Fort Cumberland [Md.]—Monday, July 12th 1756.
Lieutenant William Stark having resigned his Commission in the Virginia Regiment—Ensign Buckner is promoted to his place.1
Messieurs James Duncanson, Jethro Sumner, Henry Russell, and Griffinpert, are appointed Ensigns in the Virginia Regiment.2
Mr John Hamilton, Sergeant-Major, is appointed Quarter-master to the said Regiment, in the room of Quarter-master Bucker, who has resigned.3 A Return is to be given in this afternoon—four o’clock, of all the Stores and Provisions now at this Garrison.4 The Suttlers now at this place are to be informed, that they must dispose of what liquor they have on hand and that for the future the Grand Suttler will only be allowed to sell any liquour at this Garrison.5
The Companies of the Virginia Regiment, are formed as follows, and are to continue so, without a particular order to the contrary.6
First Company: Colonel Washington—
Captain Lieutenant John McNiell
Ensign [ ]7
The following appointments are made to the aforesaid Companies—of Sergeants and Corporals;8 who are not to be broke or changed, but by the Sentence of a Court Martial—or particular orders from the Colonel: as such practices have made great confusion in the Regiments. vizt—
As the allowance of three Batmen to a company is very sufficient, Colonel Washington expressly orders that no Officer do presume to take a Soldier to do that Duty; as he has been informed hath been practised.
As it occasions very great confusion among the companies to swap and change the men—They are now regulated—and it is ordered that no Officer shall upon any pretence swap or change any man.
The Companies commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Stephen; Captains Woodward, Charles Lewis, Peachy and Harrison—with their respective Officers &c. as now appointed—are to remain in this Garrison. The other companies now here, are to hold themselves in readiness to march to the South-Branch tomorrow. As there are several men of the different companies on command—each officer is, as soon as possibly he can, to collect his own men from the several commands. The Order about Regimentals has been mistaken—Colonel Washington only expects the Officers will buy lace for their Hats and waist-coats—and it is hoped, they will immediately comply with this order.9
Ensign Russell is to hold himself in readiness to join the Troop at Conogochieg—and Ensign Pert to proceed to Winchester, to join Captain Peachy.
As there have orders repeatedly been issued, strictly requiring all Captains and commanding officers of companies to take two receipts from each man—one to be entered in a Book, kept for the use of the company—the other to be sent on a sheet of paper to Colonel Washington—in order to prevent the number of complaints which are hourly made by Soldiers, who deny having received their subsistance. It is therefore peremptorily ordered once more, that all captains and commanding officers of companies and Detachments, do pay due obedience to this order: for if they delay sending the receipts until a second payment is made, they will be put under an arrest, and tried for Disobedience (of orders) and the party complaining shall immediately receive satisfaction, without enquiring into the justice of the complaint.10
There has also been an order given for Returns to be made to Colonel Washington of those men who assisted in clearing the Roads last year to Monongehela in order that he might remit them to the Quarter Master General[.] The men will receive six-pence for every day that they have worked and the Subalterns three shillings per day[.] The number of days they worked to be certified by an Officer[.] Colonel Washington expects this return to be made as soon as possible, in order that he may serve both the officers and Soldiers; otherwise he will give himself no further trouble about it.11
A Regimental Court martial to sit immediately for trial of all the Prisoners in the Guard.
The Troops will not march to-morrow—but it is expected all Officers, &c. will be ready to march next day, as Colonel Washington will not postpone the march any longer.12
One Captain two Subalterns, and sixty rank and file to parade to-morrow morning at gun-firing. The Captain to wait on Colonel Washington at retreat-beating for orders. None of the men that are to march on Wednesday, are to be put on Duty.
1. Mordecai Buckner, quartermaster of the Virginia Regiment since September 1755, was ensign in Joshua Lewis’s company until he received this promotion to lieutenant.
