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[Personal Receipts and Expenditures, 1778–1779.]

[Personal Receipts and Expenditures, 1778–1779.] 1

Account of Monies received Account of Monies expended
£ s d £ s d
1778. Feb. 12. Recd, of the Hon. the Navy Board at Boston, in Sterling. 100: 0: 0 1778 Feb. To Sundry Expences at Boston, in making the necessary Preparations for my Voyage exclusive of the Articles furnished me by the Navy Board2—in Sterling. 10: 0: 0
2400: Liv.
Livres 240: 0: 0
<April Recd, of Mr. Bondfield at Bourdeaux>3 < To Cash expended, at Bourdeaux, and on the Journey from thence to Paris near 500 Miles, in which is included the Expences of my self, Captain Palmes, sent to Paris by Captn. Tucker to receive the orders of the Commissioners, of Dr. Noel a French Surgeon of the Boston who went [as] our Interpreter, of Master Jesse Deane, and of my little Son, and my Domestic Servant> <45:> <0:> <0>4
<Feb.> Ap. 18. <drew an order on Mr. Grand, the Banker, in favour of Dr. Noel for two hundred and thirty one Livres and Six Sous, being the Ballance of Expences on the Road from Bourdeaux to Paris.> transferred to Pages 9 and 10.5 <Feb.> April 18. <Paid Dr. Noel by an orderon the Banker 231 Livres and Six Sous, being for the Ballance of Expences on the Road from Bourdeaux to Paris.> transferred to Pages 9 and 10.6
 
paid for Padlocks and a few other little Necessaries, 7s. Sterling 0: 7: 0
Liv. 8
April 22. Recd. of Mr. Franklin twenty Louis D’ors 480 Liv. Ap. 22. paid my Servant Joseph Stephens five Louis D’ors, as Per Rect. 120: 0: 0
1778. Ap. 23. paid for French Dictionaries & Grammars 1: 10: 0
Liv. 36
Ap. 25. paid the Barber for a Wigg, one Louis D’or and 2 Crowns. 1: 10: 0
Liv. 36
and half a Crown for a Bagg. 0: 2: 6
Liv. 3
Ap. 27. Paid Joseph Stevens, 2 Louis D’ors
Livres 48: 0: 0
To 8 English Guineas, lost in a Garment which was stole on the Road bet. Bourdeaux and Paris,—the Guineas were sewn up in the Garment, to conceal them from the Enemy in Case of Capture at Sea—sterling 8: 8: 07
Livres 192: 0: 0
Decr. 19. Paid to Mr. Jonathan Williams for a Bill of Exchange, drawn by Mrs. A. in favr. of Codman and Smith, indorsed to Mr. Williams 50£ sterling 50: 0: 0
Liv. 1200
In Livres, Sous and Deniers.8
Ap. 30. Paid the Washerwoman 7: 6: 0
Paid for a Tickett. 6: 0: 0
May 1. & 2. Paid for two Ticketts and some Pamphlets 14: 0: 0
May 5. Paid Joseph Stevens for Sundry small Articles as per Rect. 44: 12: 0
1778. May 6. Reed, of Mr. W. T. Franklin 20 Louis D’ors 480: 0: 0
May 7. Paid Joseph Stevens 2 Louis D’ors equal to 48 Livres. Pr. Rect. 48: 0: 0
8. paid Mr. W. T. Franklin a Louis D’or to pay for Horses, servants &c. at the Hotell, where they dined when I was at Versailles to be presented to the K[ing] 24: 0: 0
May 9. Paid for two blank Paper Books9 16: 4: 0
10 pd. Washerwoman 4: 2: 0
paid Mr. Lee a Cm. borrowed of him in Paris 6: 0: 0
May 14. Paid Mr. J. Hochereau his Account10 40: 0: 0
ditto for Almanack Royal11 6: 0: 0
1778. May 15. paid Mr. Hochereau another Acct. 42: 0: 0
 
