currie, 4 Aug. 1787).

97TJ’s vacillation in the spelling of his servant Lomenie’s name illustrates the difficulty Americans had in understanding French pronunciation. Ralph Izard wrote about lentils: “The French call it Nentille: I do not know why for they spell it Lentille” (Izard to TJ, 1 July 1786).

98Especially TJ to Commissioners of the Treasury, 5 Aug. 1787, and TJ to John Jay, 6 Aug. 1787, and its enclosures. TJ always tried to send his American dispatches by a private hand to avoid French postal officials, who opened letters as a matter of course (TJ to André Limozin, 29 July, 6 Aug. 1787).

99TJ received 180 bottles of Château Margaux 1784, selected by him when he was in Bordeaux; a further 72 bottles of this vintage had been sent to Francis Eppes. The wine cost 747livre tournois–11, a sum paid by Ferdinand Grand and therefore not in MB (Feger, Gramont & Cie. to TJ, 2 June 1787; TJ to Feger, Gramont & Cie., 19 June 1787; R. & A. Garvey to TJ, 24 Aug. 1787; TJ to Alexander Donald, 15 Feb. 1788).

1This large Watt copying press, ordered for the Marquis de Chastellux, was actually taken and paid for by Antonio Dugnani (MB 11 Dec. 1787; R. & A. Garvey to TJ, 24 Aug. 1787; TJ to W. S. Smith, 16 June 1786, 31 Aug. 1787; Smith account with TJ, 3 Dec. 1787, MHi).

2TJ sent these spectacles to Charles Bellini in Williamsburg (TJ to George Wythe, 16 Sep. 1787, enclosure; Bellini to TJ, 1 Mch. 1788; TJ to Bellini, 25 July 1788).

3 Maria Cosway was in Paris without her husband from 28 Aug. to 8 Dec. 1787. Lodged at a distance from the Hôtel de Langeac and surrounded by a numerous and imposing “domestic cortege,” she could not, as TJ later lamented, “mount into the Phaeton and hie away to the bois de Boulogne, St. Cloud, Marly, St. Germains &c.” (TJ to Mrs. Cosway, 31 Jan. 1788). Even this entry, which at first sight appears to indicate a brief renewal of the outings they made together in the previous fall, apparently represents only a round of social calls TJ made at Saint-Germain-en-Laye to Mary Barclay and Madame Plumard de Bellanger (Mme. Bellanger to TJ, 16 Sep. 1787; Mrs. Barclay to TJ, 19 Sep. 1787). For further information on Maria Cosway’s 1787 Paris stay, see her letters to TJ of 7, 10, and 25 Dec. 1787, Malone, Jefferson, ii, 138-9 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends , and Kimball, Jefferson, iii, 177-80.

4TJ knew of this machine in 1785 and may have already seen it demonstrated. Invented by P. A. Hall, it was used to copy, enlarge, or reduce paintings, prints, and maps (TJ to Ralph Izard, 29 Jan. 1785; Bibliothèque Physico-économique, instructive et amusante, Année 1786 [Paris, 1786], i, 379-80).

5 Eléonor François Élie, Comte de Moustier (1751-1817), soon to embark for America as the new French minister, had asked TJ to procure for him Thomas Jefferys’ American Atlas and John Adams’ Defence of the Constitutions (Moustier to TJ, 24 July 1787).

6TJ later used the term banco, that is, bank money as opposed to currency. He was drawing his monthly salary (see above, note 91; Willink & Van Staphorst to TJ, 24 Sep. 1787; TJ to Ferdinand Grand, 30 Sep. 1787).

7This bill was for part of the cost of Martha Jefferson’s harpsichord (MB 14 Nov. 1787).

8From this date James Hemings, as chef de cuisine, received a regular monthly wage of 24 livres, instead of occasional pecuniary gifts.

