From Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr.
Monticello July 11. 1793.
We received your favors of June 24. and 30. on the 9. inst. at night. We are extremely happy to learn that Maria has got well over the mumps.
I send you now the scheme of cultivation which I formed last year and am adopting at Edgehill.1 An indisposition, and the preparation for a journey to Richmond prevent my accompanying it with any comment at present.2 You will observe that it differs from yours in four principal points. First there are two distinct systems, intended to be3 coexistent. 2d. the years of rest are not successive. 3d. white clover is substituted for red; (a consequence of the 2d.) 4th. one field undergoes a summer fallow. I shall endeavor in my next to give my reasons for these. The system for small fields I think you will adopt. The other and yours I myself am ballancing. Besides the division of my farm which this scheme will require I have set aside a well-watered valley for a standing meadow. It is necessary to break up meadow grounds once in 5 or 6 years, and on the 5th. or 6th. part of mine4 I rely for Hemp and flax which, with us, thrive no where so well as in the flat grounds on our little streams. You will see that they are not included in the rotation. Lucerne and St. Foin are too long-lived for it. The fields marked pasture I suppose to have nothing in them that is not spontaneous, but there I mean to introduce the white-clover generally as soon as possible by sowing it in Autumn with5 the grain. The red-clover you observe I prefer sowing with the Barley in Autumn. This may not be necessary in every soil but in ours I am convinced it will do better then than in the Spring. I suppose it to be intended alltogether for the Scythe. I am Dr. Sir your most sincerely affectionate friend.
Th: M. Randolph
P.S. Patsy and her little ones are well.
[On verso of address cover:]
|No. 1||Corn & Peas||Wheat||Fallow||Wheat||Pasture||Corn & Potatoes||Rye||Pasture||Fields of 60 acres.|
|2||Wheat||Fallow||Wheat||Pasture||Corn & Potatoes||Rye||Past.||Corn & Peas.|
|3||Fallow||Wheat||Past.||Corn & Potatoes||Rye||Past.||Corn & Peas||Wheat|
|4||Wheat||Pasture||Corn & Potatoes||Rye||Past.||Corn & Peas||Wheat||Fall:|
|5||Pasture||Corn & Potatoes||Rye||Past.||Corn & Peas||Wheat||Fall.||Wheat|
|6||Corn & Potatoes||Rye||Past.||Corn & Peas||Wheat||Fall:||Wheat||Past:|
|7||Rye||Past.||Corn & Peas||Wheat||Fall:||Wheat||Past,||Corn and Potatoes|
|8||Pasture||Corn & Peas||Wheat||Fallow||Wheat||Past:||Corn & Potatoes||Rye.|
|No. 1||Pumpkins||Barley||clover||clover||Turnips||Oats||Fields of
RC (MHi); addressed: “Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State, Philada.”; with crop rotation tables on verso of address cover; note by Randolph below address: “Lodged at the Post-office in Charlottesville on the eleventh July”; endorsed by TJ as received 20 July 1793 and so recorded in SJL. FC (DLC); variant text written on verso of address cover of unidentified letter to Randolph with grid for first table on recto, first row only being filled in; postscript torn away and second table lacking; other important variations noted below; at head of text: “A Copy.”
1. FC: “last year for Edgehill and am now adopting.”
2. Preceding two words omitted from FC.
3. Preceding three words interlined; they are omitted from FC.
4. Preceding two words interlined.
5. FC: “after.”