Memorandum for Thomas Jefferson
[ca. 31 January 1791]1
|At war||At Peace|
|G. Britain from||May||1689 to Sept.||1697||=||8y.||4.m.||to May||1702||=||4y.||8.m.|
|May||1702 to Aug.||1712||=||10.||3.||to Decr.||1718||=||6.||4.|
|Decr.||1718 to June||1721||=||2.||6||to Mar.||1727||=||5.||8|
|Mar.||1727 to May||1727||=||0.||2||to Octr.||1739||=||12.||4|
|Octr.||1739 to May||1748||=||8.||7||to June||1755||=||7.||0|
|June||1755 to Novr.||1762||=||7.||5||to June||1778||=||15.||7|
|June||1778 to Mar.||1783||=||4.||9||to May||1789||=||6.||2|
|3. lost in broken months|
|Altho’ these estimates
are from an Underwriter
it may be well to consult
Mr. T. C3 or others, on
Ms (DLC: Jefferson Papers); FC (DLC). Both in JM’s hand. At the head of the FC, JM wrote at a later time: “Made for Mr. Jefferson, when preparing his report for Congress.” Important variations between the Ms and FC are noted below. On the dating of this document, see n. 1.
1. In the most recent archival arrangement of JM’s papers, the FC was placed under date of 16 Dec. 1793 (see Index to the James Madison Papers under “Madison, J—Trade in Peace & War”). This date was based on the assumption that the memorandum relates to Jefferson’s Report on Commercial Privileges and Restrictions of that date. JM himself may have made this assumption when endorsing the FC late in life. It is clear, however, that the information in this memorandum was first employed by the secretary of state in his Report on the American Fisheries of 1 Feb. 1791. He incorporated the substance of it in appendix no. 18 of that report (Boyd, Papers of Jefferson description begins Julian P. Boyd et al., eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson (19 vols. to date; Princeton, 1950—). description ends , XIX, 236).
2. This table is not in the FC, where JM merely lists the totals (which differ slightly from those in the Ms): 42 years and 6 months at war, 57 years and 6 months at peace.
3. Tench Coxe.
4. Jefferson filled in the blanks in appendix no. 18 (Boyd, Papers of Jefferson description begins Julian P. Boyd et al., eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson (19 vols. to date; Princeton, 1950—). description ends , XIX, 236).
5. Champion, Considerations on the Present Situation (2d ed., 1784). See Notes for Speech in Congress, ca. 13 May 1790, for JM’s previous references to this work. On pages 51–52 Champion records the prewar value of British goods imported into the American colonies as £2,943,000 sterling.
6. JM referred to abstracts of the import duties from 1 Aug. to 30 Sept. 1789, and from 1 Oct. 1789 to 1 Sept. 1790, which Secretary Hamilton communicated to the House on 7 Jan. 1791 (ASP description begins American State Papers: Documents, Legislative and Executive, of the Congress of the United States … (38 vols.; Washington, 1832–61). description ends , Finance, I, 89).
7. In appendix no. 18 Jefferson calculates the annual additional expense to be $3,250,000 (Boyd, Papers of Jefferson description begins Julian P. Boyd et al., eds., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson (19 vols. to date; Princeton, 1950—). description ends , XIX, 236).
8. The FC reads: “During the late question between G. B. & Spain, insurance rose in some instances to double or nearly double that of peace, being a tax at the rate of dollrs. per annm. Had war taken place we see the tax which wd. have been imposed by our dependence on Brit: Bottoms.”
9. The FC reads: “The Calculation may be extended to the whole of our trade in foreign bottoms.”