9 Adrienne Catherine de Noailles, Comtesse de Tessé (1741-1814), who had been introduced to TJ by her niece Madame de Lafayette, had become one of TJ’s closest friends. He frequented the brilliant salons at her hôtel in the Faubourg Saint-Germain and at Chaville, her country estate on the road to Versailles, and catered to her horticultural interests for many years. The Comtesse had ordered a large supply of American plants from John Watson, nurseryman of Charleston, S.C. The chain of payment from Madame de Tessé to Watson involved William Short, TJ, James Madison, and Charles Thomson (TJ to Mme. de Tessé, 20 July 1786, note; Thomson to TJ, 28 Apr. 1787; Mantel Duchoqueltz to TJ, 25 July 1787; TJ to Madison, 17 Sep. 1787; Short to Mme. de Tessé, 30 Sep., 9 Oct. 1787, DLC: Short Papers; Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 63-4, 96-9).

10According to the given figures, the total should be 29f 5.

11Although he did not carry his French dumbwaiters back to America, TJ continued to purchase and use them for the rest of his life to promote unrestricted conversation at the dining table by making the attendance of servants unnecessary (William Short to TJ, 4 Aug. 1790; Eye of TJ, No. 540 description begins William Howard Adams, ed., The Eye of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1976 description ends ).

12This was probably a demonstration of the improved glass harmonica TJ described to Francis Hopkinson, 8 May 1788. He immediately wrote to John Trumbull asking the London price of a six-octave harmonica, but he apparently never bought one of these instruments which he thought “delicious” for certain kinds of music (TJ to Trumbull, 11 Oct. 1787; TJ to Charles Burney, 12 Feb. 1787).

13 Nicolas Amable Germain De Bray, bookseller in the Palais-Royal (Lottin, Catalogue, p. 37 description begins [Augustin Martin Lottin], Catalogue chronologique des libraires et des libraires-imprimeurs de Paris, 1789, repr. Amsterdam, 1969 description ends ).

14According to a page from the account book of the brothers of Mont Calvaire, this payment covered ten days since 7 Sep. (Rice, Jefferson’s Paris, p. 107 description begins Howard C. Rice, Jr., Thomas Jefferson’s Paris, Princeton, N.J., 1976 description ends ).

15TJ subscribed to one of the earliest known fashion journals, Magasin des modes nouvelles, françaises et anglaises, which had begun publication in Nov. 1785 as the Cabinet des modes (Hatin, Bibliographie, p. 598 description begins Eugene Hatin, Bibliographie historique et critique de la presse periodique française, 1866, repr. Turin, 1960 description ends ). He customarily forwarded it to Anne Willing Bingham in Philadelphia and continued to subscribe after his return to America (TJ to Mrs. Bingham, 7 Feb. 1787, 11 May 1788; TJ to William Short, 6 Apr. 1790).

16On this evening’s program at the Théâtre des Variétés was A. J. Dumaniant’s three-act comedy, La Nuit aux aventures, accompanied by Laroche’s Dumont, ou le Modèle des amis, and Joseph Patrat’s L’Anglais, ou le Fou raisonnable (Journal de Paris, 25 Oct. 1787). One biographer has suggested that TJ treated Maria Cosway and her entourage to this dinner at the Palais Royal, but the entertainment which followed is more in keeping with TJ’s nights out with young Americans like John Rutledge, Lewis Littlepage, and John Brown Cutting, who were all in Paris in October. TJ’s “great dinner” for Mrs. Cosway was almost certainly at the Hôtel de Langeac and probably closer to her departure from Paris in December (Kimball, Jefferson, iii, 178-9; Maria Cosway to TJ, [1 Dec.? 1787]).

17This was the second of two marble busts of the Marquis de Lafayette, commissioned by the Virginia Assembly in 1781 and 1784. The first was placed in the Hôtel de Ville of Paris on 28 Sep. 1786. The second, completed in this month, was shipped to Virginia a year later and placed in the Capitol at Richmond, where it now stands (Houdon to TJ, 12 Nov. 1787; André Limozin to TJ, 15 and 16 Nov. 1788; Kimball, Jefferson, iii, 63-7; Papers, xv, xxxviii description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends ).

18Madame de Tessé’s American plants and the moose skeleton (MB 28 July, 1 Oct. 1787). André Limozin’s draft in favor of Sartorius & Cie., 14 Oct. 1787, is in MHi.