2. The company assignments for these new ensigns is given hereafter in these Orders. James Duncanson, who was the senior ensign in the Virginia Regiment when he was promoted to lieutenant in 1758, was listed as a casualty in the action at Loyalhanna on 12 Oct. 1758, but he recovered. See also GW to Robert Stewart, 8 May 1756, n.6. Jethro Sumner (Summer; c.1733–1785) was sent to Augusta County in the summer of 1757 and became a lieutenant in the 2d Virginia Regiment in 1758. Further information about him is in Dinwiddie to GW, 18 Oct. 1755, n.6. Henry Russell was still in the Virginia Regiment when GW left it at the end of 1758 but had resigned before the regiment was disbanded in 1762. Griffin Pert, who was serving in William Peachey’s company as early as September 1755, became a lieutenant in the 2d Virginia Regiment in 1758. A resident of Norfolk County after the war, Pert signed Norfolk’s nonimportation association in 1770 and commanded a company of the county’s militia early in the Revolution.
3. In late September 1757 John Hamilton fled from Fort Loudoun when discovery of his dishonest handling of regimental supplies became imminent. Shortly thereafter GW reported that Hamilton “had been several years a Sergeant in one of His Majesty’s Regiments: in which character he served 3 years under me: during that time, he gave such signal proofs of his Bravery and good Behaviour, as bound me, in honour and gratitude, to do something for him” (GW to John Stanwix, 8 Oct. 1757).
4. There are in DLC:GW two returns for stores and provisions dated 13 July and one dated a week earlier, on 7 July. The return of 7 July combines on one page “A Return of Stores Provisions &c. At Fort Cumberland Belongg to Virginia” and “A Return of Stores &c. At Fort Cumberland Belongg to His Majesty” and is signed by David Kennedy, assistant commissary. One return of 13 July, signed by John Defever, is entitled: “A Return of Stores Know at this place.” The second return of this date, which is unsigned, is called: “A Return of the Sundry Stores Belonging to the Virginia Regt at Fort Cumberland.” It includes the stores to be sent to Thomas Waggener on the South Branch and those to be sent to Winchester.
6. For the previous makeup of the companies in the Virginia Regiment, see GW’s Orders, 9 Jan. 1756. The main innovation besides the substitution of a number of junior officers is that GW and Lt. Col. Adam Stephen assumed command of the companies formerly commanded by John Fenton Mercer, who had been killed in a skirmish with the Indians, and by John Savage, who had recently resigned from the regiment. The third field officer, Maj. Andrew Lewis, assumed command of Peter Hog’s company in the summer of 1757.
7. GW apparently was holding the position in his company open for his brother, who had “declined it” by 6 Sept. 1756. GW then ordered Adam Stephen to send Ens. James Roy down from Fort Cumberland to Winchester to join GW’s company. See GW to Dinwiddie, 16 April, postscript, and Dinwiddie to GW, 23 April 1756.
8. There are size rolls (or muster rolls) in the summer of 1756 for most of the companies of the Virginia Regiment. Where available the data given in a roll on the sergeants and corporals named in the Orders are summarized here, with the names spelled as in the rolls:
GW’s company: John Sallard, enlisted September 1755 in Richmond County, aged 25, 5′10″, a joiner, from Virginia; John Belfour (Belford), enl. December 1755 at Fort Cumberland, 25, 5′7½″, a weaver, from Ireland, “quick in Speech & of a lively Count[enanc]e”; Samuel Longworth (Langsworth), enl. September 1755 at Norfolk, 25, 5′11″, tanner, from Jersey; William Stuart Packet, enl. September 1755 in Richmond County, 25, 5′11½″, planter, Virginian (1 Aug. 1756, DLC:GW). It would seem that by 1 Aug. Peter Tulley (enl. July 1756 at Winchester, 32, 5′7″, barber, from Ireland), had been made sergeant, and Simon Robinson (enl. September 1755 in Stafford County, 24, 5′6″, bricklayer, from England, “his Knees rather incl[in]g Inwards”) was a corporal. For further information on Sallard and Packet, see William Brockenbrough to GW, 29 Sept. 1755, n.3.