paid Mr. Lee 4 Louis D’ors for Articles of Dress purchased for me 96: 0: 0
May 18. Paid for Pencils 3: 0: 0
May 22. paid for a Tickett 6: 0: 0
May 23 paid for a few necessary Books, And for some transient Expences 4. Louis D’ors 96: 0: 0
May 31. paid for Tickett and transient Expences 24: 0: 0
June 7 paid for Expences at Versailles, at the Ceremony of the Knights De St. Esprit and Seeing the King, Queen and Royal Family at the Grand Couvert 12: 0: 0
June 16 Paid Denis Account two Louis D’ors. 48: 0: 0
paid Mr. J. Williams for La Fontaines Works in 7 Vol. 24: 0: 0
paid Joseph Stevens’s Account 28: 9: 0
17 paid for a Trunk a Louis 24: 0: 0
paid the Comis for bringing it 0: 12: 0
19 paid Chaubert the Shoemaker his Account 33 Livres. 33: 0: 0
1778. May 25. By Cash & Payments made to and for me at Bourdeaux, by Mr. Bondfield, according to his Account, exhibited to me, in his Letter of 26 May.12 1778 May 25. To my Expences at Bourdeaux, and from thence to Paris in the Hire of Carriages Horses and all other Expences for Captn. Palmes, Dr. Noel, and Jesse Deane, as well as my son, servant and self. 1404: 0: 0
Livres 1404: 0: 0
Nota. B. this Article is to be substituted instead of the 2d Article in the first and 2 Pages of this Account, which is to be erased.13
Ap. 18. By an order drawn by me on Mr. Grand the Banker, in favour of Dr. Noel for Two hundred and thirty one Iivres and Six Sous, being the Ballance of Expences from Bourdeaux to Paris. 0231: 6: 0 Ap. 18. To Cash paid Dr. Noel by an order on the Banker for £231. 6s. od. being for the Ballance of Expences upon the Road from Bourdeaux to Paris. 0231: 6: 0
N.B. this Article is transfered from the two first Pages of this Book in order to have the whole of this Affair in one View.14
1778. May 25. By Sundry Articles, shipped by Mr. Bondfield for my Family according to his Account, for which I am accountable. 888: 12: 0 1778 May 25. Paid Mr. Bondfield, for the Articles shipped by him, as on the left Hand Page 888: 12: 0
June 11. By an order drawn by me alone on Mr. Grand in favour of Mr. Le Cour for 365: 5: 0 June 11. Paid Mr. Le Coeur, by an order as on the left Hand Page 365: 5: 0
June 12 By an order drawn by me alone on Mr. Grand in favour of Mr. Denis Hill 663: 5: 0 12 Paid Dennis Hill by an order as on the left Hand Page 663: 5: 0
 
July15 16. drew an order on Mr. Grand, in these Words viz. Mr. Grand, after considering of your Question concerning the Furniture which was made for Mr. Deane, and which he had used for Upwards of a Year, before I came into this Kingdom and after considering the Nature of the Contract, which Mr. Deane made, according to which fifteen hundred Livres I think are to be paid for the Use of them for the first Year: I have concluded, upon the whole that it is most for the Interest of the public, to pay for the Purchase than for the Loan: You will therefore be so good, as to pay for them as soon as you please. But I have one Request to make, which is, that in the Charge you make of this Article in the public Accounts, you would mention the Contract made with Mr. Deane, that I may not appear to be accountable, for more than my share of this Expence. I am &c. 16 Paid for Mr. Deanes Furniture as on the left Hand Page 4294: 0: 0
Livres. 4294: 0: 0
1778 June 16. Reed, of Mr. Grand the Banker for which I singly gave a Rect. 100 Louis 2400: 0: 0
1778 June 22 paid for two Pamphlets 3: 0: 0
paid for Ticketts and Coach hire 15: 0: 0
24 paid the Peruquiers Account 39: 12: 0
25 paid Expences at Paris and at the Comedy 18: 0: 0
28 Paid Expences at Paris and at the Comedy 18: 0: 0
29 Paid Joseph Stevens his Account as pr his Rect. 96: 0: 0
30 paid Mr. Quillaus Account–32 Crowns 192: 0: 0
July 1. paid Expences at Paris 12: 0: 0
2 paid Expences at Paris 12: 0: 0
5 Expences at Paris 18: 0: 0
6 Dto. 12: 0: 0
9 paid Monsieur Quillau, his Memoire as per Rect 170: 0: 0
10 paid Joseph Stevens as per Rect 144: 0: 0
paid for Sundry Expences, myself 2 Louis 48: 0: 0
12 paid Expences at Paris 18: 0: 0
16 paid the Washerwoman 1 Louis 24: 0: 0
paid Expences at Paris 18: 0: 0
18. paid at the Bureau general des Gazettes etrangeres, for one Year and one Months Subscription for the Courier de L’Europe 52: 0: 0
19 paid Hocherau his Memoire 25: 0: 0
 