19The program for this concert included a Haydn symphony and works by Viotti, Leopold Kozeluch, François Devienne, and J.F.N. Carbonel (Journal de Paris, 1 Nov. 1787).

20John Adams had sent to TJ for Lafayette twelve copies of his Defence of the Constitutions (Adams to TJ, 28 Oct. 1787).

21Probably Robert Sutton (c. 1731-1797). Using the subcutaneous method they developed, members of the Sutton family had been inoculating rich and poor against smallpox since the 1760s (Journal de Paris, 20 Sep. 1784; W. S. Lewis and Warren Hunting Smith, eds., Horace Walpole’s Correspondence with Madame du Deffand [New Haven, 1939], iv, 75). Although TJ had requested that his daughter Mary be accompanied to Europe by an inoculated woman, her travelling companion was Sally Hemings (1773-1835), daughter of Betty Hemings and, allegedly, John Wayles. She joined her brother James as part of TJ’s household staff and almost immediately began to receive a monthly wage of twelve livres. It is possible that during the periods when she received no wage Sally was apprenticed to a milliner, or other tradesperson, to prepare her for her eventual position as lady’s maid to an American girl in Parisian society. She was almost certainly acting as Martha Jefferson’s maid by the spring of 1789, when Martha had left the Abbaye de Panthemont and had begun to attend balls and other social events, and when TJ was spending more than usual on Sally’s clothing (see TJ to James Maurice, 16 Sep. 1789, requesting a transatlantic berth for Sally close to his daughters, and the letters of MJR’s classmate Marie de Botidoux, 1789-1790, which include greetings to Sally, ViU). Sally Hemings was later a valued household servant at Monticello (James A. Bear, Jr., The Hemings Family of Monticello [Ivy, Va., 1980], p. 12-15; Bear, Jefferson at Monticello, p. 4, 99-101 description begins Jefferson at Monticello, ed. James A. Bear, Jr., Charlottesville, Va., 1967 description ends ).

For discussions of the allegation that Sally Hemings became TJ’s mistress and bore his children, first publicly proclaimed by James T. Callender in 1802 and recently reiterated in Brodie, Jefferson description begins Fawn M. Brodie, Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History, New York, 1974 description ends , see Malone, Jefferson, iv, 212-16, 494-8 description begins Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Boston, 1948-1981, 6 vols. description ends , Dumas Malone, Mr. Jefferson’s Private Life (Worcester, Mass., 1974), Dumas Malone and Steven Hochman, “A Note on Evidence: The Personal History of Madison Hemings,” Journal of Southern History, xli (1975), 525-8, Douglass Adair, Fame and the Founding Fathers (Williamsburg, Va., 1974), p. 160-91, and Virginius Dabney, The Jefferson Scandals (New York, 1981).

22Martha Jefferson’s long-awaited harpsichord arrived on 20 Nov. (TJ to R. & A. Garvey, 21 Nov. 1787). A two-manual instrument with a Venetian swell, it was made by Jacob Kirkman of London and cost £71–18–6 (TJ to John Paradise, 25 May 1786; W. S. Smith account with TJ, 3 Dec. 1787, MHi). When in London in 1786 TJ had heard a harpsichord equipped with Adam Walker’s patent Celestina stop, “a divine thing” in his opinion. In operation it gave a sustained bowed-string tone to the instrument. This device was attached to Martha’s harpsichord and cost TJ an extra thirteen guineas (TJ to Francis Hopkinson, 9 May 1786; John Trumbull to TJ, 28 Aug. 1787; Cripe, TJ and Music, p. 49-51).

23At this time in Paris there were several stores which sold luxury items on consignment at fixed prices, rather than using the usual method of marketing by bargaining. TJ probably went to the largest and best known, Verrier & Cie. in the new arcades of the Palais-Royal (Thiéry, Guide, i, 273-4 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends ).

24Probably seaux, wine coolers.