Adam Stephen’s company: Thomas Carter, no information given, but he had served as sergeant in Charles Lewis’s company according to the 16 Jan. 1756 payroll; John Graham, enlisted January 1755, 5′5½″; William Grant, not listed on roll; Philemon Waters, enl. 12 Mar. 1754 in Isle of Wight County, 22, 5′7½″, carpenter, from Virginia; Isaac Barringer, enl. January 1755, at Belhaven (Alexandria), 31, 5′5½″, carver, from England, “Bushy Hair . . . Roman Nose”; William Coffland (not listed as corporal), enl. November 1755 in Stafford County, 35, 5′11½″, gardener, from Ireland (13 July 1756, DLC:GW).
Peter Hog’s company: No size rolls for Peter Hog’s company have been found. For the identification of John McCulley, see Hog to GW, 17 Dec. 1755, n.2; for John David Wilper, see GW to William Fleming, 28 Oct. 1755, n.1. On 8 and 15 July 1756 Hog reported three sergeants in his company. His payroll for December 1755 (misdated 1756) gives the name of Josias Baker as the third sergeant and lists three corporals: John Humphery, John Mcintire, and Joseph Roberts (DLC:GW). Cpl. William Smith came to Winchester in July 1756 (GW to Hog, 21 July 1756 [first letter]).
George Mercer’s company: Angus McDonald, enl. 5 Mar. 1754 in King George County, 21, 5′10″, seaman, from Scotland; John Matthews, enl. 12 Jan. 1755 in Dinwiddie County, 43, 6′, sawyer, English, “knocked Knees & Speaks thick”; John Grinnon, enl. 25 Nov. 1754 in Stafford County, 19, 5′10″, carpenter, Virginian; Samuel French, enl. 1 Dec. 1754 in Fairfax County, 27, 5′10″, sawyer, from Maryland; John Pope, enl. 22 Dec. 1754 in Prince William County, 18, 5′7″, carpenter, Virginian, “a fresh Look”; Benjamin Barrett, enl. 18 May 1756 in Prince George County, 24, 5′7″, seaman, Irish (2 Aug. 1756, DLC:GW).
Thomas Waggener’s company: William Shaw, not listed on any size roll of 13 July, or on Waggener’s company payroll, May–August 1756; but he was a sergeant in William Peachey’s company payroll for May and June 1756 and Adam Stephen lists him as a sergeant in his company returns in August 1756; Francis Austin (Ostin), recruited by Thomas Bullitt, 49, 5′9½″, shoemaker, English, “his Right leg larger than his left”; Mark Hollis, enl. by George Mercer, 26, 5′8½″, planter, English; George Salmon, enl. by Lt. John Wright, 30, 5′4½″, planter, Scottish; Samuel Poe, enl. by Lt. John Hamilton, 26, 5′4″, shoemaker, English, “black hair & Eyes a sharp nose”; John Creagh, enl. by John Mercer, 25, 5′3″, bookbinder, Irish (19 Sept. 1756, DLC:GW). By 19 Sept. Poe had become a sergeant and John Cole (enl. by Lt. John Wright, 21, 5′2″, planter, Scottish) had become a corporal.
Robert Stewart’s troop of light horse: William Hughes, enl. 4 Nov. 1754 in Virginia, 26, 5′7″, English; David Kennedy, enl. 16 Nov. 1754 in Virginia, 23, 5′7″, merchant, Scottish; William Broughton, enl. 12 Mar. 1754 in Virginia, 23, 5′8″, tailor, Virginian (30 July 1756, DLC:GW). John Winterbottom (enl. 13 May 1755, 27, 5′8″, farmer, English) was a corporal in the company through June 1756 when he was sent back to Lt. Col. Thomas Gage. See Stewart to GW, 23 June 1756, n.6, 3 July 1756, n.3. Stewart’s 30 July 1756 size roll names Robert Tunstell as his third sergeant. Tunstell, 30, 5′6″, Yorkshire blacksmith, enl. 9 Mar. 1755 in Virginia.