1778 July 21. paid Expences at Paris 13: 4: 0
22 paid Mr. Langlois Memoire 74: 0: 0
23 delivered 2 Louis to Captain Niles to be laid out in Tea for my family 48: 0: 0
paid Hochereau his Memoire 15: 0: 0
27 paid Hochereau his Memoire 61: 0: 0
paid Expences at Paris for Dr. Franklin and myself 18: 0: 0
29 paid Hochereau another Memoire 40: 0: 0
paid Expences in Town 18: 0: 0
paid Joseph Stephens his Account 28: 18: 0
31 paid Hocherau another Memoire 22: 10: 0
paid the Bureau des Gazettes etrangeres for the Gazette de la Haye 36: 0: 0
Aug. 2. Paid the Taylers Man, for bringing Cloathes 3: 0: 0
paid Expences at Paris 9: 0: 0
4 Paid Denny his Account 44: 4: 0
5 paid for the Gazette de France 12: 0: 0
1778 Aug. 6. drew an order on Mr. Grand for 100 Louis 2400: 0: 0
1778. Aug. 7. paid the Maitre D’hote! his Account 52: 12: 0
8 paid for the Postage of 2 Packets of Letters from Bourdeaux, which came by the Way of St. Eustatia 32: 0: 0
paid transient Expences at Paris 18: 0: 0
9 paid Expences at Paris 12: 0: 0
10 paid Mr. Jonathan Williams, for Mr. Cranch, a private affaire, this Article to be charged to my private Account 141: 9: 0
paid Mr. Amiel for Mr. Austin 72: 0: 0
11 paid for the Marquise D’Argensons Work16 5: 0: 0
12 deld. 8 Crowns to my servant to pay for several small Expences 48: 0: 0
15 paid Jos. Stephens 70: 0: 0
Expences in Town 15: 0: 0
17 drew an order on Mr. Grand in favour of Jon. Loring Austin for 720: 0: 0 17 paid Expences at Lucienne for Dr. Franklin and myself 12: 0: 0
paid Mr. Austin as on the other Side 720: 0: 0
paid Hochereau his Memoire 27: 0: 0
18 Paid Expences at Paris 18: 0: 0
paid Hatters Account 30: 0: 0
19 drew an Oder on Mr. Grand in favour of Monsieur Bureau fifteen Louis. 360: 0: 0 19 paid Bureau by an order, as on the other Side 360: 0: 0
22 Expences at the Bois de Boulogne 12: 0: 0
23. This day I accompanied the Abbeys Chalut and Arnold to Notre Dame lenfans trouves,17 a Charity [sermon?] at Passy, and the Spectacle at the Bois de Boulonge, my Expences 48: 0: 0
28. drew an Order on Mr. Grand in favour of Mr. Hill for 319: 15: 0
Aug. 30. Expences at Bois de Boulogne 6: 0: 0
31. paid Mr. Hochereau his Memoire 12: 0: 0
omitted Aug. 28. Paid Hill by an order on Mr. Grand as in Page 2018 319: 15: 0
Septr. 13. drew an Ordre on Mr. Grand in favour of Mr. Hill for his Memoire 236: 0: 0
September 2. paid Expences at Paris 18: 0: 0
4 paid Mr. Hochereau his Memoire 22: 4: 0
5 paid M. Hochereau his Memoire 26: 10: 0
paid expences at Paris 18: 0: 0
6. paid the Washerwomans Account 33: 14: 0
paid Joseph Stephens my servand 12: 0: 0
1778 September 9. drew an order on Mr. Grand for 229 Livres 6s: 9d, in favour of Mr. W. T. Franklin to pay Mr. Williams for some Goods shipped by Captn. Corbin Barnes for my family 229: 6: 9 9 Expences at the Bois du Bouloge 6: 0: 0
omitted 13. Paid Hill by an order on Mr. Grand as in Page 20 236: 0: 0
13 paid the Taylors Servant, according to Custom 6: 0: 0
19 paid Dr. Bancroft for a Seal 12: 0: 0
paid Jos. Stevens 12: 0: 0
Expences at Paris 18: 0: 0
20 Expences in the Bois du Boulogne 1: 4: 0
21 paid Langlois Memoire 18: 0: 0
paid for mending my Watch 7: 0: 0
Expences at Paris 3: 0: 0
 