25 Antonio Dugnani (1748-1818), Archbishop of Rhodes, had been the representative of Pius VI at the French court since Apr. 1787. In 1820 TJ wrote that “an intimate acquaintance . . . of several years at Paris had proved to me the excellence of his character” (TJ to Bishop Maréchal, 17 Jan. 1820; Dugnani to TJ, 4 Apr. 1787). For the nuncio’s keen interest in Martha Jefferson’s leanings toward Catholicism, see Papers, xiv, 356-7 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends , and for an itemized list of costs of the copying press, which is the same one mentioned at MB 27 Aug. 1787, see Papers, xiv, 326 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends .

26 Observations sur la physique, sur l’histoire naturelle et les arts, ou Journal de physique was a monthly edited at this time by Jean Claude de La Métherie (1743-1817). The Journal encyclopédique was a semimonthly devoted to current developments in science and the arts. Founded in 1756 and long edited at Bouillon by Pierre Rousseau (1725-1785), it was the unofficial organ of the philosophes (Hatin, Bibliographie, p. 36-7, 62-3 description begins Eugene Hatin, Bibliographie historique et critique de la presse periodique française, 1866, repr. Turin, 1960 description ends ; Histoire de la Presse, i, 275-9 description begins Histoire Générale de la presse française, ed. Claude Bellanger and others, Paris, 1969-1976, 5 vols. description ends ).

27Correctly 130livre tournois–4.

28This is probably the Chevalier Baldinotti, who several times this winter demonstrated his talent for the recitation of impromptu Italian verse at the Musée de Paris in the Rue Dauphine (Journal de Paris, 15 Jan. 1788, and, for mention of other improvisatori in Paris while TJ was there, 21 July 1784, 7 May 1785, and 5 Jan. 1787). Tobias Smollett described a typical improvisatore, who had “the surprising talent of reciting verses extempore, on any subject you propose. . . . When the subject is given, his brother tunes his violin to accompany him, and he begins to rehearse in recitative, with wonderful fluency and precision. Thus he will, at a minute’s warning, recite two or three hundred verses, well turned, and well adapted, and generally mingled with an elegant compliment to the company” (Smollett, Travels, p. 231-2 description begins Tobias Smollett, Travels through France and Italy, 1766, repr. London, 1919 description ends ).

29Another dumbwaiter.

30 Bacot and L’Epy had a large bed covering factory at the site of present Nos. 2-6 Rue Thouin (Thiéry, Guide, ii, 149 description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Guide des amateurs et des étrangers voyageurs à Paris, Paris, 1787, 2 vols. description ends ).

31Abigail Adams sent the money, intended for the purchase of fabric and stockings, by John Trumbull, who remained in Paris until Feb. 1788. While at the Hôtel de Langeac he painted TJ’s portrait directly onto his small canvas of the Declaration of Independence, now at the Yale University Art Gallery (Mrs. Adams to TJ, 5 and 12 Dec. 1787; Bush, Life Portraits, p. 23-6 description begins Alfred L. Bush, “The Life Portraits of Thomas Jefferson,” Jefferson and the Arts: An Extended View, ed. William Howard Adams, Washington, D.C., 1976 description ends ).

32Imbert de La Platière, Galerie universelle des hommes qui se sont illustres dans l’empire des lettres depuis le siècle de Leon x. jusqu’à nos jours (Paris, 1787-1788). TJ was a subscriber, but cancelled his subscription when he left France (Sowerby, No. 149 description begins E. Millicent Sowerby, comp., Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, Washington, D.C., 1952-1959, 6 vols. description ends ; La Platière to TJ, 22 Dec. 1787; TJ to La Platière, 27 Dec. 1787, 25 Sep. 1789).

33 John Rutledge, Jr., of South Carolina had arrived in Paris in the summer and left for London about 12 Nov., the date of this loan, which was repaid in 1788 (TJ to Edward Rutledge, 14 July 1787; John Rutledge, Jr., to TJ, 10 Nov. 1787; TJ to Rutledge, 12 Nov. 1787; MB 26 Apr. 1788).

34Lomenie carried TJ’s letter to John Jay, 31 Dec. 1787, which contained the just completed arrêt du conseil on French-American trade for which TJ had been pressing since its less binding formulation as Calonne’s letter to TJ of 22 Oct. 1786. The arrêt is printed in Papers, xii, 468-70 description begins Julian P. Boyd and others, eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, N.J., 1950- description ends .

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