Thomas Cocke’s company: John McWilliams, enl. 28 Mar. 1755 in Fredericksburg, 20, 5′8″, merchant, a Virginian, “fond of Liquor”; Henry Williams, enl. 21 July 1754 in Frederick County, 26, 5′9″, planter, Irish; John Reynolds, enl. 20 Jan. 1755 in Fredericksburg, 22, 5′9″, merchant, Virginian; James Thomas, enl. 24 Sept. 1755 in Alexandria, 31, 5′, sailmaker, Scottish; George Clark, enl. 24 Dec. 1755 in Petersburg, 23, 5′3″, shoemaker, English, “very talkative”; Dougald Campbell (“Dougle Campble”), enl. 8 July 1755 at Fort Cumberland, Md., 30, 5′4″, carpenter, a Scot with “Bald Pate, one Eye” (13 July 1756, DLC:GW).
William Bronaugh’s company: Richard Trotter, enl. December 1754 in Essex County, 30, 5′6″, mason by trade, Scottish; John Nash, enl. November 1755 in Richmond County, 26, 5′6″, planter, Virginian; Hugh Campbell, enl. December 1754 in King William County, 25, 5′6″, sailor, Scottish; William Hunt, enl. December 1754 in Alexandria, 36, 5′5″, barber, English; John Naughty, enl. December 1754 in Stafford County, 24, 5′4″, planter, Scottish; Henry Steel, enl. January 1754 in Augusta County, 21, 5′3½″, planter, Swedish (13 July 1756, DLC:GW).
Joshua Lewis’s company: Andrew Vaughan, enl. 11 Oct. 1755 at Belhaven (Alexandria), 25, 5′11″, planter, Virginian; John Gender, enl. 9 Feb. 1755 in Frederick County, 23, 5′11″, laborer, from Holland; Henry Carrier, enl. 21 Oct. 1755 in Winchester, 25, 5′7″, laborer, English; Joseph Wills, enl. 23 Dec. 1755 at Quantico, 26, 5′4″, laborer, English; Richard Foster, “On Command”; Thomas Carrier, enl. 25 Feb. 1755 in Winchester, 23, 5′7″, seaman, English (13 July 1756, DLC:GW).
Henry Woodward’s company: Joseph Fent, enl. 10 May 1756 in Northampton County, 24, 5′7″, surgeon, English; William Evans, enl. November 1754 in Albemarle County, 23, 5′8″, valet, English; George Whitecotton, enl. 1755 in Stafford County, a Virginian; James Carmichael, enl. May 1756 in Prince George County, 19, 5′8″, joiner, Scottish, “long Nose”; John Clark, enl. October 1755 in Westmoreland County, 25, 5′5″, sailor, Irish; William Heath, no data (13 July 1756, DLC:GW). Heath, however, appears on Woodward’s 24 Sept. 1757 size roll as a 20–year-old Virginia planter, enl. in Spotsylvania County.
Robert Spotswood’s company: Joseph Bledsoe, enl. 12 Sept. 1755 at Fredericksburg, 18, 5′10″, planter, Virginian; Richard Good, enl. 11 Sept. 1755 in Caroline County, 23, 5′9½″, carpenter, Virginian; Samuel Robinson, enl. 11 Sept. 1755 in Caroline County, 22, 5′8″, carpenter, Virginian; John Sale, enl. 20 Sept. 1755 in Caroline County, 24, 5′10″, carpenter, Virginian; Edward Lare, enl. 7 Feb. 1756 in Williamsburg, 20, 5′9″, barber, from Ireland; James Lyle, enl. 12 Oct. 1755 in Williamsburg, 24, 5′7″, carpenter, Scottish (13 July 1756, DLC:GW).
Charles Lewis’s company: Charles Cailliaux, enl. August 1754 in Alexandria, 23, 5′7¾″, gentleman, French; Abraham Crittendon, enl. November 1755 in Gloucester County, 24, 5′9½″, ship carpenter, Virginian; Sampson Franklin, enl. September 1755 in Caroline County, 20, 5′5″, planter, Virginian; Thomas Edmondson, enl. September 1755 in Essex County, 25, 5′8″, planter, Virginian. From the position of their names on the roll, it would appear that James Carson (enl. March 1754 in King and Queen County, 24, 5′9″, bricklayer, English) was the third sergeant and that the third corporal was John Harwood, enl. April 1754 in Maryland, 30, 5′6″, gardener, and English (13 July 1756, DLC:GW).