omitted 1778 Septr. 9. Paid Mr. Williams by an order as on the left Hand 229: 6: 9
1778 Septr. 22. gave Mr. Austin four Crowns to be laid out in Tea for my family 24: 0: 0
paid Hochereau his Memoire 99: 8: 0
paid for Transient Expences 6: 0: 0
29 Expences in the Bois du Boulogne 6: 0: 0
Octr. 1. paid for Pen knives, a Walking Cane and a Watch String 18: 0: 0
2 paid M. Hochereau his Memoire 30: 0: 0
9 paid Jos. Stevens 18: 0: 0
10 Expences at Paris 12: 0: 0
12 paid Dennis Memoire 27: 0: 0
15. paid Hochereau 37: 15: 0
17 paid M. Hochereau 60: 10: 0
paid Joseph Stevens 12: 0: 0
Expences at Paris 12: 0: 0
20. paid Mr. Hochereau his Memoire 137: 10: 0
23. paid Mr. Hochereau 43: 10: 0
1778. Octr. 25. <Approved an account presented to me by Mr. Grand, for Linnen, Ruffles &c.> <430:> <6:> <0>
Octr. 27. Recd, as by Article on the other side as per Mr. Grands Acct. 684: 17: 6 Octr. 27. Paid Mr. Grand, his Account including the foregoing Article of the 25 of Octr. by a Rect. and an order to place the whole to public Acct. as per Acct. 684: 17: 6
Novr. 1. paid Mr. Hochereau his Memr. 165: 10: 0
2 paid Joseph Stevens 12: 0: 0
3 paid Hochereau his Memoire 21: 0: 0
14 paid Jos. Stephens 1 Louis 24: 0: 0
paid Expences at Paris 3: 0: 0
Novr. 30. Drew an order on Mr. Grand the Banker in favour of Monsieur Hochereau to pay his memoire 285: 0: 0 30 paid Joseph Stevens’s Tailers Bill 33: 0: 0
paid Monsr. Hochereaus Memoire by an order on Mr. Grand the Banker 285: 0: 0
paid Expences at Paris 6: 0: 0
1778 Decr. 1. Gave the Postilion of Mr. De Sartine who brought me Dispatches from America sent by his Master 12: 0: 0
1778 Decr. 2 drew an Order on Mr. Grand in favour of Louis Tardy for the Amount of his Memoire 265: 10: 0 Decr. 2. Paid Louis Tardy his Memoire by an Order on Mr. Grand 265: 10: 0
9 Expences at Paris 12: 0: 0
15 Expences in Town 12: 0: 0
Decr. 16. Reed, of Mr. Grand one hundred Lewis D’ors for which I gave a Rect £2400: 10: 0
19 Expences 6: 0: 0
21 Paid Rouault his Memoire 14: 0: 0
23 paid Joseph Stevens 24: 0: 0
29 Expences in Town 4: 0: 0
 
1779 Jany. 1. pd Stevens 12: 0: 0
paid penny Postman 4: 0: 0
3 Expences in Town 12: 0: 0
Expences to the Paroisse 3: 0: 0
1779. Jany 8 Expences at Paris 12: 0: 0
9 paid for Syrope de Tortue a Medicine 3: 0: 0
Paid a Barbers Boy for an Etrenne 3: 0: 0
20 Expences at Paris 9: 0: 0
25 Expences at Calvare 15: 0: 0
31 transient Expences 12: 0: 0
Feb. 2. given to a French Sailor who had been taken Prisoner in the Lexington and escaped to help him to his own Country of Flanders 6: 0: 0
6 Paid Visquenets Account 18: 0: 0
11 Expences at Paris 6: 0: 0
15 Expences at Paris 3: 0: 0
20 Expences at Paris 6: 0: 0
21 Paid a Bill of Exchange £100 st. 95 Louis and a Crown paid to Dr. Winship [Windship] 2286: 0: 0
1779 Feb. 25. Expences at Paris 6: 0: 0
27 Expences at St Dennis 12: 0: 0
March 3. Expences at Versailles 18: 0: 0
4 Expences at Calvare 6: 0: 0
Paid Pascall towards a Chaise 24: 0: 0
 
1779 March 5. Recd, of Dr. Franklin an Order on Mr. Grand for 300 Louis 7200: 0: 0 5 Paid Hollevelles Memoire 209: 0: 0
Paid for an Inkhorn, some Purses and other Expences at Paris 24: 0: 0
6 Paid Brunell for a Caisse 24: 0: 0
Paid Mr. Chaumont for the Remr. of [Chalsons?] Account 125: 0: 0
Paid Mr. Desavots Memoire 60: 0: 0
8 paid Mr. Pascal the Remaining 3 Louis for the Post Chaise to Nantes 72: 0: 0
Pour le Garçon 1: 4: 0
Paid Dennis Memoire 63: 10: 0
Paid Barbers Rect for dressing my Wig 40: 0: 0
Paid Washerwomans Acct. 24: 1: 0
1779. March 12. To Expences from Paris to Nantes, Post Horses, &c. 5 days 18 Louis 432: 0: 0
March 14. and 15 Paid for the Hire of a Barge and Bargemen and Expences to Paimbeuf 24: 0: 0
15 Paid Bill of Exchange to J. Williams 240: 0: 0
16 Paid for an Hat 24: 0: 0
for another Hat 18: 0: 0
Expences at the Comedy 4: 0: 0
Paid for a Trunk to go to Brest 18: 0: 0
 
Paid Jos. Stevens’s Account 48: 14: 0
17 Paid the Barber 6: 0: 0
Paid the Coffee at Nantes. 15: 0: 0
Paid Washerwomans Acct. 5: 11: 6
Paid the Tavern keeper 72: 6: 0
22 Total of Expences from Nantes to Brest–15 Louis 360: 0: 0
Paid the Coffee for 3 Breakfasts 6: 18: 0
25 paid for a Portmanteau 15: 0: 0
paid Washerwoman 3: 0: 0
1779. March 26. paid Account at the Grand Monarch 20: 16: 0
27. Paid Expences at Brest 18: 0: 0
28 Dto 6: 0: 0
29 12: 0: 0
30 18: 0: 0
April 1 9
2 18: 0: 0
3 24: 0: 0
4. Lent to an American in Distress 2 Louis. J. W. 48: 0: 0
5 Paid Jo. Stevens Acct. 16: 17: 0
7 & 8 Paid Expences of Post Horses Postilion, and living from Brest to L’Orient 96: 0: 0
Expences at Lorient 50: 0: 0
 