William Peachey’s (Peachy’s) company: William Baker, enl. in Richmond County, planter, Virginian; Reuben Vass, enl. 16 Sept. 1755 in Essex County, 24, 5′9½″, joiner, Virginian; Bibby Broocke, 20 Sept. 1755 in Richmond County, 22, 5′7″, planter, Virginian; John Gaskins, enl. 16 Oct. 1755 in Richmond County, 20, 5′7″, planter, Virginian; Richard Gale, enl. 17 Sept. 1755 in Essex County, 30, 5′6″, sailor, English, “one Eye out”; James Gutridge, enl. 1 Sept. 1755 in Northumberland County, 29, 5′5½″, planter, English (13 July 1756, DLC:GW).
David Bell’s company: Thomas Ferguson, enl. September 1755 in Williamsburg, 31, 5′9½″, soldier, Scottish; James Young, enl. September 1755 in Albemarle County, 38, 5′8″, merchant, Scottish; Charles Scott, enl. October 1755 in Albemarle County, 17, 5′7½″, carpenter, Virginian; David Hartwell, enl. October 1755 in Albemarle County, 22, 5′10″, carpenter, Virginian; Whitnell Warner, enl. February 1756 in Albemarle County, 20, 5′5″, schoolmaster, Irish; James Clark, enl. March 1756 at Yorktown, 31, 5′6″, sailor, English (13 July 1756, DLC:GW).
Robert McKenzie’s company: John Campbell, enl. in Talbot County, Md., 34, 5′6″, Scottish, “speaks broad”; James Hatfield, enl. Dinwiddie County, 28, 5′4″, cooper, English, “with his Mouth incling to the Left”; James Robinson, enl. in King George County, 22, 5′6½″, shoemaker, Scottish; Timothy Shaw, enl. Pennsylvania, 30, 5′10¾″, weaver, Irish, “speaks broad”; John Adams, enl. in Caroline County, 28, 5′8¾″, Scottish, “talks slow”; Bryan Page, enl. Essex County, 25, 5′5″, tailor, Virginian, “a pleasant Countenance” (13 July 1756, DLC:GW).
Henry Harrison’s company: James Norrell, enl. in Charles City County, 23, 5′9″, carpenter, Virginian, “Brown and comely”; Thomas Seal, enl. 7 Sept. 1755 in Suffolk County, 32, 6′1″, blacksmith, from Maryland, “Tawny Complexion & rawboned”; Francis Moreland, enl. 13 Sept. 1755 in Surry County, 22, 5′7″, shoemaker, Virginian; Thomas Wright, enl. 6 Oct. 1755 in Petersburg, 26, 5′6″, hatter, English, “Fair and fond of Singing”; Francis Walker, enl. 25 Sept. 1755 in Suffolk County, 26, 5′9″, laborer, English; Ben Cotton, enl. 16 Sept. 1755 in Suffolk County, 24, 5′4″, shoemaker, from New England, “well made and a merry disposition” (13 July 1756, DLC:GW).
Christopher Gist’s company: John Barrett, enl. 15 Mar. 1756 in Frederick County, 22, 5′10″, miner, Irish; Richard Posey, enl. 30 Jan. 1756 in Frederick County, 22, 5′11″, farmer, from Maryland; Richard Davis, enl. 5 Feb. 1756 in Baltimore, 22, 6′, planter, Marylander, “Fair, stout, lusty & fresh coloured”; Thomas White, enl. 29 Jan. 1756 in Baltimore, 28, 5′6″, soldier, English; Mordecai Gorsnell, enl. 5 Feb. 1756 in Baltimore, 22, 6′, planter, Marylander, “rawboned”; Gist Vaughan, enl. 21 Feb. 1756 in Baltimore, 21, 5′7″, hunter, Marylander (13 July 1756, DLC:GW).
12. GW was still at Fort Cumberland on 14 July, but he was at Conococheague by 16 July.