A Canister of Tea and small Loaf of Sugar to use on the Road 14: 5: 0
11 Expences from L’orient to Nantes 144: 0: 0
12 transient Expences at Nantes 9: 0: 0
13 transient Expences 6: 0: 0
14 Dto. 13: 0: 0
Ap. 15. pd. Washerwoman 2: 5: 0
transient Expences 6:
16. Do. 7: 10: 0
17 Do. 12: 0: 0
pd. Washerwoman, and others 7: 0: 0
Nugents Dictionaries 2 9: 0:
19 transient Expences 15: 0: 0
Dto. 3: 0: 0
D’Olivets Phillippics 2: 10: 0
20 paid for Wine, Bread, fowls &c. for our Voyage down the River 9: 0: 0
paid the Barber 9: 0: 0
paid the Coffee 2: 0: 0
Min. of Things purchased at L’orient and Nantes to carry home for my familys Use. one Doz. cot. Han. £18.–half dozen Silk £27. 3 m. needles £9.–1 m. Pins 6–Nankeen 30–coton 38.–1 dozen other Hank. 42.–a Peice of others 30. 200: 0: 0
May 1. Paid Expences at Nantes 32: 15: 0
2 Dto. 6: 0: 0
May 14 Paid Joseph Stevens two Months Wages, for his services from the 10 Feb. 108: 0: 0
Paid for Fresh fish on board ship 3: 0: 0
17. Paid Expences at L’orient 15: 0: 0
18 Dto. 9: 0: 0
19 Dto. 6: 0: 0
21 Paid for Hankerchiefs 34: 10: 0
Expences 3: 0:
May 22. Recd. of Mr. Schweighauser and Mr. Puchelberg his Partner at L’orient, for which I drew an order on Dr. Franklin in favour of Mr. Schweighauser.
Livres 2930: 16: 0
23. Dto. 6:
25 3:
May 26. Expences at L’orient 12: 0: 0
Paid Mr. Watkins for Materials he purchased for making me some Cloaths 38: 0: 0
Paid Dto. for making 8: 0: 0
Paid same at another Time for Do. 30: 0: 0
1779 June 9. Paid Bargemen Barber Cabbin Servants &c. on leaving the Allyance 24: 0: 0
10 Paid for Materials to make me some light Cloaths for the Voyage to Mr. Watkins 39: 0: 0
11 Transient Expences, at L’orient 12: 0: 0
 
12 Dto. 6: 0: 0
16 June. Puchelberg Acct. 1012: 17: 0 16 transient Expences 6: 0: 0
17. Coffee at L’orient 25: 1: 0
Garcon 1: 4: 0
Barber 12: 0: 0
Mr. Raimbault 104: 10: 0
Paid Salomon 159: 10: 0
Dr. Brooke for Medicine 19: 0: 0
17 June. Paid Captain Landais19 a Louis he lent me at Nantes 24: 0: 0
Transient Expences 12: 0: 0
Paid Mr. Watkins for making and mending Cloaths 24: 0: 0
1779. Aug. 2. gave to the servants and Sailors 5 Crowns. Gave for the Hire of a Boat 5 dollars, to carry me, my Baggage &c. hence20

1From D/JA/48, one of the two matching small quarto volumes bound in marbled boards probably purchased by the Navy Board in Boston and presented to JA when he sailed on his first mission to Europe; see entry of 13 Feb. 1778 and note 1 there. The present record of JA’s receipts and expenditures, from the day before he sailed from Nantasket Roads until the day he returned there, occupies 24 leaves at the front of the volume. Doubtless JA left the volume home when he returned to Europe in Nov. 1779; most of its remaining leaves were used for transcripts of his early Diary when in 1829 JQA caused the earliest Diary booklets to be copied; see Introduction.

The record is valuable not only because it fills, at least in a manner, certain gaps in the Diary but also because it is a veritable guide to French currency and the exchange rate between French and British money during JA’s first sojourn in Europe. In the early part of his record, JA, who was himself coping with the usual monetary problems of a traveler, gives his sums in both currencies, though it should be noted that the symbols for both (£ for pounds and livres, s. for shillings and sous [or sols], and d. for pence and deniers) were identical and were used interchangeably, each series having proportionally the same value. For a brief account of the French monetary system before and after the French Revolution, see JQA’s Report on Weights and Measures, written and published as a U.S. Government document, Washington, 1821, p. 62–64. It is sufficient to say here that, as the figures in the present document show, 24 French livres equaled one British pound sterling (for which the French had an equivalent coin, called a louis d’or), and that 6 livres therefore equaled 5 shillings (for which the French had a coin called an écu or crown, as well as a half-crown piece worth 3 livres or 2s. 6d. sterling).

In printing this document the editors have omitted the totals that appear at the foot of the columns (which in the MS are on facing pages) on some pages in the MS. Since these are incomplete and were never added up to make a grand total, they would in our judgment prove more confusing than significant if set in type and dispersed here and there on the pages of the printed version.

2See note 1 on entry of 13 Feb. 1778, above, and facsimiles reproduced in this volume.

3A figure, apparently in British pounds, appears opposite this entry in the MS but is not wholly legible. See, however, the first entry under 25 May 1778 in this column, below.

4Repeated and corrected in the first entry under 25 May 1778 in this column, below.

5See a later entry dated 18 April 1778 in the Expenditures column, below.

6See a later entry dated 18 April 1778 in the Receipts column, below.

7See note 1 on Diary entry of 1 April 1778, above.

8From this point on, the sums are entered in French money only.

9Probably but not certainly the two folio letterbooks designated in the Adams Papers as Lb/JA/6–7, bound in white parchment and bearing handsome trade cards of Cabaret, “Au Griffon ... Marchand Papetier Ordinaire des Bureaux du Roy,” in Rue de Seine, Faubourg St. Germain, Paris.

10The Hochereau family were booksellers established in Paris from the beginning of the 18th century ([A. M. Lottin,] Catalogue chronologique des libraires et des libraires-imprimeurs de Paris, Paris, 1789, p. 80). From one or more of them JA bought books with great frequency during his first years abroad. Unfortunately, the “mémoires” or bills, which might indicate the titles of the books JA bought, have not been found. In rendering his accounts to Congress for this mission, JA included sums spent on such books as were essential to qualify himself in “the science of Negotiation,” arguing that this was “one of the most necessary, and Useful Ways in which Money had ever been spent in that Country” (JA to the Board of Treasury, 19 Sept. 1779, LbC, Adams Papers; Works description begins The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States: with a Life of the Author, ed. Charles Francis Adams, Boston, 1850–1856; 10 vols. description ends , 7:111–114). What is more, his argument prevailed; see the report of a committee on JA’s accounts, 15 April 1780 (JCC description begins Worthington C. Ford and others, eds., Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789, Washington, 1904–1937; 34 vols. description ends , 16:368–369).

11This volume, Almanach royal, année M. DCC. LXXVIII description begins Almanach royal, année M.DCC.LXXVIII [&c.]. Présenté à sa majesté pour la première fois en 1699, Paris, no date. description ends , Paris, n.d., issued by the King’s Printer, remains among JA’s books in the Boston Public Library and has proved useful to the editors in identifying French officials and others mentioned in the Diary.

12This letter has not been found, but JA’s answer, 3 June (LbC, Adams Papers), elucidates this transaction. Bondfield had purchased various articles on JA’s account to be sent to Braintree by Capt. Tucker in the Boston.

13Second entry in this column, above.

14Third entry in this column, above.

15Seemingly a mistake for June, but the payment by Grand of 4,294 livres to “Mrs. Poussin” for furniture was made on 17 July 1778, as recorded in the final accounts of the Commissioners (DNA:RG 39, Foreign Ledgers, Public Agents in Europe, 1776–1787, p. 87). A note is added in the official account: “N.B. the proportions of Mr. D. & Mr. A. must be settled by them.”

16René Louis, Marquis d’Argenson, published anonymously Considérations sur le gouvernement ancien et présent de la France, Amsterdam, 1765, of which JA’s copy remains among his books in the Boston Public Library (Catalogue of JA’s Library description begins Catalogue of the John Adams Library in the Public Library of the City of Boston, Boston, 1917. description ends ).

17The “Hôpital des Enfans-Trouvés, prés Notre-Dame” is described in Thiéry, Almanach du voyageur à Paris description begins Luc Vincent Thiéry, Almanach du voyageur à Paris ..., année 1784, Paris [1784]. description ends , 1784, p. 331–332. Years later JA drew a political moral from what he saw on his visit to this foundling hospital; see his Works description begins The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States: with a Life of the Author, ed. Charles Francis Adams, Boston, 1850–1856; 10 vols. description ends , 6:452.

18Entry of 28 Aug. 1778 in the Receipts column.

19On Pierre Landais see entries of 9 May and following, below.

20There is conflicting evidence on the exact date of JA’s arrival home. La Luzerne and his party disembarked at Hancock’s Wharf in Boston on 3 August. The present entry indicates that JA and JQA left the Sensible in Nantasket Roads on the 2d and were rowed to Braintree. This may be so, but on the other hand JA may have carelessly misdated this entry; see note on the Diary entry of 31 July, below.

Index Entries